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# Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a

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Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2012, 03:18
00:00

Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

37% (01:06) correct 63% (01:17) wrong based on 208 sessions

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Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a spruce-up.

A. and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
B. and overburdened with a ridership that is growing by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
C. despite overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need for a
D. and overburdened by a ridership, which grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F trains are in dire need of a
E. and overburdened by a ridership that has grown by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train was in dire need of a
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by getgyan on 08 Oct 2012, 20:56, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2012, 12:00
Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a spruce-up.

A. and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a // correct
B. and overburdened with a ridership that is growing by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a //incorrect , by is the correct usage.
C. despite overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need for a // incorrect ,despite expresses contrast.
D. and overburdened by a ridership which grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F trains are in dire need of a // incorrect , we need a essential modifier here to back up the facts.
E. and overburdened by a ridership that has grown by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train was in dire need of a // multiple tense errors.

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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 03:42
getgyan wrote:
Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a spruce-up.

A. and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
B. and overburdened with a ridership that is growing by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
C. despite overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need for a
D. and overburdened by a ridership which grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F trains are in dire need of a
E. and overburdened by a ridership that has grown by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train was in dire need of a

A. and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
correct

B. and overburdened with a ridership that is growing by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
' last decade ' indicates event in the past

C. despite overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need for a
there is no exception required

D. and overburdened by a ridership which grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F trains are in dire need of a
wrong use of relative pronoun which

E. and overburdened by a ridership that has grown by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train was in dire need of a
' last decade ' indicates event in the past
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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 04:59

The only difference I see is that -
1. That vs Which
2. Train is vs Trains are

Based on these differences how can we eliminate D?
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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 05:08
RMD007 wrote:

The only difference I see is that -
1. That vs Which
2. Train is vs Trains are

Based on these differences how can we eliminate D?

relative pronoun which requires comma before it . 'Which' is used to in case of non essential modifiers. Therefore D is wrong.
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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 07:32
Hello expert,
Could you please explain why 'usage of which' is wrong in option D?
Is it like..'which grew by double digits' is a important modifier and without it understanding of sentence will be difficult, therefore using 'that' is appropriate in this case.

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Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 10:34
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Expert's post
VKat wrote:
Hello expert,
Could you please explain why 'usage of which' is wrong in option D?
Is it like..'which grew by double digits' is a important modifier and without it understanding of sentence will be difficult, therefore using 'that' is appropriate in this case.

The question is flawed - "which" is better than "that". An essential modifier is used to define a subset. Ideally there should be a comma before "which" and D should be the correct answers. Option A indicates that there are many riderships - of them we are referring to only those that grew by a double digit.

Following is some basic concepts about essential and non-essential modifiers:
Essential modifier: mandatory- required to define the noun it refers to - no comma - removal of the modifier changes the meaning of the sentence.
example: I hate men who brag.
meaning: Say there are 100 men and 30 of them brag. I hate only those 30 bragging men.
Removal of the modifier would imply that I hate all 100 men rather than just those 30 bragging men - meaning changes.

Non-essential modifier:
not mandatory - says something extra about the noun it refers to - comma required - removal of the modifier does not change the meaning of the sentence.
example: I hate men, who brag.
meaning: Say there are 100 men. I hate all 100 of them. Extra information- those 100 men brag.
Removal of the modifier would still imply that I hate all 100 men - the meaning does not change.

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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2017, 07:02
Expert's post
Top Contributor
Sayantanc2k is right: the question is flawed, though I don't think that (D) is a defensible answer at all. Here's (D) again:

Quote:
Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a ridership, which grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F trains are in dire need of a spruce-up.

"Which" is only correct here if you think that "which grew by double digits in the last decade" is non-essential information. And in this case, that information is 100% necessary for the sentence to make sense: without it, we're saying that the F trains are "overburdened by a ridership." Logically, the ridership itself isn't the problem, since we would certainly hope that public transit has some ridership; the real problem is the fact that the ridership has grown by double-digits. That makes (D) incorrect, since the "which" suggests that the double-digit growth is non-essential.

To be fair, it's generally really hard for the GMAT to test the difference between essential ("that") and non-essential ("which") modifiers in a single sentence, so you don't see it very often as a deciding factor in official questions. Another discussion of the issue can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-new-crim ... r#p1839462

But again, the sentence is pretty flawed. I guess I'd settle for (E) if I had to pick one, since the parallelism at the beginning of the sentence is correct, and the ridership is correctly described with the essential modifier "that has grown by double digits in the last decade." "Has grown" is also an acceptable verb tense here: "in the last decade" suggests that the action started a decade ago and continues until today, so present perfect tense works well. But then the verb tense "was" doesn't make a whole lot of sense at the end of (E)...

Anyway, don't lose too much sleep over this one! Clearly some problems here.
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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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07 May 2017, 07:25
getgyan wrote:
Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a spruce-up.

A. and overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
B. and overburdened with a ridership that is growing by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need of a
C. despite overburdened by a ridership that grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train is in dire need for a
D. and overburdened by a ridership, which grew by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F trains are in dire need of a
E. and overburdened by a ridership that has grown by double digits in the last decade, the much-maligned F train was in dire need of a

In Option D, slow as a snail describes trains. Isn't there a subject-verb error here. Subject and verb don't agree in number.
In my humble opinion,
Slow as a snail, the runners from south lost the race is wrong
Slow as snails, the runners from south lost the race is correct

Please let me know if the understanding is not correct.

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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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07 May 2017, 07:26
Kindly help me understand how can 'slow as a snail' modify a plural noun 'trains'. Thank you so much!

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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 09:48
This question is flawed (see post below: https://gmatclub.com/forum/slow-as-a-sn ... l#p1841813).
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Re: Slow as a snail, prone to delays, and overburdened by a   [#permalink] 13 May 2017, 09:48
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