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Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and res

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Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and result in the complete disruption of stars at the end of their lives. Originally, the distinction between Type I and Type II supernovas was based solely on the presence or absence of hydrogen atoms (hydrogen lines). Supernovas without hydrogen lines were called Type I, while those with hydrogen lines were Type II. Subsequent analysis of many of these events revealed that this empirical classification schema instead reflected two different mechanisms for the supernova explosion.

Type I supernovas happen in binary stars—two stars that orbit closely each other—when one of the two binary stars is a small, dense, white dwarf star. If the companion star ranges too close to the white dwarf that it is orbiting, the white dwarf’s gravitational pull will draw matter from the other star. When the white dwarf acquires enough matter to become at least 1.4 times as big as the Sun, it collapses and explodes in a supernova.

Type II supernovas occur when a star, much more massive than the Sun, ends its life. When such a star begins burning out, the core of the star quickly collapses releasing amazing energy in the form of neutrinos, a kind of particle smaller than even an atom. Electromagnetic radiation—energy that is electric and magnetic—causes the star to explode in a supernova. Whereas Type I supernovas typically destroy their parent stars, Type II explosions usually leave behind the stellar core.

The classification schema regarding the mechanism for supernova explosions helps to more succinctly answer the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova? Neither does our Sun have a companion star orbiting it nor does our Sun have the mass necessary to become a supernova. Furthermore, it will be another billion years until the Sun runs out of fuel and swells into a red giant star before going into a white dwarf form.
How is this passage organized?

(A) A single phenomenon is introduced and two overlapping classification schemas are contrasted.
(B) An original theory is mentioned before being overturned as a result of new findings.
(C) Two complementary mechanisms for describing a single phenomenon are discussed and a conclusion is offered.
(D) A new classification schema is described and an example of how it works is provided.
(E) Two different classification systems are outlined and a question posed to help reconcile both.



It can be inferred from the passage that

(A) Classifying a Type I or Type II event based on the presence or absence of hydrogen is not necessarily incompatible with a classification schema based on the mechanism by which these two events explode.
(B) A dense white dwarf’s gravitational pull on its companion star causes the companion star to collapse and explode as a supernova.
(C) Before a star such as the Sun can become a red giant, it must first become a white dwarf.
(D) In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse and explode.
(E) Supernovas are rare events in our universe.



Which of the following best summarizes the author’s answer to the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova?

(A) The Sun is too large to have a white dwarf as a partner and lacks the physical size required to become a red giant.
(B) Even if the Sun were paired with a white dwarf, the Sun does not have the mass necessary to create sufficient electromagnetic radiation.
(C) The Sun is not a white dwarf with a companion star orbiting it, nor does it have the size to qualify as a Type II supernova.
(D) Without a white dwarf orbiting the Sun, the Sun has no obvious way to increase its size to become a Type II supernova.
(E) The Sun will inevitably become a supernova once it passes from a red giant to white dwarf but not for at least a billion years.



According to the passage, which statement or statements below are true?

I. The energy created from a Type II explosion is greater than the energy created by a Type I explosion.
II. The sun is not a binary star.
III.Both Type I and Type II supernovas result in the complete destruction of the exploding star.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III




Source: Chili Hot GMAT
Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by carcass on 11 Aug 2012, 20:10.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 26 Nov 2019, 02:00, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (234).
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New post 12 Aug 2012, 03:41
9
D A C B are the OA.

D

The new schema is based on the distinction between Type I and Type II supernovas; the original
schema is one based on the absence of hydrogen (Type I) or the presence of hydrogen (Type II). The
example of the Sun is provided as support for how the classification system works. Choice D best
summarizes this structure.

A

this one is maybe the trickiest. we have from the passage Electromagnetic radiation — energy that is electric and
magnetic — causes the star to explode in a supernova.
and not In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse
and explode.
. Electromagnetic = energy + magnetic not energy and electromagnetic = radiation

C

Answer choice C describes accurately and completely the author’s view in the final paragraph. The
Sun is not a binary star because it doesn’t have companion star orbiting it, so it can’t qualify as a Type
I supernova. Nor does the Sun have the size necessary to become a Type II supernova (it would have to
be at least 1.4 times its own size).

B

A take away here is this: even though there isn't a main idea question on the passage is worth to ask yourself ALWAYS what is the topic, scope, and purpose of the passage. The topic is supernovas.
The scope is Type I and Type II supernovas. The purpose is to describe a new schema for classifying Type I and Type II supernovas.

Kudos if you liked my post :)
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Re: Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and res  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2012, 00:19
1
Here are my answers:

1. How is the passage organized?
Ans: E) Two different classification systems are outlined and a question posed to help
reconcile both.


2. It can be inferred from the passage that
Ans: D) In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse
and explode.


3. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s answer to the question: Is the Sun in
danger of becoming a supernova?
Ans: E) The Sun will inevitably become a supernova once it passes from a red giant to white
dwarf but not for at least a billion years.


4. According to the passage, which statement or statements below are true?
I. The energy created from a Type II explosion is greater than the energy created by a
Type I explosion.
II. The sun is not a binary star.
III. Both Type I and Type II supernovas result in the complete destruction of the exploding
star.
Ans: B) II only
Explanation: I. Nowhere in the passage does the author compare the magnitude of energies released from Type I or Type II explosions. - FALSE
II. In the last paragraph, the author mentions the fact that there is no companion star orbiting the Sun, hence, it is not a binary star. - TRUE
III. In the second last paragraph, the author mentions: "Whereas Type I supernovas
typically destroy their parent stars, Type II explosions usually leave behind the
stellar core." - FALSE

Please post the OA's and let me know if my answers are correct. :)
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New post 13 Aug 2012, 11:01
In choice A, there is no relationship suggested between the size of the Sun and its ability to have a white dwarf. Choices B and D create unwarranted linkages between Type I and Type II supernovas. In choice E, even if the Sun does become a red giant before becoming a white dwarf, it does not mean that it will become a supernova.

Hope is clear :)
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New post 10 Sep 2012, 16:49
3rd question - i am not very satisfied with C. C says sun is typified as a supernova II. but first paragraph says supernova is an event. i somehow like B better for 3 as it as 1. even if, 2. does not classify as a supernova


Quote:
B) Even if the Sun were paired with a white dwarf, the Sun does not have the mass
necessary to create sufficient electromagnetic radiation.
C) The Sun is not a white dwarf with a companion star orbiting it, nor does it have the
size to qualify as a Type II supernova
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New post 16 Sep 2012, 02:54
A A C B

Grateful if you can well, argue against A. Because 2 schemas are described and contrasted too. One explodes the parent star, the other leaves the stellar core.
Then, obviously giving them the name Type I & type II means the schemes are different.
I think D can be right, but why not A?

Perhaps because 1. they are not overlapping??. Secondly, It is only 1 scheme / schema and not two as A suggests. And that schema has 2 types of supernovas.
Instead of contrasting exactly, it explains how the types work.
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New post 18 Aug 2015, 20:24
Which of the following best summarizes the author’s answer to the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova?
A) The Sun is too large to have a white dwarf as a partner and lacks the physical size required to become a red giant.
B) Even if the Sun were paired with a white dwarf, the Sun does not have the mass necessary to create sufficient electromagnetic radiation.
C) The Sun is not a white dwarf with a companion star orbiting it, nor does it have the size to qualify as a Type II supernova.
D) Without a white dwarf orbiting the Sun, the Sun has no obvious way to increase its size to become a Type II supernova.
E) The Sun will inevitably become a supernova once it passes from a red giant to white dwarf but not for at least a billion years.

I am wondering about C in detail:it mentioned the "size" to qualify as Type 2, whereas the passage used the word "mass" and I don't think it quite the same meaning.
Can anyone help me there??
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New post 21 Sep 2015, 03:37
carcass wrote:
D A C B are the OA.

D

The new schema is based on the distinction between Type I and Type II supernovas; the original
schema is one based on the absence of hydrogen (Type I) or the presence of hydrogen (Type II). The
example of the Sun is provided as support for how the classification system works. Choice D best
summarizes this structure.

A

this one is maybe the trickiest. we have from the passage Electromagnetic radiation — energy that is electric and
magnetic — causes the star to explode in a supernova.
and not In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse
and explode.
. Electromagnetic = energy + magnetic not energy and electromagnetic = radiation

Answer choice C describes accurately and completely the author’s view in the final paragraph. The
Sun is not a binary star because it doesn’t have companion star orbiting it, so it can’t qualify as a Type
I supernova. Nor does the Sun have the size necessary to become a Type II supernova (it would have to
be at least 1.4 times its own size).

B

A take away here is this: even though there isn't a main idea question on the passage is worth to ask yourself ALWAYS what is the topic, scope, and purpose of the passage. The topic is supernovas.



The scope is Type I and Type II supernovas. The purpose is to describe a new schema for classifying Type I and Type II supernovas.

Kudos if you liked my post :)


Hi Carcass

Brilliant work as always !

In above RC you just mentioned D as the correct choice without explaining why others are incorrect . I agree in Ques 2...D has
word play which makes it incorrect...but how come first option is correct ? Off course old classification is necessarily incompatible with new one .
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New post 20 Oct 2015, 08:37
Regarding Q2 -

Option D is wrong since it states - In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse and explode.
collapse is wrongly stated here. As per the passage - Electromagnetic radiation — energy that is electric and magnetic — causes the star to explode in a supernova.

Option A is best among the rest as in the passage the classification schema never states anything wrt hydrogen. Its just an another classification. So we can't say that
classification schema is either compatible or incompatible with the hydrogen concept.
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New post 02 Nov 2015, 11:54
Quote:
According to the passage, which statement or statements below are true?
I. The energy created from a Type II explosion is greater than the energy created by a Type I explosion.
II. The sun is not a binary star.
III.Both Type I and Type II supernovas result in the complete destruction of the exploding star.
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and III only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III


B? What? It's D in my opinion. Read the first sentence of the whole passage: "Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and result in the complete disruption of stars at the end of their lives.".
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New post 25 Feb 2016, 03:05
Tough passage carcass :shock:

I need help with Q3, (E) captures the idea completely ... whereas (C) just mentions that the sun doesn't meet type 1 or type 2 criteria, but no info on where the sun can be a supernova or no ... so should the answer be (E)??


carcass wrote:
Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and result in the complete disruption of stars at the end of their lives. Originally, the distinction between Type I and Type II supernovas was based solely on the presence or absence of hydrogen atoms (hydrogen lines). Supernovas without hydrogen lines were called Type I, while those with hydrogen lines were Type II. Subsequent analysis of many of these events revealed that this empirical classification schema instead reflected two different mechanisms for the supernova explosion.

Type I supernovas happen in binary stars — two stars that orbit closely each other — when one of the two binary stars is a small, dense, white dwarf star. If the companion star ranges too close to the white dwarf that it is orbiting, the white dwarf’s gravitational pull will draw matter from the other star. When the white dwarf acquires enough matter to become at least 1.4 times as big as the Sun, it collapses and explodes in a supernova.

Type II supernovas occur when a star, much more massive than the Sun, ends its life. When such a star begins burning out, the core of the star quickly collapses releasing amazing energy in the form of neutrinos, a kind of particle smaller than even an atom. Electromagnetic radiation — energy that is electric and magnetic — causes the star to explode in a supernova. Whereas Type I supernovas typically destroy their parent stars, Type II explosions usually leave behind the stellar core.

The classification schema regarding the mechanism for supernova explosions helps to more succinctly answer the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova? Neither does our Sun have a companion star orbiting it nor does our Sun have the mass necessary to become a supernova. Furthermore, it will be another billion years until the Sun runs out of fuel and swells into a red giant star before going into a white dwarf form.
How is this passage organized?
A)A single phenomenon is introduced and two overlapping classification schemas are contrasted.
B)An original theory is mentioned before being overturned as a result of new findings.
C)Two complementary mechanisms for describing a single phenomenon are discussed and a conclusion is offered.
D)A new classification schema is described and an example of how it works is provided.
E)Two different classification systems are outlined and a question posed to help reconcile both.


It can be inferred from the passage that
A)Classifying a Type I or Type II event based on the presence or absence of hydrogen is not necessarily incompatible with a classification schema based on the mechanism
by which these two events explode.
B) A dense white dwarf’s gravitational pull on its companion star causes the companion star to collapse and explode as a supernova.
C) Before a star such as the Sun can become a red giant, it must first become a white dwarf.
D) In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse and explode.
E) Supernovas are rare events in our universe.


Which of the following best summarizes the author’s answer to the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova?
A) The Sun is too large to have a white dwarf as a partner and lacks the physical size required to become a red giant.
B) Even if the Sun were paired with a white dwarf, the Sun does not have the mass necessary to create sufficient electromagnetic radiation.
C) The Sun is not a white dwarf with a companion star orbiting it, nor does it have the size to qualify as a Type II supernova.
D) Without a white dwarf orbiting the Sun, the Sun has no obvious way to increase its size to become a Type II supernova.
E) The Sun will inevitably become a supernova once it passes from a red giant to white dwarf but not for at least a billion years.


According to the passage, which statement or statements below are true?
I. The energy created from a Type II explosion is greater than the energy created by a Type I explosion.
II. The sun is not a binary star.
III.Both Type I and Type II supernovas result in the complete destruction of the exploding star.
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and III only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III


OA after discussion. A pretty tough passage. Enjoy :)
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New post 28 Jun 2016, 04:34
Q2) It can be inferred from the passage that
A)Classifying a Type I or Type II event based on the presence or absence of hydrogen is not necessarily incompatible with a classification schema based on the mechanism
by which these two events explode.
B) A dense white dwarf’s gravitational pull on its companion star causes the companion star to collapse and explode as a supernova.
C) Before a star such as the Sun can become a red giant, it must first become a white dwarf.
D) In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse and explode.
E) Supernovas are rare events in our universe.


Why cant the ans be E) ?? Can someone please explain the OA which is A)


Q3) Which of the following best summarizes the author’s answer to the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova?
A) The Sun is too large to have a white dwarf as a partner and lacks the physical size required to become a red giant.
B) Even if the Sun were paired with a white dwarf, the Sun does not have the mass necessary to create sufficient electromagnetic radiation.
C) The Sun is not a white dwarf with a companion star orbiting it, nor does it have the size to qualify as a Type II supernova.
D) Without a white dwarf orbiting the Sun, the Sun has no obvious way to increase its size to become a Type II supernova.
E) The Sun will inevitably become a supernova once it passes from a red giant to white dwarf but not for at least a billion years.

I get why C) is the ans but what is wrong with E), doesnt the author mention this exactly in the last para?

Thanks in advance
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New post 14 Jul 2016, 03:11
Please help in Q4.
Why is it choice B and not C..

The first sentence of the whole passage says: "Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and result in the complete disruption of stars at the end of their lives.".
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New post 12 Aug 2016, 04:14
carcass

Please help to understand Q1.
Why can't answer be C?
I was confused between A and C.

Not convinced with D as answer choice.
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New post 25 Mar 2018, 06:33
carcass wrote:
Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and result in the complete disruption of stars at the end of their lives. Originally, the distinction between Type I and Type II supernovas was based solely on the presence or absence of hydrogen atoms (hydrogen lines). Supernovas without hydrogen lines were called Type I, while those with hydrogen lines were Type II. Subsequent analysis of many of these events revealed that this empirical classification schema instead reflected two different mechanisms for the supernova explosion.

Type I supernovas happen in binary stars — two stars that orbit closely each other — when one of the two binary stars is a small, dense, white dwarf star. If the companion star ranges too close to the white dwarf that it is orbiting, the white dwarf’s gravitational pull will draw matter from the other star. When the white dwarf acquires enough matter to become at least 1.4 times as big as the Sun, it collapses and explodes in a supernova.

Type II supernovas occur when a star, much more massive than the Sun, ends its life. When such a star begins burning out, the core of the star quickly collapses releasing amazing energy in the form of neutrinos, a kind of particle smaller than even an atom. Electromagnetic radiation — energy that is electric and magnetic — causes the star to explode in a supernova. Whereas Type I supernovas typically destroy their parent stars, Type II explosions usually leave behind the stellar core.

The classification schema regarding the mechanism for supernova explosions helps to more succinctly answer the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova? Neither does our Sun have a companion star orbiting it nor does our Sun have the mass necessary to become a supernova. Furthermore, it will be another billion years until the Sun runs out of fuel and swells into a red giant star before going into a white dwarf form.
How is this passage organized?
A)A single phenomenon is introduced and two overlapping classification schemas are contrasted.
B)An original theory is mentioned before being overturned as a result of new findings.
C)Two complementary mechanisms for describing a single phenomenon are discussed and a conclusion is offered.
D)A new classification schema is described and an example of how it works is provided.
E)Two different classification systems are outlined and a question posed to help reconcile both.



It can be inferred from the passage that
A)Classifying a Type I or Type II event based on the presence or absence of hydrogen is not necessarily incompatible with a classification schema based on the mechanism
by which these two events explode.
B) A dense white dwarf’s gravitational pull on its companion star causes the companion star to collapse and explode as a supernova.
C) Before a star such as the Sun can become a red giant, it must first become a white dwarf.
D) In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse and explode.
E) Supernovas are rare events in our universe.



Which of the following best summarizes the author’s answer to the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova?
A) The Sun is too large to have a white dwarf as a partner and lacks the physical size required to become a red giant.
B) Even if the Sun were paired with a white dwarf, the Sun does not have the mass necessary to create sufficient electromagnetic radiation.
C) The Sun is not a white dwarf with a companion star orbiting it, nor does it have the size to qualify as a Type II supernova.
D) Without a white dwarf orbiting the Sun, the Sun has no obvious way to increase its size to become a Type II supernova.
E) The Sun will inevitably become a supernova once it passes from a red giant to white dwarf but not for at least a billion years.



According to the passage, which statement or statements below are true?
I. The energy created from a Type II explosion is greater than the energy created by a Type I explosion.
II. The sun is not a binary star.
III.Both Type I and Type II supernovas result in the complete destruction of the exploding star.
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and III only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III



OA after discussion. A pretty tough passage. Enjoy :)


Re Q2. I was confused between A and E.

Can someone tell me what's wrong with E please? The last sentence states "Furthermore, it will be another billion years until the Sun runs out of fuel and swells into a red giant star before going into a white dwarf form" . Doesn't this mean it's a rare event in our solar system?
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New post 08 Jun 2018, 04:36
Carcass need POE for question 2 ( option D and option B )
and for question 3 need POE of option A.
Thanks for this tricky passage.
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New post 14 Jun 2018, 08:31
carcass wrote:
D A C B are the OA.

D

The new schema is based on the distinction between Type I and Type II supernovas; the original
schema is one based on the absence of hydrogen (Type I) or the presence of hydrogen (Type II). The
example of the Sun is provided as support for how the classification system works. Choice D best
summarizes this structure.

A

this one is maybe the trickiest. we have from the passage Electromagnetic radiation — energy that is electric and
magnetic — causes the star to explode in a supernova.
and not In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse
and explode.
. Electromagnetic = energy + magnetic not energy and electromagnetic = radiation

C

Answer choice C describes accurately and completely the author’s view in the final paragraph. The
Sun is not a binary star because it doesn’t have companion star orbiting it, so it can’t qualify as a Type
I supernova. Nor does the Sun have the size necessary to become a Type II supernova (it would have to
be at least 1.4 times its own size).

B

A take away here is this: even though there isn't a main idea question on the passage is worth to ask yourself ALWAYS what is the topic, scope, and purpose of the passage. The topic is supernovas.
The scope is Type I and Type II supernovas. The purpose is to describe a new schema for classifying Type I and Type II supernovas.

Kudos if you liked my post :)



hello carcass
where is the new classification mentioned.Subsequent analysis of many of these events revealed that this empirical classification schema instead reflected two different mechanisms for the supernova explosion.

it suggests that the old classification reflects 2 different mechanism of supernova explosion.but there is no new classification mentioned.
please correct me.
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Re: Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and res  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2018, 13:04
carcass wrote:
In choice A, there is no relationship suggested between the size of the Sun and its ability to have a white dwarf. Choices B and D create unwarranted linkages between Type I and Type II supernovas. In choice E, even if the Sun does become a red giant before becoming a white dwarf, it does not mean that it will become a supernova.

Hope is clear :)



But isn't size and mass are 2 different things?
Sun needs the mass to become supernova as mentioned in last para. You can have a truck full of cotton which won't weigh as much as small mechanical machinery !

Confusing. I didn't chose C only because of this reason.
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Re: Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and res  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2018, 13:39
JAIN09 wrote:
carcass wrote:
D A C B are the OA.

D

The new schema is based on the distinction between Type I and Type II supernovas; the original
schema is one based on the absence of hydrogen (Type I) or the presence of hydrogen (Type II). The
example of the Sun is provided as support for how the classification system works. Choice D best
summarizes this structure.

A

this one is maybe the trickiest. we have from the passage Electromagnetic radiation — energy that is electric and
magnetic — causes the star to explode in a supernova.
and not In a Type II supernova, energy and electromagnetic radiation causes a star to collapse
and explode.
. Electromagnetic = energy + magnetic not energy and electromagnetic = radiation

C

Answer choice C describes accurately and completely the author’s view in the final paragraph. The
Sun is not a binary star because it doesn’t have companion star orbiting it, so it can’t qualify as a Type
I supernova. Nor does the Sun have the size necessary to become a Type II supernova (it would have to
be at least 1.4 times its own size).

B

A take away here is this: even though there isn't a main idea question on the passage is worth to ask yourself ALWAYS what is the topic, scope, and purpose of the passage. The topic is supernovas.
The scope is Type I and Type II supernovas. The purpose is to describe a new schema for classifying Type I and Type II supernovas.

Kudos if you liked my post :)



hello carcass
where is the new classification mentioned.Subsequent analysis of many of these events revealed that this empirical classification schema instead reflected two different mechanisms for the supernova explosion.

it suggests that the old classification reflects 2 different mechanism of supernova explosion.but there is no new classification mentioned.
please correct me.


Please read the first line of the last passage: The classification schema regarding the mechanism for supernova explosions helps to more succinctly answer the question: Is the Sun in danger of becoming a supernova?
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Re: Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and res  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2019, 23:36
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Re: Supernovas are among the most energetic events in the universe and res   [#permalink] 08 Sep 2019, 23:36
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