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Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a

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New post 10 Jul 2016, 02:36
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Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant. But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription, and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the microbiologist’s reasoning?

(A) Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply.

(B) People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed.

(C) Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade.

(D) Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available.

(E) Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes.

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 172)

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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2016, 02:56
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Premise -
1. Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. 2. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant.

Conclusion - But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription, and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

Question Type - weaken, New information can be added to the answers.
Prephase - Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, but patients cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription
Alternate source of Antibiotics injected.
Practitioners prescribing antibiotics for other diseases.
Extreme prephase - Flaw in Microbiologist/ Investigators results.

A. Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply. - Irrelevant.
B. People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed. - Pre-thought ans - Alternate source of antibiotics.
C. Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade. - Doesn't impact the conclusion, as stated the practitioners govern the use of the antibiotics.
D. Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available. - This statement can act as a premise, as it states what already is given in the argument.
E. Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes. - Contender,but does not relate the patients to Salmonella
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2016, 01:52
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Obviously the contenders are B and E..

why not E? it might be possible people are eating raw tomatoes, so they are getting illness :roll: :roll: :roll: :roll:
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2016, 16:06
kapru wrote:
Obviously the contenders are B and E..

why not E? it might be possible people are eating raw tomatoes, so they are getting illness :roll: :roll: :roll: :roll:


Th discussion is about drug resistance and not from where infection can happe
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2016, 16:52
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant. But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription, and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the microbiologist’s reasoning?

A. Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply.
B. People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed.
C. Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade.
D. Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available.
E. Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes.

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 172)


Microbiologist says that antibiotics is not the reason for Salmonella infection. Our job is to find that Antibiotics are the reason.

A. Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply. We want to know the status of Antibiotics use before infection took place.

B. People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed. Correct choice. Animals are given antibiotics, and since these animals are eaten by people in the country, people are indirectly consuming antibiotics.

C. Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade. We are not concerned about antibiotics use in neighboring countries.

D. Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available. We want to know if infection happened because of antibiotic resistance.

E. Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes. We want to know if infection happened because of antibiotic resistance.
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 23:24
kapru wrote:
Obviously the contenders are B and E..

why not E? it might be possible people are eating raw tomatoes, so they are getting illness :roll: :roll: :roll: :roll:


I think E weakens the conclusion whereas B weakeans the reasoning.
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2016, 19:32
kapru wrote:
Obviously the contenders are B and E..

why not E? it might be possible people are eating raw tomatoes, so they are getting illness :roll: :roll: :roll: :roll:


E mentions a source of antibiotics but never mentions that people are actually consuming that source (tomatoes).

But option B clearly mentions that people are consuming meat which is a good source of antibiotics.

Therefore I suppose that B is a better option.
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2017, 14:07
Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant. But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription, and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the microbiologist’s reasoning?

A. Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply.
(Out of Scope)
B. People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed.-Correct Answer since this choice describes the source of the antiboitics and negates the conclusion
C. Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade.
(Out of Scope )
D. Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available.
(does not weaken)
E. Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes.
(out of Scope also it strengthens the argument.)
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 06:07
Situation: Antibiotic-resistant salmonella caused an outbreak of illness in a European country where patients need prescriptions to obtain antibiotics and where doctors dispense such prescriptions less readily than in other European countries

Reasoning: What evidence would most strongly suggest that overuse of antibiotics was likely responsible for the outbreak, despite the cited facts?

B is correct - Weakens the microbiologist's argument by indicating that an assumption implicit in the argument may be false: the salmonella outbreak could easily by explained by overuse of antibiotics in livestock feed (perhaps imported from other countries).
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant. But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription, and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the microbiologist’s reasoning?

A. Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply.
- OPPOSITE. if physicians hesitate to prescribe antibiotics, then it strengthens the idea antibiotics could not have increased severity of the outbreak

B. People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed.
- Breaks the idea that the outbreak was not strongly influenced by antibiotics. in fact, tells us people found other ways of consuming antibiotics (this way, in what they ate)

C. Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade.
- irrelevant. who cares about other neighboring countries? we don't know how they're related -- they could be totally different

D. Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available.
- irrelevant & extreme language "not generally available". that's not said here, what is said is that doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than in other countries. this could still be a high #

E. Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes.
- irrelevant. who cares if it spreads easily and/or how it spreads?

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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2018, 23:26
GMATNinja

hello sir
i was confused between option B and option C ,and i marked option C(the wrong answer)

option B: suggests another source of antibiotics that the patients could have
option C: suggests that use of antibiotics in the neighboring countries has risen over the past decade
is the option wrong because of PAST DECADE?
because from the passage, the patients are unlikely to get the antibiotics without prescription of a physician of the country
so they might get it from neighboring country
what if the option C were "use of antibiotics has risen in the neighboring countries since the outbreak of the disease in country X",would it be correct?
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 12:09
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JAIN09 wrote:
i was confused between option B and option C ,and i marked option C(the wrong answer)

option B: suggests another source of antibiotics that the patients could have
option C: suggests that use of antibiotics in the neighboring countries has risen over the past decade
is the option wrong because of PAST DECADE?
because from the passage, the patients are unlikely to get the antibiotics without prescription of a physician of the country
so they might get it from neighboring country
what if the option C were "use of antibiotics has risen in the neighboring countries since the outbreak of the disease in country X",would it be correct?

Hi JAIN09,

(B) is the best available choice because it presents evidence that people in this country are ingesting antibiotics (in foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden feed). If true, this choice tells us that despite the barrier to consuming antibiotics through prescription, people in this country have been consuming antibiotics through food. This makes it harder for us to accept the microbiologist's argument and easier to accept the investigators' explanation for the severity of this outbreak.

We should eliminate (C) because it does not provide any evidence that people in this country have been consuming antibiotics. Who cares about what's going on with antibiotics in neighboring countries, if we can't prove that those activities have a direct impact on use of antibiotics in the country we're analyzing?

Well, a good global citizen would certainly care, but the GMAT isn't always so kind. Because (C) doesn't provide an explicit connection between antibiotics use in neighboring countries and antibiotics use in the country being discussed by the microbiologist, we must eliminate it.

(B) is still the best choice available.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2018, 22:57
Hi GMATNinja - Could you please explain Answer Choice D?
The double negative is slightly confusing.
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2018, 11:19
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shruti.shambhavi wrote:
Hi GMATNinja - Could you please explain Answer Choice D?
The double negative is slightly confusing.

Quote:
D. Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available.

(D) simply suggests that drug-resistant strains are only likely to occur in countries in which antibiotics ARE available (and NOT likely to occur in countries in which antibiotics are NOT available).

This would be consistent with the author's argument. The author does not say that antibiotics are NOT available in this country. Instead, the author tells us that this country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country. So even if (D) is true, we could still find a drug-resistant strain in this country.

The author is trying to say that the severity of the outbreak was likely NOT caused by an overuse of antibiotics. Why not? Because the people cannot get the antibiotics without a prescription and the doctors don't write a lot of prescriptions for the antibiotics. (D) does not tell us anything about consumption of antibiotics in this country and, so, does not weaken this argument.

I hope that helps!
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New post 23 May 2019, 18:57
Conclusion is: But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics.

What is unlikely? the overuse of antibiotics.

(A) Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply. This explains that they cannot have access to antibiotics readily.

(B) People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed. This would mean they actually have had access for antibiotics. An alternative to obtain antibiotics.

(C) Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade. What happens in another country is irrelevant.

(D) Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available. This would rather agree with what the microbiologist is conveying.

(E) Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes. This would explain something that has to do with how it spreads but does not explain how would the people of that country obtain the antibiotics.
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2019, 13:20
Premise: there was a salmonella outbreak in Country X -> drs don't prescribe antibiotics -> outbreak can't be due to drug resistant salmonella

I was between B & C since both of them could support the conclusion that people in this country could acquire antibiotics in a different way. Each of them have flaws (B bc we don't know if antibiotics in food are the same ones that the salmonella is resistant to, C bc we don't know if the increase in the neighboring countries is due to people from this country visiting to get drugs)

Ultimately chose B instead of C bc there's a direct link b/t the people in this country and getting the antibiotics, the other one had a bigger logical leap
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Re: Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2019, 22:27
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Although there has already been a lengthy discussion on this question, I thought I would pitch in my thoughts because it took me 3 long mins to solve. I answered the question correctly; however, it took me a while to make the connection. Hopefully this will help someone out!

For me, the main factor that has contributed to my improvement in CR questions has been placing a massive emphasis on recognizing the conclusion and i.e the connection that has been made within the prompt. I find it absolutely necessary to do this prior to reviewing answer choices, as having this knowledge will make the right answer obvious, and prevent any confusion from the wrong choices that are supposed to confuse you. The 'making the connection' in the prompt, for me, is where the heart of CR practice is.

In this question, the main connection for me was simplifying the Microbiologists thought process:
    - Investigators blame antibiotics because Salmonella bacteria was drug resistant.
    - Microbiologist thinks it's unlikely because people are not often prescribed drugs.
    - Microbiologist has drawn a strong relationship between people consuming/ingesting ...
    - Instinct: what if they ate something else that ate antibiotics? like beef or chicken that was fed antibiotics?

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 00:59
Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant. But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription, and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the microbiologist’s reasoning?

Pre-thinking:
An assumption made by the author is that Salmonella became drug resistant for other causes than overuse of antibiotics given the fact that in this country the antibiotics needed can be obtained only through doctors prescription and these doctors are less likely to prescribe the antibiotics than doctors in other countries.
So what if the people killed and infected came from another country where overuse is quite common? In this case the argument would be weakened.
This weakener falls into the category of "finding another cause for the effect".

Another assumption made by the author is that doctors prescribe the right quantity (the quantity that wouldn't allow the salmonella to become drug-resistant) of antibiotics because they are less likely to prescribe them than other doctors in other countries.
Does this mean that they necessarily prescribe the right quantities and that salmonella will not become drug-resistant? No.
So any statement suggesting that Doctors in this european country prescribe enough antibiotics to allow salmonella to become drug resistant will weaken the author's argument.


(A) Physicians in the country where the outbreak occurred have become hesitant to prescribe antibiotics since they are frequently in short supply.
This option would strengthen the argument. Hence incorrect

(B) People in the country where the outbreak occurred often consume foods produced from animals that eat antibiotics-laden livestock feed.
This is in line with our Pre-thinking ("finding another cause for the effect"). As you can see this is another way through which the salmonella can become drug resistant. Hence correct

(C) Use of antibiotics in two countries that neighbor the country where the outbreak occurred has risen over the past decade.
This choice does not clearly impact the argument since we don't know whether salmonella in those countries became drug resistant and whether those people moved to the argument country and where the ones killed and infected. Hence incorrect

(D) Drug-resistant strains of salmonella have not been found in countries in which antibiotics are not generally available.
This statement strengthens the conclusion. Hence incorrect

(E) Salmonella has been shown to spread easily along the distribution chains of certain vegetables, such as raw tomatoes.
This choice does not impact the argument. Hence incorrect
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