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The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans

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The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 01:43
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The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans, originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding ever since.

A) originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding
B) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, expanding
C) had originated 130 million years ago as the Americas separated from Africa and, with Earth's plates continuing their motion, is expanding
D) had originated 130 million years ago because the Americas separated from Africa and, while Earth's plates continue to move, expanding
E) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue their motion, was expanding
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 03:17
A) originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding - Correct

B) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, expanding - Incorrect. "X originated................. and expanding ever since" is awkward.

C) had originated 130 million years ago as the Americas separated from Africa and, with Earth's plates continuing their motion, is expanding - Incorrect. No need to use past perfect

D) had originated 130 million years ago because the Americas separated from Africa and, while Earth's plates continue to move, expanding - Incorrect - Incorrect. No need to use past perfect

E) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue their motion, was expanding - Incorrect. 'with the Americas separating..... and was expanding' is awkward. Option A correctly uses 'when' to refer to the time frame

Answer: A
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Re: The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans [#permalink]

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The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans, originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding ever since.

A) originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding --- The best; originated is correct tense; has been expanding denotes that the feature started in the past and is continuing ever since in the present and may extend in the future too. The use of when indicates the proper time reference

B) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, expanding--- The second part is a phrase without a verb. We cannot combine a verbless phrase with a verbed clause, as it would be unparallel construction. Per se, the structure is a fragment.

C) had originated 130 million years ago as the Americas separated from Africa and, with Earth's plates continuing their motion, is expanding – had originated is a wrong tense. Origination and separation happened simultaneously. – is expanding is less apt to describe something that started in the past.

D) had originated 130 million years ago because the Americas separated from Africa and, while Earth's plates continue to move, expanding –1. same errors as in B and C. 2. Because is an unsuitable conjunction giving a tweak of cause and effect


E) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue their motion, was expanding – was expanding is inappropriate with ever since
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Re: The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2016, 00:06
A -- Correct
B -- Sentence fragment
C&D -- No need of past perfect
E -- Awkward
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Re: The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans [#permalink]

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Harley1980 wrote:
The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans, originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding ever since.

A) originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding
B) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, expanding
C) had originated 130 million years ago as the Americas separated from Africa and, with Earth's plates continuing their motion, is expanding
D) had originated 130 million years ago because the Americas separated from Africa and, while Earth's plates continue to move, expanding
E) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue their motion, was expanding


OFFICIAL SOLUTION



Split #1: verb parallelism. All five answers begin the underlined phrase with some form of verb, then have the word "and" (after "Africa"), and we need another bonafide verb. Choices (A) & (C) & (E) have an actual verb, but choices (B) & (D) have only the participle "expanding" --- a full verb cannot be parallel to just a participle, so these two are wrong.

Split #2: verb tenses. First of all, verbs of different tenses can be parallel. That is not a violation of parallelism, if two verbs correctly are placed in different tenses. Choice (A) has "originated" in the simple past, and "has been expanding", the present perfect, which is correct in this context. Choice (C) begins with the past perfect "had originated", which would be used if we wanted to show that this happened before some other past event --- but the only other past event ("the Americas separated from Africa") was simultaneous, so the past perfect is incorrect. Choice (E) has "originated" in the simple past, and "was expanding" in the past progressive, which sounds a little funny --- if that has been happening "ever since", why isn't it still going on? The words "ever since" suggests that it would continue to this day (which is what the present perfect suggests), but the past progressive implies that it is no longer happening. Choice (A) looks good, Choice (C) is clearly wrong, and we are suspicious of Choice (E).

Split #3: subordinate clause vs. prepositional phrase. Look at the part of the sentence that talks about "the Americas" separating "from Africa." Choices (A) & (C) & (D) have some subordinate conjunction (when/as/because) followed by a bonafide [noun] + [verb] structure: that's correct. Choices (B) & (E) have the structure [preposition] + [noun] + [participial phrase]. The GMAT does not like that. The GMAT doesn't like when you try to cram [noun] + [verb]-style action into a prepositional phrase. If you want to express action, use a subordinate clause, not a prepositional phrase. For these reasons, (B) & (E) are wrong.

For all these reasons, (A) is the best possible answer.
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Re: The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2017, 07:09
The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans, originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding ever since.

A) originated 130 million years ago when the Americas separated from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, has been expanding
B) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue to move, expanding
C) had originated 130 million years ago as the Americas separated from Africa and, with Earth's plates continuing their motion, is expanding
D) had originated 130 million years ago because the Americas separated from Africa and, while Earth's plates continue to move, expanding
E) originated 130 million years ago with the Americas separating from Africa and, as Earth's plates continue their motion, was expanding

Answer is A
B and E are wrong
because originated 130 million years ago with is not correct for time frame when should be used
C and D is is out because of had originated
no need of past perfect tense
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Re: The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2017, 08:08
An easy way to look at this.
A) The Atlantic Ocean has been expanding ever since - makes sense
B) The Atlantic Ocean expanding ever since - doesn't make any sense
C) The Atlantic Ocean is expanding ever since - doesn't make any sense
D) The Atlantic Ocean expanding ever since - doesn't make any sense
E) The Atlantic Ocean was expanding ever since - doesn't make any sense

Answer is A.
Re: The Atlantic Ocean, the second youngest of Earth's five oceans   [#permalink] 29 Mar 2017, 08:08
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