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# Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form

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Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2007, 20:50
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Q40:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by JarvisR on 11 Jul 2015, 03:02, edited 1 time in total.
OA updated
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2007, 21:37
vote for C.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2007, 21:51
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions. out of scope
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today. irrelvent
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago. weakening the argument
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment. irrelevant
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.strenthening the conclusion so correct answer for me
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2007, 22:08
D.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2007, 22:51
I'm going with C.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2007, 00:20
At first glance I liked E but I think it is not correct because the author uses the word "partially" in his conclusion. So, I vote for D.

OA?
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2007, 06:14
conclusion: changes are attributable to Turfe's environmental changes

evidence1: sunflower 40cm shorter than on the mainland
evidence": Tufe Island is dryer than mainland was 200 years ago

assumption: only the island's climate has changed

A. irrelevant
B. irrelevant
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed, best answer
D. argument is about climate and not nutrients
E. can not be assumed
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2007, 08:06
I would go for 'C'.
This mentions the assumption that the height of the sunflowers at main island is NOT changed.
To compare the hight of the flowers from the both parts, we should make sure that the height of flowers on the mainland is NOT changed.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2007, 10:15
im with C as well, when answering an assumption question, talking about things outside the scope of the question will be irrelevant. i.e. ( soil nutrients )
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2007, 18:42

Thanks.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2007, 23:11
I'll go for C. It tells us temperature should be the only critical factor here, and the control case (sunflowers on mainland) is a fair comparison.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2007, 03:05
Facts
-Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers
-This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland
-Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was
Conclusion
- So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflower is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions

Now let's look at the options
A - Eliminate - Out of scope.
B - Eliminate - Out of scope.
D - Eliminate - More of a fact than an assumption.
E - Eliminate - More of a fact than an assumption.

C - Correct - Is an assumption - It says that the mainland’s environment has not changed so there is no change in the height of the Turfil sunflowers on the mainland. Hence the difference in the height is only due to the change in the island's environment.

This goes with the conclusion.

Hence C should be the answer.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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01 May 2014, 18:37
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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15 May 2014, 08:42
Hi EGMAT,

im not able to eliminate the option D. As its says after negation that Soils has a nutrient which help flower to grow tall.

and we are taking about the whether environment has played a role in the decrease in the height of the flower.

So we have to just concentrate only on environment.

Can you guide me whether my reasoning is correct.

Thanks
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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18 May 2014, 23:51
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Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi EGMAT,

im not able to eliminate the option D. As its says after negation that Soils has a nutrient which help flower to grow tall.

and we are taking about the whether environment has played a role in the decrease in the height of the flower.

So we have to just concentrate only on environment.

Can you guide me whether my reasoning is correct.

Thanks

Hi Nitin,

Is soil the only component of environment which can impact plant growth?

What about temperature, humidity etc? These can also impact plant growth. Right?

Now, even if the soil does not lack such nutrients, one of these other factors (temperature, humidity) could still be responsible for the difference in the heights of the flowers.

In such a case, the conclusion does not break down.

Isn't it?

When you negate an assumption, the conclusion should break-down. Right?

So, your job should be to find a scenario in which the conclusion could still hold true. Only in case where you are not able to find such a scenario can you confidently say that the conclusion has actually broken down. In such a case, the option statement is an actual assumption.

Does it help?

Feel free to ask if you have any further questions

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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19 May 2014, 02:22
Thanks Chiranjeev,

My Gaps are filling in .... Feeling GOOD.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2014, 00:40
Premises:

1. 2 century ago, TP separated from mainland to form 2 regions- 1)mainland 2)Island

2. Island is drier than peninsula

3. Height of flower is Island 40 cm shorter than that in Mainland

Conclusion:
Current average height of Tufe’sTurfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Questions 1:
Option C says, Mainland sunflowers didn't grew taller due to environmental changes. This make me infer that sunflowers in island grew shorter.
This inference doesn't help to explain why this happened? What is the root cause of 40 cm shortness in island flowers.
I tend to seek the cause behind shortness of Island sunflowers and option D gave relief. Option (C) doesn't add any more information. It just says, Mainland flower didn't grew taller.

When I am asked to find WHY B is shorter than A, Answer Choice says, A is not taller.

Expert insight will help.

Question 2:
I didn't encounter similar question before. Do we have any other OG question like this ?
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2014, 02:48
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umeshpatil wrote:
Premises:

1. 2 century ago, TP separated from mainland to form 2 regions- 1)mainland 2)Island

2. Island is drier than peninsula

3. Height of flower is Island 40 cm shorter than that in Mainland

Conclusion:
Current average height of Tufe’sTurfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Questions 1:
Option C says, Mainland sunflowers didn't grew taller due to environmental changes. This make me infer that sunflowers in island grew shorter.
This inference doesn't help to explain why this happened? What is the root cause of 40 cm shortness in island flowers.
I tend to seek the cause behind shortness of Island sunflowers and option D gave relief. Option (C) doesn't add any more information. It just says, Mainland flower didn't grew taller.

When I am asked to find WHY B is shorter than A, Answer Choice says, A is not taller.

Expert insight will help.

Question 2:
I didn't encounter similar question before. Do we have any other OG question like this ?

Dear Umesh,

After going through your analyses of choices C and D, I feel that you are not asking yourself the right questions in the pre-thinking phase.

Accordingly, let's see where you may be faltering in applying the process.

Right now we are given three things, as you have rightly pointed.
1. Separation of the peninsula from the mainland
2. Difference in the environmental conditions between the peninsula and the island
3. Difference in the height of the sunflowers found on the island and those found on the mainland

On the basis of the above three facts, the author concludes that the difference in the environmental conditions between the peninsula and the island is responsible at least to some extent for the current (shorter) average height of the sunflowers found on the island. Now, in the pre-thinking phase for assumptions, what do we focus on? We try to think of scenarios in which the conclusion may not hold, right? Accordingly, what if someone told you that the difference in the height is not because the island sunflowers are shorter than before but because the mainland sunflowers are taller than before because of the changes in the environmental conditions on the mainland? Would the author's conclusion still be valid? Would the author still be able to blame the difference in the environmental conditions between the peninsula and the island as the cause for the difference in the average height of the sunflowers found at the two different places? The answer is NO! Choice C rules out this possibility by negating a possible counter to the link drawn between the difference in the environmental conditions between the peninsula and the island, and the difference in the height of the sunflowers. Try to negate Choice C and see the effect it has on the conclusion.

As regards choice D, ask yourself whether it is a must be true statement for the conclusion to hold true? Chiranjeev has addressed a similar doubt above. Please do present your analysis in the light of that discussion and we'll take our discussion forward from there.

Regards,

Neeti.
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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2015, 23:50
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2016, 03:43
jet1445 wrote:
Q40:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.

So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Was that cocnlusion striclty about Tufe ISland? So the mainland is not Tufe as well? Bcos the conclusion didnt say Tufe Island. I guess the answer is yes cos the mainland wasnt named at all.
Re: Q40: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form   [#permalink] 03 Apr 2016, 03:43

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