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Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness

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Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2006, 18:49
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A
B
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D
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Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

(A) by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose
(B) by the United States government's satisfaction, impose
(C) with the United States government's being satisfied, imposing
(D) to the United States government's satisfaction, impose
(E) to the United States government's satisfaction, imposing
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2012, 09:56
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Hi All,

@joshuaRome & siddhans – The word “conclude” means “finish”. It is a verb in active voice.
1. I conclude the meeting by thanking you all for joining me.
2. He concluded the conference with a humorous quote.
3. She will conclude the recital on time.

Now when we add preposition “by” after “conclude”, it suggests that the action of conclusion is performed by someone. It turns the structure to passive form. Moreover, the correct passive form is “is/was/are/were concluded”. Hence, “conclude by the US government’s satisfaction” is ungrammatical.
The correct idiom is “conclude to the US government’s satisfaction”.

@siddhans – The parallel entities in the list of the correct answer choice D are to single out, (to) begin, and (to) impose.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2017, 08:24
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This question is testing PARALLELISM.
We have a list structure, so we need to make sure all of the elements in our list are parallel. Whenever we have a list with infinitives, we have two options:

1) Use the "to" every time: I like to dance, to sing, and to paint

2) Use the "to" only for the first list element. It is implied that it will apply to all other list elements: I like to dance, sing, and paint.

We are NOT allowed to drop the "to" for the 2nd element, then bring it back for the third:
I like to dance, sing, and to paint.

In this sentence, our list is:
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to:
a) single out a country as an unfair trader,
b) begin trade negotiation with that country, and, (if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government’s being satisfied,)
c) to impose sanctions.

The third list item does not match. We cannot use the "to" again, since we didn't use it with "begin."

A. by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose
We can't use "to." Incorrect.

B. by the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
Correct continuation of "to single..., begin..., and impose," but wrong idiom usage. We can't say "by one's satisfaction." We say "to one's satisfaction."

C. with the United States government’s being satisfied, imposing
Not parallel

D. to the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
Correct parallelism, correct idiom.

E. to the United States government’s satisfaction, imposing
Not parallel

Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade
Representative to single ( I element of list)out a country as an unfair trader, begin( II element) trade negotiations with that
country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government’s being satisfied,
to impose (III element, which is not parallel with the earlier two) sanctions.

So we need “IMPOSE” to make list parallel
This leaves us with B and D.

Now when we add preposition “by” after “conclude”, it suggests that the action of conclusion is performed by someone. It turns the structure to passive form. Moreover, the correct passive form is “is/was/are/were concluded”. Hence, “conclude by the US government’s satisfaction” is ungrammatical.
The correct idiom is “conclude to the US government’s satisfaction”.

B- “conclude by” is wrong usage. “concluded to” is better.
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2006, 16:22
close call between B and D
is 'conclude by' a correct idiom?



jerrywu wrote:
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

A. by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose
B. by the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
C. with the United States government’s being satisfied, imposing
D. to the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
E. to the United States government’s satisfaction, imposing
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2006, 20:39
jerrywu wrote:
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

A. by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose
B. by the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
C. with the United States government’s being satisfied, imposing
D. to the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
E. to the United States government’s satisfaction, imposing


D, based on the idea that to do this, do this and, do this (where do is the verb and this is the thing to be done). Plus, you have to have 'to the US satisfaction' as you can't use 'by the US's satisfaction' : to something is a different meaning than by something.
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2006, 22:15
besides llism, there is a very important buried idiom in this sentence:

...do not conclude to s~body's satisfaction...
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 01:41
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jerrywu wrote:
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

A. by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose
B. by the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
C. with the United States government’s being satisfied, imposing
D. to the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
E. to the United States government’s satisfaction, imposing



Everyone says 'D' for ||m ....what is parallel here??? to .... and to.... ???
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 01:41
jerrywu wrote:
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

A. by the United States government’s being satisfied, to impose
B. by the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
C. with the United States government’s being satisfied, imposing
D. to the United States government’s satisfaction, impose
E. to the United States government’s satisfaction, imposing



Everyone says 'D' for ||m ....what is parallel here??? to .... and to.... ???
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 01:58
+1 for D.

In the current context, "conclude to USA govt's satisfaction" is the correct phrase rather than "conclude by ......". So we are left with D and E.

If you read the sentence by plugging in choices D or E in the original sentence, you will see "impose sanctions" is the correct choice.

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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 02:13
crick20002002 wrote:
+1 for D.

In the current context, "conclude to USA govt's satisfaction" is the correct phrase rather than "conclude by ......". So we are left with D and E.

If you read the sentence by plugging in choices D or E in the original sentence, you will see "impose sanctions" is the correct choice.

Crick


How do you know conclude to is correct than other options... Can you please shed some light on it???
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 02:13
crick20002002 wrote:
+1 for D.

In the current context, "conclude to USA govt's satisfaction" is the correct phrase rather than "conclude by ......". So we are left with D and E.

If you read the sentence by plugging in choices D or E in the original sentence, you will see "impose sanctions" is the correct choice.

Crick


How do you know conclude to is correct than other options... Can you please shed some light on it???
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 09:36
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People stop giving votes and explain your reasons...This doesnt benefit... :twisted: :twisted: :twisted:
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2012, 11:02
Had to dig up this old one I had recently on GMAT prep test.

I understand parallelism narrows the choices down between B and D

because of the structure: To single out... begin... impose (where To is "carried" or implied across the entire structure)

However I have to restate siddhans question; could anyone elaborate on why To the united states is preferable over By the united states. Obviously I am not familiar with the rule so details are greatly appreciated!

Thanks
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2016, 08:04
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I am not a native English speaker, but I think this is about "to one's satisfaction". Of course, in this sentence "conclude to the US government's satisfaction" makes sense, but in other cases, such as "Years later, Mr. Wayner testified that lingering issues of due diligence had never been resolved to his satisfaction."[url](http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/15/busin ... .html?_r=0)[/url], "to one's satisfaction" is widely used.
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2016, 12:53
Still don't understand why "conclude to" is better than "conclude by"...
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2017, 20:54
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

(A) by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose - - Parallelism issue -- to is present outside the parallel structure , so we need not repeat it
(B) by the United States government's satisfaction, impose - by US government's satisfaction is unidiomatic
(C) with the United States government's being satisfied, imposing - Parallelism issue -- we need the inifinitive form -- impose
(D) to the United States government's satisfaction, impose - Correct
(E) to the United States government's satisfaction, imposing - Parallelism issue

Answer D
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Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2017, 22:06
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jerrywu wrote:
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

(A) by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose
(B) by the United States government's satisfaction, impose
(C) with the United States government's being satisfied, imposing
(D) to the United States government's satisfaction, impose
(E) to the United States government's satisfaction, imposing


Contendors- B and D

Conclude to signifies reaching to an end. In general, the preposition 'To' is used to denote a destination; for instance , " Travelling to Venice" or more relevantly- "Don't jump to a conclusion."
The preposition 'by' mainly describes the 'how' of the action.
Example: " I've informed the mayor by calling his secretary" or "Donald Trump concluded his tenure of presidency by declaring a war with North Korea"
---D---
Hope it helps.
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2017, 06:40
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jerrywu wrote:
Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act enables the United States Trade Representative to single out a country as an unfair trader, begin trade negotiations with that country, and, if the negotiations do not conclude by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose sanctions.

(A) by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose
(B) by the United States government's satisfaction, impose
(C) with the United States government's being satisfied, imposing
(D) to the United States government's satisfaction, impose
(E) to the United States government's satisfaction, imposing


(A) by the United States government's being satisfied, to impose
error with parallelism (single, begin, to impose), conclude by is incorrect and government's being satisfied is also incorrect
(B) by the United States government's satisfaction, impose
conclude by.. satisfaction is not correct, parallelism is correct ( single, begin, impose)
(C) with the United States government's being satisfied, imposing
conclude with would change the meaning of the sentence, being satisfied is incorrect and parallelism is wrong (single, begin, imposing)
(D) to the United States government's satisfaction, impose
conclude to..satisfaction is correct, parallelism is correct- best choice
(E) to the United States government's satisfaction, imposing
conclude to... satisfaction is correct, parallelism is incorrect (single, begin, imposing)
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2018, 16:12
Guys just wanted to ask you guys a quick question about if-then construction in this question. Here is what I am thinking and can anyone confirm if I am correct:

if simple present (do), then simple present (impose)
if the negotiations do not conclude..... then impose sanctions.

thanks
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2018, 21:09
Rocket7 wrote:
Guys just wanted to ask you guys a quick question about if-then construction in this question. Here is what I am thinking and can anyone confirm if I am correct:

if simple present (do), then simple present (impose)
if the negotiations do not conclude..... then impose sanctions.

Hi Rocket7, think about the construct in this way:

If the negotiations do not conclude to the United States government's satisfaction, Section 301 enables US Trade Representative to impose sanctions.
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Re: Section 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness &nbs [#permalink] 16 Apr 2018, 21:09

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