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Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveri

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New post 26 Dec 2015, 11:49
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Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveries. They used the works of famous scientists in an attempt to prove that analogy brings about creativity and thereby changes in knowledge. They continued to argue that distant analogies those scientists used could develop a new framework in a certain domain or even form a new domain - the more distant the analogies, the more creative the outcomes.

Which of the following statements, if true, makes the first claim made by the researchers vulnerable to criticism?


A. Creativity is a particular sort of response that brings together apparently irrelevant or remote ideas, leading to scientific discoveries.

B. Highly creative people sometimes use analogy methods to solve problems.

C. Analogical interpretations play a key role in arriving at many scientific empirical formulae.

D. Analogy items are frequently used in IQ tests to measure analytical ability of a person.

E. Analytical ability is a more important factor in scientific discoveries than creativity.

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New post 09 May 2016, 19:42
The claim is "Analogical thinking leads to creative outcomes and eventually scientific discoveries"
A reaffirms that so B is better.
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Re: Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveri  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2017, 11:51
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yeah, this is a classical pattern in gmat
E is a trap because "more important" does not eliminate the possibility that creativity will lead to new discoveries. Also, "more important" does not show how "Analytical ability" weakens "analogical thinking"
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New post 04 Jul 2017, 12:37
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I think causal relationship exists in the passage.
Analogical thinking causes scientific discoveries.
More distant analogies => more creative outcomes.

To weaken, we generally have to say effect leads to cause i.e. people with more creativity uses analogical thinking. (B)

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New post 04 Jul 2017, 12:38
I think causal relationship exists in the passage.
Analogical thinking causes scientific discoveries.
More distant analogies => more creative outcomes.

To weaken, we generally have to say effect leads to cause i.e. people with more creativity uses analogical thinking. (B)

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New post 04 Jul 2017, 14:27
Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveries. They used the works of famous scientists in an attempt to prove that analogy brings about creativity and thereby changes in knowledge. They continued to argue that distant analogies those scientists used could develop a new framework in a certain domain or even form a new domain - the more distant the analogies, the more creative the outcomes.


Which of the following statements, if true, makes the first claim made by the researchers vulnerable to criticism?

A. Creativity is a particular sort of response that brings together apparently irrelevant or remote ideas, leading to scientific discoveries. but this does not talk about analogical thinking.
B. Highly creative people sometimes use analogy methods to solve problems.This choice says that its no the anological thinking that leads to discoveries but the creative people that uses this approach to solve the problems and thus this choice weakens the argument.
C. Analogical interpretations play a key role in arriving at many scientific empirical formulae. does not weaken
D. Analogy items are frequently used in IQ tests to measure analytical ability of a person. IQ test is out of scope.
E. Analytical ability is a more important factor in scientific discoveries than creativity. Analytical ability is out of scope.
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Re: Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveri  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2017, 21:46
souvik101990 wrote:
Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveries. They used the works of famous scientists in an attempt to prove that analogy brings about creativity and thereby changes in knowledge. They continued to argue that distant analogies those scientists used could develop a new framework in a certain domain or even form a new domain - the more distant the analogies, the more creative the outcomes.


Which of the following statements, if true, makes the first claim made by the researchers vulnerable to criticism?

A. Creativity is a particular sort of response that brings together apparently irrelevant or remote ideas, leading to scientific discoveries.
B. Highly creative people sometimes use analogy methods to solve problems.
C. Analogical interpretations play a key role in arriving at many scientific empirical formulae.
D. Analogy items are frequently used in IQ tests to measure analytical ability of a person.
E. Analytical ability is a more important factor in scientific discoveries than creativity.



Conclusion:- Analogical thinking causes scientific discoveries.

Premise:- 1. works of famous scientists
2. Analogy causes creativity, and creativity causes changes in knowledge.
3. more distant analogies, the more creative the outcomes.

Assumption:- changes is knowledge is same as or causes scientific discoveries.

Option A:- This option is strengthening the arguments. Its not attacking the underlying assumption. Its merely coexisting with the assumption. See premise point no. 2.

Option B:- Classic weakener. correct answer. Argument says X causes Y. But this options says that Y causes X.
Analogical thinking induces creativity or analogical thinking make people creative (According to the argument). But the option says, No. Its other way round. Creative peoples uses analogical thinking to make discoveries.

Option C:- U may think of this option as strengthener or out of scope. Either way its a wrong answer. If we assume scientific empirical formulae are critical for scientific discoveries, then Its a strengthener. If not, its out of scope.

Option D:- Easiest option to eliminate. OUT OF SCOPE. How come IQ is related to scientific discoveries. Not mentioned in the argument.

Option E:- A contender for option B. Important factors and causality are two different things. Analytical ability may be a more important factor than creativity. But this option fails to answer whether it causes creativity or scientific discoveries. It may cause or may not. Hence, not a correct option.

Please excuse for any typo-error.
Thanks.
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Re: Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveri  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2017, 01:24
I have found that less wordy Critical Reasoning questions are at least easier to understand, even if they yield a high percentage of incorrect answers, than the more wordy ones. Especially, when the question points out the conclusion itself.

Conclusion that needs to be weakened: Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveries.

A. Creativity is a particular sort of response that brings together apparently irrelevant or remote ideas, leading to scientific discoveries. Incorrect. (It's a strengthener of sorts reinforcing the link between analogical thinking and creativity).

B. Highly creative people sometimes use analogy methods to solve problems. Correct. (This doesn't appear to be a straightforward weakener at first glance so we will look at it again).

C. Analogical interpretations play a key role in arriving at many scientific empirical formulae. Incorrect. (The keyword here: "many". It doesn't talk about all scientific formulae. Also, scientific empirical formulae are a subset of the scientific discoveries. This leaves other possibilities for other scientific discoveries which may not happen due to analogical interpretations).

D. Analogy items are frequently used in IQ tests to measure analytical ability of a person. Incorrect. (More or less the same reasoning as for option C).

E. Analytical ability is a more important factor in scientific discoveries than creativity. Incorrect. (This targets the premise that links analogical thinking with creativity and ultimately, scientific discovery. Analytical ability could play a more important role than creativity in scientific discoveries, yet it doesn't negate the role of creativity in those discoveries. Premise stays intact).

Option B: In comparison with other options, option B opens up the possibility of a reversal of cause-effect relationship. If highly creative people sometimes use analogical methods then it opens up the possibility that it's not the analogical thinking that results in creativity but vice versa. The potentially deceiving word here is "sometimes" but even a possibility of a few instances of the reverse cause-effect relationship is sufficient to make room for an alternate possibility. And that's sufficient to weaken the argument.
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Re: Researchers claim that analogical thinking causes scientific discoveri   [#permalink] 06 Jul 2017, 01:24
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