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# PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC

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Current Student
Joined: 18 Jan 2016
Posts: 5
Location: India
GMAT 1: 730 Q49 V41
Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC  [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2016, 22:19
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

First of all, I would like thank all of you for appreciating this article and showering Kudos. Such overwhelming responses keep us motivated to write more articles.

Here is the detailed explanation for both the exercise questions.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 1

Since digital recording offers essentially perfect reproduction - on compact discs, digital audiotapes, or digital videodiscs - audiophiles can accumulate music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality. (GMAT Prep)

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to
C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to
D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to

MEANING ANAYSIS:

Let us first understand the meaning of the sentence. This step is extremely necessary to understand what the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence is.

The sentence says that because digital recording offers perfect reproduction, audiophiles can collect music by doing three things:
a. transferring them from one format to another,
b. copying it, and
c. digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• There is a list of three things through which audiophiles can accumulate music. All three are the part of the process that completes the process of accumulation of music in audiophiles. All the entities are correctly written in verb-ing modifier form, meaning they all provide information as to how the music is accumulated in audiophiles.
• There is another list in the third entity of the first list – altering it with:
a. little effort, and
b. not damaging the sound quality.

The first entity of this sub-list is a noun phrase made up of adjective + noun. The second entity is also a noun phrase. However, the grammatical structure of this entity is different from the other. Here we have an adverb (not) followed by a gerund – a noun that denotes action. This entity can very well be written in the form of the first entity as “no damage”.
• Plural pronoun “them” does not agree in number with its singular antecedent “music”.

PoE:

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect for the reasons mentioned above.

B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to: Correct. This choice not only maintains the grammatical parallelism of both the main list and the sub list but also maintains the logical parallelism, conveying the logical meaning.

C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Grammatically, this choice is correct. The list per this choice is - audiophiles can:
a. accumulate music,
b. transfer it…
c. copy it, and
d. alter it…
Grammatically, all the entities are parallel here, but now they convey a very different meaning. The last three entities in the list are no more the three steps of accumulating music in audiophiles. All these entities are independent entities now. This choice clearly stands INCORRECT despite being grammatically parallel because it violates the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence.

D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect.
1. Use of “and” after music is incorrect.
2. “not damaging” is not parallel to “little effort”.

E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Use of “and” after music is incorrect as it creates an unintended list which is not even parallel.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 2

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

MEANING ANAYSIS:

• The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex. These have resulted into two things:
1. the power of the chips have increased, and
2. the electronic devices they derive have increased.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• From the meaning analysis, we can logically say that the two changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in the power of the chips. But it is not logical to say that these changes have led to increase in the devices they drive. Increase in the number of devices these chips drive depend on many other factors. Hence, despite being GRAMMATICALLY correct, this choice stands LOGICALLY incorrect.

PoE:

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Correct. This choice is grammatically as well as logically correct. The changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in power of the chips as well as the devices they drive.

C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Incorrect.
1. Use of “are” is incorrect. The effect of the changes can still be felt in the present.
2. Repeats the logical parallelism error as in choice A.
3. Singular “has” does not agree in number with its plural subject.

D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect.
1. Same verb tense error as in choice C.
2. Plural verb “have” does not agree in number with its singular subject “the power”.

E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect. Same logical parallelism error as in choice A.

Thanks.

Dear Rajat,

This is related to ques #2. I understood why option B is the right answer but my query is related to the first half of the same question. Can Noun's noun be PARALLEL to Noun?
Here as per OA B, "the etched lines" (NOUN) is PARALLEL to "the chips’ circuits" (NOUN's NOUN). Would really appreciate a clear response on this.

Thanks
Current Student
Joined: 30 Dec 2016
Posts: 14
Location: India
GMAT 1: 670 Q47 V35
GPA: 3.2
Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC  [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2017, 16:40
"John prepared for impending currency crisis, storing enough food and water for future and posted his pictures online. "
Here, does "posted" refer to "John prepared for impending currency crisis" ? because storing.... and posted... are in parallel. If yes, then verb+ed modifier refers to the nearest noun/noun phrase, in this case, "impending currency crisis" which does not make sense.
Manager
Joined: 30 Sep 2017
Posts: 147
Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2018, 01:49
"Before we start discussing whether grammar is more important in parallelism or logic, lets look at the following sentence.

A. John prepared for impending currency crisis, storing enough food and water for future and posting his pictures online.
B. John prepared for impending currency crisis, storing enough food and water for future and posted his pictures online. "

Hi,

While I agree that the first answers does not make much sense, I doubt whether the second is correct. A point to consider:

The portion "<...>, storing enough food and water for future and posted his pictures online." is encapsulated with a comma and a point. Since there's an -ing modifier, it introduces a subj.+verb modification (how John prepared),.. But the use of and in this case implies two ideas how ho prepared. <...> and posted <...> is not parallel to the -ing modifier. Thus this use makes this usage structurally incorrect because a (,) is missing the word "future" (<...> future, and posted <...>). A comma would have clearly separated the modifier from the second verb.

Please let me know what I miss here.

Thanks
Manager
Joined: 22 Sep 2014
Posts: 105
GMAT 1: 720 Q50 V37
Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC  [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2018, 21:07
wow ...this part's really tricky
thanks a lot
Manager
Joined: 30 Sep 2017
Posts: 147
Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2018, 07:00
egmat wrote:
Among lower paid workers union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients and spend less time with each. (GMAT Prep)

A. imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
B. imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
C. that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
D. that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
E. that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Dear E-gmat,

Thank you for such useful information. I have a question regarding the usage of V-ing modifiers. In your explanation, you claim that when V-ing word comes after a comma in a sentence, it modifies the main subject+verb of the sentence. In this case the correct answer is D. According to your rules, the modifier ",spending ..." basically has to refer to "plans require" because "doctors" is an object. Yet, you claim that the choice correctly says that "plans require doctors to see more patients, spending ..." and that "the doctors spend less time with the patients". Could you please explain how I may have mixed some rules here or missed something? Can such a modifier not always refer to the main subj.+verb?

Thank you
Manager
Joined: 22 Sep 2014
Posts: 105
GMAT 1: 720 Q50 V37
Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2018, 13:26
extremely useful ! As a non-native speaker , I've found that it's truly hard to get the extended meaning of a complicated sentence with lots of modifiers .

will need to practice more then

thanks for sharing
Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC   [#permalink] 10 Sep 2018, 13:26

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