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# One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 81, Date : 13-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have
carefully unraveled the connections of brain cells in the
visual system and have studied how they respond to light.
so we have many clues about how the brain takes visual
(5) images apart. What is particularly elusive, however, is
how the brain puts the pieces back together, turning
two-dimensional patterns of light on the retinas into our
perception of the visual world. In one case, however, the
perception of color, we are beginning to get a good idea of
(10) how the brain operates.

Most people think that the balance of red, green, and blue
light reflected from an object into the eye determines the
object's color. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is
not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the
(15) same color in daylight, fluorescent light. and incandescent
light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light
very different from the others. Edwin Land, inventor of the
instant camera, has provided an explanation of this phe-
nomenon in what he calls the retinex theory, a term that
(20) combines “retina” and “cortex” to suggest that both parts
of the visual system are involved in perceiving color.

Retinex theory proposes that the retina and the cortex
cooperate to perform some complex computations on
the basis of light received from all areas within the visual
(25) landscape. A separate computation is carried out for each
of three wavelengths of light that correspond to what we
normally think of as red, green, and blue; the wavelengths
to which the three types of receptors in the retina are most
sensitive. According to the theory, the color we perceive at
(30) a particular location is determined by three numbers, com-
puted by dividing the amount of light received from that
location at each wavelength by a weighted average of the
amount of light at that wavelength received from all parts
of the field of vision. The weighted average gives more
(35) weight to light coming from close to the location in ques-
tion than to that coming from far away. The three numbers,
coordinates in a color space of three dimensions, uniquely
determine the color we see, just as the three dimensions
of physical space uniquely define the location of an object.
(40) Land has conducted a number of experiments showing that
the numbers computed in this way correctly predict what
color an observer will see under a number of unusual light-
ing conditions.

This remarkable theory suggests that our visual systems
(45) evolved so that we see the colors of objects as the same,
regardless of the mix of wavelengths of light falling on our
retinas. Furthermore, this complex computation is carried
out virtually instantaneously without our even being aware
of it.
1. According to the passage, the proportions of red, green, and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object’s color because

A. color information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colors.
B. the perceived color of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object’s environment.
C. the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
D. variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its color.
E. this information varies according to the object’s proximity to the viewer.

2. The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex (line 19) for his optical theory in order to

A. distinguish his theory from rival theories of the retina’s operation.
B. indicate that both the retina and the cortex are involved in color perception.
C. differentiate between the actions of the retina and the actions of the cortex.
D. imply that properties ascribed to the retina actually belong to the cortex.
E. indicate that the cortex and the retina work together in perceiving location.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green, and blue light entering the eye determined color, the apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved

A. from a blue background to a bright yellow background.
B. from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent lights.
C. to a different set of coordinates in physical space.
D. close enough to take up the viewer’s entire field of vision.
E. to a new area in the viewer’s visual landscape.

The Princeton Review Crash Course for the GMAT 2013 (170)
Difficulty Level: 650

Originally posted by EBITDA on 02 Jun 2016, 09:15.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 30 Sep 2019, 04:52, edited 5 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (739).
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2016, 11:51
1
IMO, E is the correct option because the last 2-3 sentences in 3rd paragraph tell us that more weightage is given to a source which is located nearby. In other words colour emanated from an object is dependent not only on the mix of different wavelengths but also on its distance from observer. Option C mentions something about other fields of vision that is not mentioned or cannot be infered from the passage. Otion D is not true as colour of a body depends on the proportion of the wavelengths as explained in 3rd paragraph
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2018, 14:25
1
Reagarding question 3: option D is correct because of this highlighted part of the reading passage.

Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others.
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2018, 23:34
1
EBITDA wrote:
One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully unravelled the connections of brain cells in the visual system and have studied how they respond to light, so we have many clues about how the brain takes visual images apart. What is particularly elusive, however, is how the brain puts the pieces back together, turning two-dimensional patterns of light on the retinas into our perception of the visual world. In one case, however, the perception of colour, we are beginning to get a good idea of how the brain operates.

Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others. Edwin Land, inventor of the instant camera, has provided an explanation of this phenomenon in what he calls the retina theory, a term that combines retina and 'cortex' to suggest that both pars of the visual system are involved in perceiving colour.

Retinex theory proposes that the retina and the cortex co-operate to perform some complex computations on the basis of light received from all areas within the visual landscape. A separate computation is carried out for each of three wavelengths of light that correspond to what we normally think of as red, green, and blue: the wavelengths to which the three types of receptors in the retina are most sensitive. According to the theory. the colour we perceive at a particular location is determined by three numbers, computed by dividing the amount of light received from that location at each wavelength by a wethted average of the amount of light at that wavelength received from all parts of the field of vision. The weighted average gives more weight to light coming from close to the location than to that coming from far away. The three numbers, co-ordinates in a colour space of three dimensions, uniquely determine the colour we see. just as the three dimensions of physical space uniquely define the location of an object Land has conducted a number of experiments showing that the numbers computed in this way correctly predict what colour an observer will see under a number of unusual lighting conditions.

This remarkable theory suggests that our visual systems evolved so that we see the colours of objects as the same. regardless of the mix of wavelengths of light falling on our retinas. Furthermore. this complex computation is carried out virtually instantaneously without our even being aware of it.

Q1: The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex for his optical theory in order to

a) distinguish his theory from rival theories of the retina's operation.
b) indicate that both the retina and the cortex are involved in colour perception.
c) differentiate between the actions of the retina and the actions of the cortex.
d) imply that properties ascribed to the retina actually belong to the cortex.
e) indicate that the cortex and the retina work together in perceiving location.

Q2: It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green and blue light entering the eye determined colour, the apparent colour of an object could be expected to:change if the object were moved

a) from a blue background to a bright yellow background.
b) from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent
c) to a different set of co-ordinates in physical space.
d) close enough to take up the viewer's entire field of vision.
e) to a new area in the viewer's visual landscape.

Q3: According to the passage, the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour because:

a) colour information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colours.
b) the perceived colour of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object's environment.
c) the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
d) variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its colour.
e) this information varies according to the object's proximity to the viewer.

I had doubts in question 3. I could easily discard options A and B, but had doubts with the remaining three options. Your insights on each one of these three options will be greatly appreciated.

5:47 Minutes, All Correct!

Q1: The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex for his optical theory in order to

a) distinguish his theory from rival theories of the retina's operation. -No rival theories.
b) indicate that both the retina and the cortex are involved in colour perception.- True,, refer "noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight"
c) differentiate between the actions of the retina and the actions of the cortex. -No differentiation in action!
d) imply that properties ascribed to the retina actually belong to the cortex. -No such implication
e) indicate that the cortex and the retina work together in perceiving location.-Not location, colour!

Q2: It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green and blue light entering the eye determined colour, the apparent colour of an object could be expected to:change if the object were moved

question stem says that if "Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour." is true.

a) from a blue background to a bright yellow background.-false not as per passage.
b) from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent-Perfect, as per passage, if this is true then, refer "It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light.." will be opposite, i.e., objects will not remain of same color in daylight and fluorescent light
c) to a different set of co-ordinates in physical space.-Not mentioned.
d) close enough to take up the viewer's entire field of vision- Not mentioned.
e) to a new area in the viewer's visual landscape.-Not mentioned.

Q3: According to the passage, the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour because:

a) colour information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colours.
b) the perceived colour of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object's environment.
c) the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
d) variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its colour- true, refere "Most people think that the balance of red, green and blue light reflected from an object into the eye determines the object's colour. It is easy to demonstrate that this notion is not true, however, simply by noting that objects remain the same colour in daylight, fluorescent light and incandescent light, each of which contains a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others..."
e) this information varies according to the object's proximity to the viewer.-not varies as per proximity.

[/box_in][/box_out]

I had doubts in question 3. I could easily discard options A and B, but had doubts with the remaining three options. Your insights on each one of these three options will be greatly appreciated.
[/quote]
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09 Nov 2018, 22:10
Q3: According to the passage, the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour because:

a) colour information about three wavelengths is not sufficient to produce the full spectrum of possible colours.
b) the perceived colour of an object changes with the ambient lighting of the object's environment.
c) the image of an object is formed not by light coming from the object itself, but from other parts of the field of vision.
d) variations in the mix of wavelengths illuminating an object do not affect its colour. - This can not be the reason of why the proportions of red, green and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object's colour. This is just a fact stating the the color does not vary with the lighting. Right??
e) this information varies according to the object's proximity to the viewer. - "The three numbers, co-ordinates in a colour space of three dimensions, uniquely determine the colour we see. just as the three dimensions of physical space uniquely define the location of an object " - Excerpt from the passage that gives the reason that only the color wavelengths from an object can not determine the color but the location is important too.

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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2019, 17:47
Got 3/3 correct but took 6 min to read. 9:30 min in total.

Passage Map:

1) How brain perceives color?
2) Common thinking is incorrect. Into to retinex theory
4) Theory suggests...
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14 Mar 2019, 05:05
1
Not a criticism but wondering if this is really a 600-type passage and question set? Did Princeton indicate it as such? I would say it is closer to 700 than 600 (this is my personal experience). Anyway:

Question 1: B and D are the more obvious answer choices - but we are lean towards D as we know that the author essentially argues against this more conventional theory.
Question 2: B was selected pretty quickly and with a quick review of other choices. The luck here was that paragraph 2 was directly infront of and stated that a term that '“retina” and “cortex” to suggest that both parts of the visual system are involved in perceiving color'
Question 3: I got this one wrong but after a bit of pondering (and even equation creation) I can see how the answer is B. Answer B is obvious when scrolling down and realising that 'Land has conducted a number of experiments showing that the numbers computed in this way correctly predict what color an observer will see under a number of unusual lighting conditions.' 'Predict' and 'lighting conditions' are perhaps the key phrases here.

But why are C and D, for example, wrong? The final results of the RBG weighted calculation are provided using the location and the weighted average is indeed a result of the location but the COLOR itself is not a result of our location - the author does not make this conclusion explicitly.
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2019, 05:57
Thanks for the comment, whenever i post a new passage i usualy set its difficulty as medium level. After at least 30 timer attemps i update the difficulty level according to timer result. so when ever you see an RC passage posted by me and it has less than 30 timer attempts it means present difficulty level is temporaray. I post OE on 15 march (48 hours after i posted the passage) so that a few more member can participate and share there thoughts untill i post OE.

Thanks

medic19 wrote:
Not a criticism but wondering if this is really a 600-type passage and question set? Did Princeton indicate it as such? I would say it is closer to 700 than 600 (this is my personal experience). Anyway:

Question 1: B and D are the more obvious answer choices - but we are lean towards D as we know that the author essentially argues against this more conventional theory.
Question 2: B was selected pretty quickly and with a quick review of other choices. The luck here was that paragraph 2 was directly infront of and stated that a term that '“retina” and “cortex” to suggest that both parts of the visual system are involved in perceiving color'
Question 3: I got this one wrong but after a bit of pondering (and even equation creation) I can see how the answer is B. Answer B is obvious when scrolling down and realising that 'Land has conducted a number of experiments showing that the numbers computed in this way correctly predict what color an observer will see under a number of unusual lighting conditions.' 'Predict' and 'lighting conditions' are perhaps the key phrases here.

But why are C and D, for example, wrong? The final results of the RBG weighted calculation are provided using the location and the weighted average is indeed a result of the location but the COLOR itself is not a result of our location - the author does not make this conclusion explicitly.

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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2019, 20:21

please post OE for 3rd question.

Thanks
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2019, 06:52
1
medic19
gmat1393

Official Explanation

1. According to the passage, the proportions of red, green, and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object’s color because

Explanation

Your key words are proportions of red, green, and blue light. Skim until you find these words in the passage (at the beginning of the second paragraph, slightly rephrased) and read around them.

A No. The passage does not say this anywhere.

B No. This is the exact opposite of the correct answer. You read about the mistaken notion that the “balance of red, green, and blue light” determines an object’s color. The next sentence states that this notion is untrue because an object’s color stays the same regardless of the ambient lighting.

C No. The passage says that light from other parts of the field of vision is part of the calculation, but that light coming from the object itself is still central. Furthermore, this idea is discussed in the third paragraph, and you should not be looking there for the answer to this question.

D Yes. This is a great paraphrase of the second sentence of the second paragraph, which says that objects remain the same color in daylight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light.

E No. The issue of the object’s proximity to the viewer comes up only in the third paragraph (as part of the retinex theory computation).

2. The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex (line 19) for his optical theory in order to

Explanation

Go to the lines indicated in the questions and start reading about one sentence before it. Stop about one sentence after the lines referenced. You should find your answer, that “both parts of the visual system are involved in perceiving color.” A good answer will restate that definition.

A No. The question specifically asks for a reason for the name.

B Yes. Lines 20 and 21 state that the term combines the two words “to suggest that both parts” are involved.

C No. The passage never emphasizes differentiating the two.

D No. The passage states only that both retina and cortex are involved; it does not ascribe specific properties to either one.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green, and blue light entering the eye determined color, the apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved

Explanation

This question is tricky. Use the lead words to take you to the first two sentences of the second paragraph. These sentences tell you that objects stay the same color despite different ambient lighting.

A No. The actual color of a background is not discussed so you can’t infer anything about it.

B Yes. The answer to this question depends on lines 14–17—specifically the information that daylight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light each contain a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others.

C No. The object’s location is discussed in the third paragraph and is not relevant to this question.

D No. The object’s distance from the viewer is not relevant to this question.

E No. Where the object is in the viewer’s visual field is not relevant to this question.

Hope it helps
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2019, 01:21
I have set the difficulty level now.

Question #1: 700
Question #2: 500
Question #3: 700

Overall : 650

Hope it helps

medic19 wrote:
Not a criticism but wondering if this is really a 600-type passage and question set? Did Princeton indicate it as such? I would say it is closer to 700 than 600 (this is my personal experience). Anyway:

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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2019, 19:54
medic19
gmat1393

Official Explanation

1. According to the passage, the proportions of red, green, and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object’s color because

Explanation

Your key words are proportions of red, green, and blue light. Skim until you find these words in the passage (at the beginning of the second paragraph, slightly rephrased) and read around them.

A No. The passage does not say this anywhere.

B No. This is the exact opposite of the correct answer. You read about the mistaken notion that the “balance of red, green, and blue light” determines an object’s color. The next sentence states that this notion is untrue because an object’s color stays the same regardless of the ambient lighting.

C No. The passage says that light from other parts of the field of vision is part of the calculation, but that light coming from the object itself is still central. Furthermore, this idea is discussed in the third paragraph, and you should not be looking there for the answer to this question.

D Yes. This is a great paraphrase of the second sentence of the second paragraph, which says that objects remain the same color in daylight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light.

E No. The issue of the object’s proximity to the viewer comes up only in the third paragraph (as part of the retinex theory computation).

2. The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex (line 19) for his optical theory in order to

Explanation

Go to the lines indicated in the questions and start reading about one sentence before it. Stop about one sentence after the lines referenced. You should find your answer, that “both parts of the visual system are involved in perceiving color.” A good answer will restate that definition.

A No. The question specifically asks for a reason for the name.

B Yes. Lines 20 and 21 state that the term combines the two words “to suggest that both parts” are involved.

C No. The passage never emphasizes differentiating the two.

D No. The passage states only that both retina and cortex are involved; it does not ascribe specific properties to either one.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green, and blue light entering the eye determined color, the apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved

Explanation

This question is tricky. Use the lead words to take you to the first two sentences of the second paragraph. These sentences tell you that objects stay the same color despite different ambient lighting.

A No. The actual color of a background is not discussed so you can’t infer anything about it.

B Yes. The answer to this question depends on lines 14–17—specifically the information that daylight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light each contain a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others.

C No. The object’s location is discussed in the third paragraph and is not relevant to this question.

D No. The object’s distance from the viewer is not relevant to this question.

E No. Where the object is in the viewer’s visual field is not relevant to this question.

Hope it helps

Sorry I am a bit confused with the answer in Q1 and Q3.

In Q1, the OE mentions that an object’s perceived color stays the same regardless of the ambient lighting, whether daylight, fluorescent light, or incandescent light.

How then in Q3 we choose B - since B states "The apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent lights".

I don't exactly understand what the conclusion is. So, if the lighting changes, will an object’s perceived color change or not change?
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2019, 16:28
Quote:
Sorry I am a bit confused with the answer in Q1 and Q3.

In Q1, the OE mentions that an object’s perceived color stays the same regardless of the ambient lighting, whether daylight, fluorescent light, or incandescent light.

How then in Q3 we choose B - since B states "The apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent lights".

I don't exactly understand what the conclusion is. So, if the lighting changes, will an object’s perceived color change or not change?

Hmm. Can someone try explaining Question 3 to me as well? I inferred that color won't change based on ambient or daylight or other mentioned setting.

Thank you!
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Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un  [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2019, 08:09
aidyn wrote:
medic19
gmat1393

Official Explanation

1. According to the passage, the proportions of red, green, and blue light reflected by an object cannot be the sole determinants of the object’s color because

Explanation

Your key words are proportions of red, green, and blue light. Skim until you find these words in the passage (at the beginning of the second paragraph, slightly rephrased) and read around them.

A No. The passage does not say this anywhere.

B No. This is the exact opposite of the correct answer. You read about the mistaken notion that the “balance of red, green, and blue light” determines an object’s color. The next sentence states that this notion is untrue because an object’s color stays the same regardless of the ambient lighting.

C No. The passage says that light from other parts of the field of vision is part of the calculation, but that light coming from the object itself is still central. Furthermore, this idea is discussed in the third paragraph, and you should not be looking there for the answer to this question.

D Yes. This is a great paraphrase of the second sentence of the second paragraph, which says that objects remain the same color in daylight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light.

E No. The issue of the object’s proximity to the viewer comes up only in the third paragraph (as part of the retinex theory computation).

2. The passage suggests that Edwin Land created the name retinex (line 19) for his optical theory in order to

Explanation

Go to the lines indicated in the questions and start reading about one sentence before it. Stop about one sentence after the lines referenced. You should find your answer, that “both parts of the visual system are involved in perceiving color.” A good answer will restate that definition.

A No. The question specifically asks for a reason for the name.

B Yes. Lines 20 and 21 state that the term combines the two words “to suggest that both parts” are involved.

C No. The passage never emphasizes differentiating the two.

D No. The passage states only that both retina and cortex are involved; it does not ascribe specific properties to either one.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that if the balance of red, green, and blue light entering the eye determined color, the apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved

Explanation

This question is tricky. Use the lead words to take you to the first two sentences of the second paragraph. These sentences tell you that objects stay the same color despite different ambient lighting.

A No. The actual color of a background is not discussed so you can’t infer anything about it.

B Yes. The answer to this question depends on lines 14–17—specifically the information that daylight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light each contain a mix of wavelengths of light very different from the others.

C No. The object’s location is discussed in the third paragraph and is not relevant to this question.

D No. The object’s distance from the viewer is not relevant to this question.

E No. Where the object is in the viewer’s visual field is not relevant to this question.

Hope it helps

Sorry I am a bit confused with the answer in Q1 and Q3.

In Q1, the OE mentions that an object’s perceived color stays the same regardless of the ambient lighting, whether daylight, fluorescent light, or incandescent light.

How then in Q3 we choose B - since B states "The apparent color of an object could be expected to change if the object were moved from a sunlit room to a room with fluorescent lights".

I don't exactly understand what the conclusion is. So, if the lighting changes, will an object’s perceived color change or not change?

Kindly read the question 3 again. Its tricky. If it were true that eye perceives color by RBG , then the color of the object would change according to the ambience aorund the object.

But the author refutes the above argument in the second line of the second paragraph. However, question 3 is asking the opposite. So the correct answer is B.
Hope this helps !
Re: One of the most studied senses is vision. Scientists have carefully un   [#permalink] 18 Sep 2019, 08:09
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