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Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia

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New post Updated on: 20 Sep 2018, 08:12
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Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose developments was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of

https://www.nytimes.com/1985/12/10/science/odd-fossil-may-be-a-clue-to-mamal-evolution.html

IN a discovery that could change thinking about early mammal evolution, scientists have found the fossil jaw of a platypus-like animal that lived 110 million years ago in Australia. The specimen represents the oldest known mammal of the monotreme subclass and is about 85 million years older than any previous fossil mammals found in Australia.

Analysis of the jaw and teeth has led some paleontologists to believe that monotremes, the only egg-laying mammals, are more closely related to other mammals than had been generally assumed. The other two groups of living mammals are marsupials, distinguished by the pouch in which they carry and nurse their young, and placentals, which carry their young longer in the uterus and thus give birth to better developed offspring.

The authors said the Lightning Ridge monotreme, which they named Steropodon galmani, provides ''the strongest support'' for the hypothesis that monotremes are a branch off the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago. The branching might have occurred as recently as 150 million years ago.

Can anyone explain what's the difference between "rather than" and "instead of"?? Took a long time to eliminate the answer because i could not decide which one (rather than/instead of) is better.

Thanks,

Originally posted by mbunny on 09 Jul 2007, 17:27.
Last edited by hazelnut on 20 Sep 2018, 08:12, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2012, 10:49
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Hi All,

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

Meaning Analysis:

The sentence is talking about the Australian egg-laying mammals of today. They are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution. They did not develop independently from a common ancestor of mammals.

Error Analysis:

The sentence is presenting a comparison. It says that Australian egg-laying mammals are X rather than Y.

X = a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution (a noun phrase)
Y = developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals (a noun phrase that actually starts from an action word – a gerund)

Hence, the entities compared are not parallel. Y also needs to be a noun phrase that starts with a “proper” noun entity.

PoE:

A. rather than developing independently from: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. rather than a type that developed independently from: Correct. “a type…” is parallel to “a branch…”

C. rather than a type whose developments was independent of: Incorrect. Plural subject “developments” does not agree in number with singular “was”.

D. instead of developing independently from: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in choice A.

E. instead of a development that was independent of: Incorrect. Again, the entities compared are logically not parallel.

So you see, the knowledge of correct usage or “rather than” and “instead of” is not imperative to solve this problem.

Hope this helps. :)
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2010, 04:34
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Answer A and D changes the meaning such that to suggest the egg-laying mammals grew by themselves.
Answer C introduces 2 nouns "a type" and "development"



Rather than - shows preference.
1). We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings.
2). I prefer starting early rather than leaving things to the last minute.

Instead of - suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another.
1). I'll have tea instead of coffee, please.
2). I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work.


"...mammals...are... a branch.... rather than... a type that developed"
"...mammals...are... a branch.... instead of... a development that was"

From this reasoning, I would go with B.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2007, 05:49
What is the difference between Independent of and independent from?

Please elaborate
Thanks :)
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2007, 17:46
2
hmmm

this is not really a case of independent of vs independent from.

look at the context of B.

====
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are
a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution
rather than
a type that developed independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
=======
DE are out because
instead of = substitute
rather than = alternative preference (not alternate!)

we chose B because it was parallel, not because it was the correct idiom.

independentLY is an adverb.

thoughts?
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2007, 21:23
bmwhype2 wrote:
hmmm

this is not really a case of independent of vs independent from.

look at the context of B.

====
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are
a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution
rather than
a type that developed independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
=======
DE are out because
instead of = substitute
rather than = alternative preference (not alternate!)

we chose B because it was parallel, not because it was the correct idiom.

independentLY is an adverb.

thoughts?



Yes I know, you choose B because of parallelism.
But in the OG, it is mentioned in the answer explanation

"... The second half of the contrast may be rewritten a type that developed independently from to complete the parellel construction. The idiom independently from is different in meaning from the idiom independent of; the logic of this sentence requires the use of independently from."

That's item #56 from the OG Verbal workbook.
Now that's what I would like to know.
The difference of usage
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2007, 10:10
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gablaze23 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
hmmm

this is not really a case of independent of vs independent from.

look at the context of B.

====
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are
a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution
rather than
a type that developed independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
=======
DE are out because
instead of = substitute
rather than = alternative preference (not alternate!)

we chose B because it was parallel, not because it was the correct idiom.

independentLY is an adverb.

thoughts?



Yes I know, you choose B because of parallelism.
But in the OG, it is mentioned in the answer explanation

"... The second half of the contrast may be rewritten a type that developed independently from to complete the parellel construction. The idiom independently from is different in meaning from the idiom independent of; the logic of this sentence requires the use of independently from."

That's item #56 from the OG Verbal workbook.
Now that's what I would like to know.
The difference of usage


if you read the question again, it is not really independent from ...it is developed (adverb) from
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2007, 09:04
gablaze23 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
hmmm

this is not really a case of independent of vs independent from.

look at the context of B.

====
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are
a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution
rather than
a type that developed independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
=======
DE are out because
instead of = substitute
rather than = alternative preference (not alternate!)

we chose B because it was parallel, not because it was the correct idiom.

independentLY is an adverb.

thoughts?



Yes I know, you choose B because of parallelism.
But in the OG, it is mentioned in the answer explanation

"... The second half of the contrast may be rewritten a type that developed independently from to complete the parellel construction. The idiom independently from is different in meaning from the idiom independent of; the logic of this sentence requires the use of independently from."

That's item #56 from the OG Verbal workbook.
Now that's what I would like to know.
The difference of usage


I agree with you...Even I was stuck at this point.

Independently from means irrespective of others
Independent of means not dependent on others(although it took some help...may be)

I know the meaning change is subtle but thats all I could find on the net.
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New post 02 Jan 2011, 23:06
1
(B)

(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of - Wrong comparison
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2011, 18:03
empty_spaces wrote:
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of


parallel structure. A and D are out

From the old point of view (which is objected by the author):
egg-laying is independently evolved, but it's still from a common ancestor of mammals.
if we use the phrase 'independent of', the clause means that egg-laying mammal is not from a common ancestor of mammals. So the meaning is changed
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2011, 17:25
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empty_spaces wrote:
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of


This is not really an "independent of" vs "independent from question. If that were the case, then you would narrow it down to 2 answer choices - one uses "of" and the other uses "from" ---this is not the case here.

Subtleties like these are less and less common on the GMAT. In most cases, you'll see something like the above that includes both "to" and "from" - but clearly there are other things in the sentence that are being tested.

Let's take the above as an example:

"mammals of today are a branch of [x], rather than a [blah blah blah]"
We need something that fills in the [blah blah blah] that is consistent with "a branch of [x]"

(A) is no good because the word "developing" is in the wrong form
(B) uses "rather than a type that developed independently from a common ancestor" - looks ok so far.
(C) "mammals are a branch of [x], rather than a type whose development was independent of" --- the structure is much more complicated than in (B) - so (C) is no good.
(D) "instead of developing" - we're missing the word "a [blah blah]" so (D) is no good.
(E) "instead of A development that was independent of a common ancestor" - this is wrong because it's saying that the mammals were a branch of the main steam of evolution instead of a DEVELOPMENT.

The mammals were not a development. That doesn't make sense in (E).

(B) makes more sense - the mammals were a TYPE that developed...

So we pick (B) as our final answer and move on.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2011, 23:39
I am still confused about choice C. Would it be incorrect even if the sentence used "of"?

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independent of a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

(noticed that i changed independently from to independent of)

(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of

Will this change not make choice C correct answer?
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2011, 15:44
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johndepp wrote:
I am still confused about choice C. Would it be incorrect even if the sentence used "of"?

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independent of a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

(noticed that i changed independently from to independent of)

(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of

Will this change not make choice C correct answer?


if (C) were: "rather than a type that developed independently of" and choice (B) did not exist, (C) could be a decent answer.

Remember, your job is not to choose the best possible answer from the ones they list - not to try to devise a list of possible correct answers on your own.

Understanding exactly what you need to do on the GMAT and what extra work you don't need to do will make your GMAT studies a lot more focused on what really matters.
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New post 07 Mar 2012, 20:01
gmatpill, u rock! I always want to hit myself in the head when I realize the error could have been avoided if I just did a simple subject agreement analysis. Thanks!
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2013, 22:57
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1) What is wrong with C?
-- See my explanation below.

2) OG says both 'rather than' and 'instead of ' can be used here though I know that ' rather than' is the correct one as it indicates preference.
OG explanation, it seems, is clearly flawed.

This problem is not testing instead/rather than as both can be used here (if used correctly). It is testing comparison, parallelism, meaning errors as specified below. May be this is what OG has also mentioned in the explanation.
(A) rather than developing independently from
--Incorrect comparison. Noun "A branch" is being compared with noun phrase "developing independently", hence does parallelism error.
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
-- Correct. This choice is concise, fixes the parallelism error by comparing "a branch" with "a type" and uses correct form of "independently from".
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
-- This does meaning error as "independent of" means "irrespective of" or "regardless of" which is nonsensical in this context. Also this choice uses noun phrase "development was independent of" and is wordier than verb "developed independently from".
(D) instead of developing independently from
-- Does same error as in choice (A)
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
-- Does the meaning error as choice (C) with use of "independent of" which doesn't fit in this context.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2013, 00:15
[quote="PraPon"]1) What is wrong with C?
-- See my explanation below.

2) OG says both 'rather than' and 'instead of ' can be used here though I know that ' rather than' is the correct one as it indicates preference.
OG explanation, it seems, is clearly flawed.

This problem is not testing instead/rather than as both can be used here (if used correctly). It is testing comparison, parallelism, meaning errors as specified below. May be this is what OG has also mentioned in the explanation.
(A) rather than developing independently from
--Incorrect comparison. Noun "A branch" is being compared with noun phrase "developing independently", hence does parallelism error.
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
-- Correct. This choice is concise, fixes the parallelism error by comparing "a branch" with "a type" and uses correct form of "independently from".
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
-- This does meaning error as "independent of" means "irrespective of" or "regardless of" which is nonsensical in this context. Also this choice uses noun phrase "development was independent of" and is wordier than verb "developed independently from".
(D) instead of developing independently from
-- Does same error as in choice (A)
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
[color=#ff0000]-- Does the meaning error as choice (C) with use of "independent of" which doesn't fit in this cont

I do not understand the difference between "independent of" and "independently from" between C and B, pls explain more fully. Thank you
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2013, 01:30
The explanation given in OG12 for answer option (E) is contrary to what e-gmat explained.

Here it is
Why (E) is incorrect OG's explanation:
While a development may appear to parallel
a branch, a development that was independent
of . . . expresses a meaning contrary to that
expressed in the original sentence. The verb
developed is preferable to the noun
development.

The point here is of the phrase "independent of/independent from". Furthermore , as per MGMAT SC Guide VAN Rule , we prefer

Verb Over Noun

For more: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ind ... 11721.html



In this option there is a NOUN = development when the verb is available VERB = developed.

This answer choice gave a good competition to the correct answer choice because as per OG12

Both x instead of y
And x rather than y

constructions are correct

Hope it helps

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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2015, 11:31
Mechmeera wrote:
Can someone explain about the usage of "instead of" here in this sentence. Is it correct to use of instead of here or not.


I would say the difference bw Rather than and Instead of does not matter here in this question ..
There is comparison in the question and that comparison should be correct
Only in option b comparison is correct
Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than a type that developed independently from

If option B was : Rather than a development that was independent of
and option E was Instead of a type that developed independently from

I have would have gone with option E
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2016, 07:07
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EBITDA wrote:
Here is my go.

I discarded options A and D because the comparison of a "branch" (noun) is not parallel to "developing" (verb).

I also discarded options C and E because a "development" cannot logically "be independent of a common ancestor of mammals". Instead, it is a "type" that can logically "develop independently from a common ancestor of mammals".

Please share your thoughts on this reasoning process.


Responding to a PM:

A. Wrong : The construction here is - the Australian egg-laying mammals are X rather than Y.
Here X = a branch (noun), Y = developing (present participle)..... not parallel.
C. Wrong. The meaning conveyed is erroneous: " Development of X was independent of Y" conveys the meaning that Y had no role in the development of X. (The correct usage is: " X developed independently from Y " - this conveys the meaning that Y is the ancestor of X.)
D. Wrong : The construction here is - the Australian egg-laying mammals are X instead of Y.
Here X = a branch (noun), Y = developing (present participle)...... not parallel.
E. Wrong : The construction here is - the Australian egg-laying mammals are X instead of Y.
Here X = a branch (noun), Y = development..... "development" is not supposed to be compared with "branch" - Australian egg-laying mammals are not supposed to be "developments", but "a type" that developed.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2016, 06:42
My Approach is as follows :

1. Read the option A, developing is the wrong verb tense since its happened in the past and needs a simple past verb

So focus on the split for simple past for developed and eliminate D as well.

Now with B, C and E the last split : from/of we need the split from and hence eliminate C and E

Only option left is B, read it once with the overall sentence and sounds good.

Total time taken to solve : 95 seconds
Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australia &nbs [#permalink] 30 Aug 2016, 06:42

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