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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,

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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 19 Oct 2017, 06:22
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A
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C
D
E

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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.

(B) There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.

(C) The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.

(D) The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.

(E) The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.

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Originally posted by jet1445 on 09 Jun 2007, 19:50.
Last edited by hazelnut on 19 Oct 2017, 06:22, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2010, 06:36
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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2007, 20:51
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions. out of scope
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today. irrelvent
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago. weakening the argument
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment. irrelevant
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.strenthening the conclusion so correct answer for me
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2007, 23:20
1
At first glance I liked E but I think it is not correct because the author uses the word "partially" in his conclusion. So, I vote for D.

OA?
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2007, 05:14
1
1
conclusion: changes are attributable to Turfe's environmental changes

evidence1: sunflower 40cm shorter than on the mainland
evidence": Tufe Island is dryer than mainland was 200 years ago

assumption: only the island's climate has changed

A. irrelevant
B. irrelevant
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed, best answer
D. argument is about climate and not nutrients
E. can not be assumed
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2007, 07:06
I would go for 'C'.
This mentions the assumption that the height of the sunflowers at main island is NOT changed.
To compare the hight of the flowers from the both parts, we should make sure that the height of flowers on the mainland is NOT changed.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2007, 09:15
im with C as well, when answering an assumption question, talking about things outside the scope of the question will be irrelevant. i.e. ( soil nutrients )
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2007, 22:11
1
I'll go for C. It tells us temperature should be the only critical factor here, and the control case (sunflowers on mainland) is a fair comparison.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2007, 02:05
1
Facts
-Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers
-This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland
-Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was
Conclusion
- So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflower is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions

Now let's look at the options
A - Eliminate - Out of scope.
B - Eliminate - Out of scope.
D - Eliminate - More of a fact than an assumption.
E - Eliminate - More of a fact than an assumption.

C - Correct - Is an assumption - It says that the mainland’s environment has not changed so there is no change in the height of the Turfil sunflowers on the mainland. Hence the difference in the height is only due to the change in the island's environment.

This goes with the conclusion.

Hence C should be the answer.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Jul 2017, 06:44
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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.

(B) There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.

(C) The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.

(D) The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.

(E) The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.

Originally posted by marcodonzelli on 12 Jan 2008, 09:06.
Last edited by hazelnut on 25 Jul 2017, 06:44, edited 1 time in total.
Formatted the Q and added OA
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2008, 09:51
GMATBLACKBELT wrote:
marcodonzelli wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.


All are irrelevant except C.

yes, OA is C, although I was tricked by D...
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2008, 22:48
marcodonzelli wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.


A) -> out of place
B) -> Not related
C) -> In context, might be assumption
D) -> Not related
E) -> Not related

Will go with C)
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2010, 07:55
7
sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

What are the things in this argument
X seperated from Y
H of flowers on X are 40 cms short than H of flowers on Y
Y is drier than X
Conclusion Dryness caused the height difference.

Assumption: No other factors affected Height. C
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.

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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2010, 09:25
1
BlueRobin wrote:
sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

What are the things in this argument
X seperated from Y
H of flowers on X are 40 cms short than H of flowers on Y
Y is drier than X
Conclusion Dryness caused the height difference.

Assumption: No other factors affected Height. C
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.



Good Job.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2010, 21:21
this 1 can be easilt narrowed to C and D, rest all are OOS
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2013, 08:50
seekmba wrote:
C for me.

WHy not D?
Even D gives reasons for the shorter height
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 13:54
5
Sam1 wrote:
seekmba wrote:
C for me.

WHy not D?
Even D gives reasons for the shorter height


By stating "The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland," choice D is implying that the soil in the Tufe Peninsula is causing the Turfil to grow taller rather than the conclusion we are trying to strengthen - changes in the environment between the two land masses. Thus we are not strengthening the argument.

Additionally, a great tactic to employ with assumption questions, one I find used frequently in posts, is the negation technique. If we negate Choice D by saying that the soil HAS important nutrients rather than LACKS important nutrients does this negation of the assumption destroy the case being made in the argument that it's the environment's fault? Not really. The flowers can possibly have the important nutrients to grow taller, maybe 5 cm, and still be shorter as a result of the dry environment. Whereas in choice C if we negate the answer choice by saying "The mainland's environment HAS changed..." then we destroy the conclusion by saying that it's not the drier environment that caused the flowers to shrink but the better environment that caused them to grow.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2014, 04:47
sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.


Could somebody explain why is C the answer?

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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2014, 07:42
Hi EGMAT,

im not able to eliminate the option D. As its says after negation that Soils has a nutrient which help flower to grow tall.

and we are taking about the whether environment has played a role in the decrease in the height of the flower.

So we have to just concentrate only on environment.

Can you guide me whether my reasoning is correct.

Thanks
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland,  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2014, 22:51
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Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi EGMAT,

im not able to eliminate the option D. As its says after negation that Soils has a nutrient which help flower to grow tall.

and we are taking about the whether environment has played a role in the decrease in the height of the flower.

So we have to just concentrate only on environment.

Can you guide me whether my reasoning is correct.

Thanks


Hi Nitin,

Is soil the only component of environment which can impact plant growth?

What about temperature, humidity etc? These can also impact plant growth. Right?

Now, even if the soil does not lack such nutrients, one of these other factors (temperature, humidity) could still be responsible for the difference in the heights of the flowers.

In such a case, the conclusion does not break down.

Isn't it?

When you negate an assumption, the conclusion should break-down. Right?

So, your job should be to find a scenario in which the conclusion could still hold true. Only in case where you are not able to find such a scenario can you confidently say that the conclusion has actually broken down. In such a case, the option statement is an actual assumption.

Does it help?

Feel free to ask if you have any further questions :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, &nbs [#permalink] 18 May 2014, 22:51

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