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# The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer

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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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daagh wrote:
IMO, B and C are not fidel tothe original . Among D and E, we can simply drop E for its over- emphasis on great deal of evidence. Between A and D, D is suspect because of saying– a proof-. A will be my choice

A is out because of the "an average".

Isn't "a proof" synonymous with "an evidence"? According to the Dictionary.com, it is 1. evidence sufficient to establish a thing as true, or to produce belief in its truth. https://dictionary.reference.com/browse/proof?s=t
Therefore D can't be eliminated on this ground.

B is the best AC as to grammar, but the "ample" changes the meaning of the original sentence. I thought it too influential and picked AC D, which is wordier, but keeps the original meaning and is still correct gramatically.
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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I reckon 'a average' is a typo; No GMAT question will be so blatantly poor as to forget the difference between a and an, of course, unless there is some other reason to oppose the use of an average.
An evidence may be synonymous with a proof, bBut unfortunately, the text does not have 'an evidence' but just 'evidence'. So ‘a proof' becomes incongruous. In addition the text does not describe evidence or proof as ample, enough or great etc,.

But above all, change of meaning is critical to the modern- day GMAT, and this is a lesson in proof
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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Another issue with A, B and D is positioning of "only". The intended meaning is "living an average of only 12 years". "only live an average" distorts the meaning.

C uses the definite article "the" for average making it awkward.

And E was eliminated for changing the words, using "a captivity"

Which left me with no option. So I rechecked and chose D which was less worse than others!

P.S: Wouldn't the phrase "explained that" warrants the sentence be in reported tense?
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
HumptyDumpty wrote:
daagh wrote:
IMO, B and C are not fidel tothe original . Among D and E, we can simply drop E for its over- emphasis on great deal of evidence. Between A and D, D is suspect because of saying– a proof-. A will be my choice

A is out because of the "an average".

Isn't "a proof" synonymous with "an evidence"? According to the Dictionary.com, it is 1. evidence sufficient to establish a thing as true, or to produce belief in its truth. https://dictionary.reference.com/browse/proof?s=t
Therefore D can't be eliminated on this ground.

B is the best AC as to grammar, but the "ample" changes the meaning of the original sentence. I thought it too influential and picked AC D, which is wordier, but keeps the original meaning and is still correct gramatically.

HumptyDumpty, If Option A has an average, then which would you choose between A & B options like below:

a) evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only an average
b) ample proof that dolphins living in captivity only survive an average

Option (B) says, dolphins ONLY those live in captivity survive for around 12 years; whereas option A says all dolphins suffer in captivity and live 12 years only.

Also Are ample proof and evidence same?
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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umeshpatil wrote:
HumptyDumpty wrote:
daagh wrote:
IMO, B and C are not fidel tothe original . Among D and E, we can simply drop E for its over- emphasis on great deal of evidence. Between A and D, D is suspect because of saying– a proof-. A will be my choice

A is out because of the "an average".

Isn't "a proof" synonymous with "an evidence"? According to the Dictionary.com, it is 1. evidence sufficient to establish a thing as true, or to produce belief in its truth. https://dictionary.reference.com/browse/proof?s=t
Therefore D can't be eliminated on this ground.

B is the best AC as to grammar, but the "ample" changes the meaning of the original sentence. I thought it too influential and picked AC D, which is wordier, but keeps the original meaning and is still correct gramatically.

HumptyDumpty, If Option A has an average, then which would you choose between A & B options like below:

a) evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only an average
b) ample proof that dolphins living in captivity only survive an average

Option (B) says, dolphins ONLY those live in captivity survive for around 12 years; whereas option A says all dolphins suffer in captivity and live 12 years only.

Also Are ample proof and evidence same?

Putting aside all the disputable here, I just keep in mind that we are to choose the best possible answer, not the best best. Sometimes on the GMAT you have to choose the lesser evil. Typo or not, you work on what you get - I'd rather not be pondering if some error is a typo, I'd rather go for the lesser evil.
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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I eliminated D on grounds of being wordy.
Choice B - explicitly does not mention "suffer" which is catchy....but I think the intended meaning is explained well by "....living in captivity"

Could not find any other way to pick between B and D
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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lucbesson wrote:
The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average of 12 years, with some even committing suicide.
a) evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average
b) ample proof that dolphins living in captivity only survive an average
c) study that the dolphins only live the average
d) a proof that, in captivity, dolphins suffer and only live an average
e) a great deal of the evidence that dolphins suffer in a captivity and live only an average

My 2 cents why I thought D was wrong

"In captivity" with commas is a non essential modifier. The meaning of the sentence is "all dolphins suffer and live only an average of 12 years". Its not all dolphins that suffer but only those dolphins that are in captivity.
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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lucbesson wrote:
The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average of 12 years, with some even committing suicide.
a) evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average
b) ample proof that dolphins living in captivity only survive an average
c) study that the dolphins only live the average
d) a proof that, in captivity, dolphins suffer and only live an average
e) a great deal of the evidence that dolphins suffer in a captivity and live only an average

hi,

meaning of sentence:
article explained that
dolphins that are in captivity suffer====>result of this is ====>average life of 12 years.....

now coming to the options:

a) evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average(CORRECT.==>ONLY is correctly used, EVIDENCE THAT is a correct idiom,AND SUFFER clearly shows the intended meaning.)

b) ample proof that dolphins living in captivity only survive an average(meaning is changed because of absence of word SUFFER...also use of only before survive is wrong....rather" "Only" should be placed with precision next to the group of words it actually limits......only survive..is wrong intent.....

for more clarification check this example from OG 13:
Diabetes, together with its serious complications,
ranks as the nation's third leading cause of death,
surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.
(A) ranks as the nation's third leadingcause of
death, surpassed only
(B) rank as the nation's third leading cause of death,
only surpassed ,
(C) has the rank of the nation's third leadingcause
of death, only surpassed
(D) are the nation's third leading causes of death,
surpassed only
(E) have been ranked as the nation's third leading
causes of death, only surpassed

IN THE ABOVE QUESTION in the original sentence only correctly restricts heart disease and cancer ......and only surpassed is wrong.

c) study that the dolphins only live the average( Same error as in B)

d) a proof that, in captivity, dolphins suffer and only live an average(Use of only is wrong and also "In captivity" with commas is a non essential modifier. The meaning of the sentence is "all dolphins suffer and live only an average of 12 years". Its not all dolphins that suffer but only those dolphins that are in captivity.

e) a great deal of the evidence that dolphins suffer in a captivity and live only an average[/quote]
this has 2 errors:
firstly its too wordy and awkward
secondly the use of " in a captivity" ..seems to say about a particular captivity rather than general.

hence the correct answer is A.....as it seems there is no error in tha except a typo....."A AVERAGE"

hope it helps

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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
POE, left with A and B.
I feel 'Evidence' is better that 'ample proof'.
I don't find anything wrong with A. Why's A not the OA?
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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PKay wrote:
POE, left with A and B.
I feel 'Evidence' is better that 'ample proof'.
I don't find anything wrong with A. Why's A not the OA?

Hello dear,

Me too did't find anything wrong with A

But here,Between A and B there is a clear shift in meaning

In answer choice A "living " modified entire preceding clause."Living"Introduced an action(living) that took place during the action(suffer) described in the main clause

On the other hand,in Answer Choice B,"living " modified dolphins (here the preceding noun "dolphins" is modified.)

Thanks
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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PKay wrote:
POE, left with A and B.
I feel 'Evidence' is better that 'ample proof'.
I don't find anything wrong with A. Why's A not the OA?

Two consecutive modifiers referring to the same antecedent and without a conjunction is considered awkward in GMAT. In option A " living only an average of 12 years" and "with some even committing suicide" do not have a conjunction between them, and both refer to "dolphins" ( or the entire clause "the dolphins suffer in captivity"). Hence option A is incorrect.
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
MDK wrote:
The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average of 12 years, with some even committing suicide.
a) evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average
b) ample proof that dolphins living in captivity only survive an average
c) study that the dolphins only live the average
d) a proof that, in captivity, dolphins suffer and only live an average
e) a great deal of the evidence that dolphins suffer in a captivity and live only an average

I felt the placement of "only" little doubtful ...
It should be after survive ..
ample proof that dolphins living in captivity survive only an average
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
I eliminated (A) on the grounds that "living only an average of 12 years" is set off by ","'s, making it a non-essential modifier. Striking that out, the sentence does not make sense. Can experts correct me if my reasoning is correct to eliminate (A)?
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
sayantanc2k wrote:
PKay wrote:
POE, left with A and B.
I feel 'Evidence' is better that 'ample proof'.
I don't find anything wrong with A. Why's A not the OA?

Two consecutive modifiers referring to the same antecedent and without a conjunction is considered awkward in GMAT. In option A " living only an average of 12 years" and "with some even committing suicide" do not have a conjunction between them, and both refer to "dolphins" ( or the entire clause "the dolphins suffer in captivity"). Hence option A is incorrect.

To get more clarity of the rule you mentioned above, please could you provide Official example/s?
I marked 'A' assuming Evidence is better than ample proof.
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
sobby wrote:
MDK wrote:
The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average of 12 years, with some even committing suicide.
a) evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average
b) ample proof that dolphins living in captivity only survive an average
c) study that the dolphins only live the average
d) a proof that, in captivity, dolphins suffer and only live an average
e) a great deal of the evidence that dolphins suffer in a captivity and live only an average

I felt the placement of "only" little doubtful ...
It should be after survive ..
ample proof that dolphins living in captivity survive only an average

Yes, your point is valid - "only" is misplaced in B. Option B is modified according to your suggestion. Thank you.
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
manhasnoname wrote:
I eliminated (A) on the grounds that is set off by ","'s, making it a non-essential modifier. Striking that out, the sentence does not make sense. Can experts correct me if my reasoning is correct to eliminate (A)?

After removing the modifier "living only an average of 12 years", the sentence becomes:
The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer in captivity, living only a average of 12 years, with some even committing suicide.

The above does make sense, hence the reason yousoecifed is not suficient to eliminate A. Two consecutive modifiers referring to the same item and without conjunction is a more solid reason to eliminate A.
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Re: The article explained that there is evidence that the dolphins suffer [#permalink]
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Sachinrpat wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
PKay wrote:
POE, left with A and B.
I feel 'Evidence' is better that 'ample proof'.
I don't find anything wrong with A. Why's A not the OA?

Two consecutive modifiers referring to the same antecedent and without a conjunction is considered awkward in GMAT. In option A " living only an average of 12 years" and "with some even committing suicide" do not have a conjunction between them, and both refer to "dolphins" ( or the entire clause "the dolphins suffer in captivity"). Hence option A is incorrect.

To get more clarity of the rule you mentioned above, please could you provide Official example/s?
I marked 'A' assuming Evidence is better than ample proof.

Providing an official example would not provide more clarity to the rule, but only confirm whether the rule is correct. For more clarity, you may refer to any good SC guide such as Manhattan SC guide in which this rule is well explained.

Logically the rule follows from another base rule of modifiers: the modifier touch rule. When two modifiers are placed one after another without a conjunction within them, the second would erroneously refer to the first modifier or the last word of the first modifier (because of modifier touch rule) instead of the noun that the first modifier refers to. Take the following sentence as example:

Two consecutive modifiers referring to the same antecedent and without a conjunction is considered awkward in GMAT.

The two modifiers referring to "Two consecutive modifiers" are:
1. referring to the same antecedent
2. without a conjunction

Without the conjunction "and" in between them, the second modifier would wrongly refer to "same antecedent".
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