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One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully...

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One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully...  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 19 Nov 2018, 21:28
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88% (03:16) correct 12% (02:15) wrong

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One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully unravelled the connections of brain cells in the visual system and have studied how they respond to light, so we have many clues about how the brain takes visual images apart. What is particularly elusive, however, is how the brain puts the pieces back together, turning two-dimensional patterns of light on the retinas into our perception of the visual world. In one case, however, the perception of color, we are beginning to get a good idea of how the brain operates.

Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's color. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others. Edwin Land, inventor of the instant camera, has provided an explanation of this phenomenon in what he calls the retinex theory, a term that combines 'retina' and 'cortex' to suggest that both pars of the visual system are involved in perceiving color.

Retinex theory proposes that the retina and the cortex co-operate to perform some complex computations on the basis of light received from all areas within the visual landscape. A separate computation is carried out for each of three wavelengths of light that correspond to what we normally think of as red, green, and blue: the wavelengths to which the three types of receptors in the retina are most sensitive. According to the theory. the color we perceive at a particular location is determined by three numbers, computed by dividing the amount of light received from that location at each wavelength by a weighted average of the amount of light at that wavelength received from all parts of the field of vision. The weighted average gives more weight to light coming from close to the location than to that coming from far away. The three numbers, co-ordinates in a color space of three dimensions, uniquely determine the color we see just as the three dimensions of physical space uniquely define the location of an object Land has conducted a number of experiments showing that the numbers computed in this way correctly predict what color an observer will see under a number of unusual lighting conditions.

This remarkable theory suggests that our visual systems evolved so that we see the colors of objects as the same. regardless of the mix of wavelengths of light falling on our retinas. Furthermore. this complex computation is carried out virtually instantaneously without our even being aware of it.

Q1: The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex for his optical theory in order to

a) distinguish his theory from rival theories of the retina's operation.
b) indicate that both the retina and the cortex are involved in color perception.
c) differentiate between the actions of the retina and the actions of the cortex.
d) imply that properties ascribed to the retina actually belong to the cortex.
e) indicate that the cortex and the retina work together in perceiving location.



Q2: It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green and blue light entering the eye determined color, the apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved

a) from a blue background to a bright yellow background.
b) from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent lights.
c) to a different set of coordinates in physical space.
d) close enough to take up the viewer's entire field of vision.
e) to a new area in the viewer's visual landscape.



Q3: According to the passage, the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's color because:

a) color information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colors.
b) the perceived color of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object's environment.
c) the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
d) variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its color.
e) this information varies according to the object's proximity to the viewer.




I had doubts in question 3. I could easily discard options A and B, but had doubts with the remaining three options. Your insights on each one of these three options will be greatly appreciated.

Originally posted by EBITDA on 02 Jun 2016, 08:15.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 19 Nov 2018, 21:28, edited 3 times in total.
formatted and corrected typos
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully...  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2016, 10:51
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IMO, E is the correct option because the last 2-3 sentences in 3rd paragraph tell us that more weightage is given to a source which is located nearby. In other words colour emanated from an object is dependent not only on the mix of different wavelengths but also on its distance from observer. Option C mentions something about other fields of vision that is not mentioned or cannot be infered from the passage. Otion D is not true as colour of a body depends on the proportion of the wavelengths as explained in 3rd paragraph
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully...  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2018, 13:25
Reagarding question 3: option D is correct because of this highlighted part of the reading passage.

Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others.
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully...  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 21:25

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully...  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 22:34
1
EBITDA wrote:
One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully unravelled the connections of brain cells in the visual system and have studied how they respond to light, so we have many clues about how the brain takes visual images apart. What is particularly elusive, however, is how the brain puts the pieces back together, turning two-dimensional patterns of light on the retinas into our perception of the visual world. In one case, however, the perception of colour, we are beginning to get a good idea of how the brain operates.

Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others. Edwin Land, inventor of the instant camera, has provided an explanation of this phenomenon in what he calls the retina theory, a term that combines retina and 'cortex' to suggest that both pars of the visual system are involved in perceiving colour.

Retinex theory proposes that the retina and the cortex co-operate to perform some complex computations on the basis of light received from all areas within the visual landscape. A separate computation is carried out for each of three wavelengths of light that correspond to what we normally think of as red, green, and blue: the wavelengths to which the three types of receptors in the retina are most sensitive. According to the theory. the colour we perceive at a particular location is determined by three numbers, computed by dividing the amount of light received from that location at each wavelength by a wethted average of the amount of light at that wavelength received from all parts of the field of vision. The weighted average gives more weight to light coming from close to the location than to that coming from far away. The three numbers, co-ordinates in a colour space of three dimensions, uniquely determine the colour we see. just as the three dimensions of physical space uniquely define the location of an object Land has conducted a number of experiments showing that the numbers computed in this way correctly predict what colour an observer will see under a number of unusual lighting conditions.

This remarkable theory suggests that our visual systems evolved so that we see the colours of objects as the same. regardless of the mix of wavelengths of light falling on our retinas. Furthermore. this complex computation is carried out virtually instantaneously without our even being aware of it.

Q1: The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex for his optical theory in order to

a) distinguish his theory from rival theories of the retina's operation.
b) indicate that both the retina and the cortex are involved in colour perception.
c) differentiate between the actions of the retina and the actions of the cortex.
d) imply that properties ascribed to the retina actually belong to the cortex.
e) indicate that the cortex and the retina work together in perceiving location.



Q2: It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green and blue light entering the eye determined colour, the apparent colour of an object could be expected to:change if the object were moved

a) from a blue background to a bright yellow background.
b) from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent
c) to a different set of co-ordinates in physical space.
d) close enough to take up the viewer's entire field of vision.
e) to a new area in the viewer's visual landscape.



Q3: According to the passage, the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour because:

a) colour information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colours.
b) the perceived colour of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object's environment.
c) the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
d) variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its colour.
e) this information varies according to the object's proximity to the viewer.




I had doubts in question 3. I could easily discard options A and B, but had doubts with the remaining three options. Your insights on each one of these three options will be greatly appreciated.


5:47 Minutes, All Correct!

Q1: The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex for his optical theory in order to

a) distinguish his theory from rival theories of the retina's operation. -No rival theories.
b) indicate that both the retina and the cortex are involved in colour perception.- True,, refer "noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight"
c) differentiate between the actions of the retina and the actions of the cortex. -No differentiation in action!
d) imply that properties ascribed to the retina actually belong to the cortex. -No such implication
e) indicate that the cortex and the retina work together in perceiving location.-Not location, colour!



Q2: It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green and blue light entering the eye determined colour, the apparent colour of an object could be expected to:change if the object were moved

question stem says that if "Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour." is true.

a) from a blue background to a bright yellow background.-false not as per passage.
b) from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent-Perfect, as per passage, if this is true then, refer "It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light.." will be opposite, i.e., objects will not remain of same color in daylight and fluorescent light
c) to a different set of co-ordinates in physical space.-Not mentioned.
d) close enough to take up the viewer's entire field of vision- Not mentioned.
e) to a new area in the viewer's visual landscape.-Not mentioned.



Q3: According to the passage, the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour because:

a) colour information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colours.
b) the perceived colour of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object's environment.
c) the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
d) variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its colour- true, refere "Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others..."
e) this information varies according to the object's proximity to the viewer.-not varies as per proximity.

[/box_in][/box_out]

I had doubts in question 3. I could easily discard options A and B, but had doubts with the remaining three options. Your insights on each one of these three options will be greatly appreciated.
[/quote]
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully...  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2018, 21:10
workout GMATNinja broall Can someone please help with question 3 in the passage.
Q3: According to the passage, the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour because:

a) colour information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colours.
b) the perceived colour of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object's environment.
c) the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
d) variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its colour. - This can not be the reason of why the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour. This is just a fact stating the the color does not vary with the lighting. Right??
e) this information varies according to the object's proximity to the viewer. - "The three numbers, co-ordinates in a colour space of three dimensions, uniquely determine the colour we see. just as the three dimensions of physical space uniquely define the location of an object " - Excerpt from the passage that gives the reason that only the color wavelengths from an object can not determine the color but the location is important too.

Can you please explain your point of view??
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully... &nbs [#permalink] 09 Nov 2018, 21:10
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