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The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro

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The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2008, 21:00
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Question Stats:

73% (01:08) correct 27% (01:18) wrong based on 637 sessions

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The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation projects the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that even environmentalists are beginning to raise alarms.

(A) the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that

(B) at a cost raising water bills so high that

(C) at a cost which raises water bills high enough so

(D) whose cost will raise water bills so high that

(E) whose cost will raise water bills high enough so that

Spoiler: :: Query
I am not clear as to why "whose" can be used as a pronoun for projects.
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The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Sep 2018, 18:48
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Grammar Point: Only ‘Who’ can be used for humans. ‘Who’ cannot be used for anyone or any people other than humans. However, ‘whose’ can be used for humans as well as for other lower animates such as cattle, birds, or so on. ‘Whose’ can also be used for inanimate ones like tables and projects. This is because there is no other word than ‘whose’ that can replace it, while still carrying the possessive meaning. Can you think of any such word?

Somebody said costs is the real subject. Nay; it is the projects which are actually the object of the main clause that becomes the subject of the subordinate clause and gets represented by a relative possessive pronoun ‘whose,’ to avoid the repetition of saying “projects’”.
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Originally posted by daagh on 29 Aug 2011, 18:51.
Last edited by daagh on 29 Sep 2018, 18:48, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2014, 13:04
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goodyear2013 wrote:
The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation projects the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that even environmentalists are beginning to raise alarms.

A) the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that
B) at a cost raising water bills so high that
C) at a cost which raises water bills high enough so
D) whose cost will raise water bills so high that
E) whose cost will raise water bills high enough so that

Hi, can anyone explain what is wrong with B & C, please.


Hello goodyear2013.

Good question. B and C are tempting but they are incorrect because they simply change the intended meaning.

Structure of B/C is: The city has proposed X at cost. B and C convey the idea that the city has paid for some services, i.e., marketing, advertising, printing flyer,... TO PROPOSE its projects. The cost here is the cost of the city's action - proposing, not the true cost of the projects.

For example: Your bicycle is broken. Mike will help you fix your bicycle at cost. There is no free service.
It means you pay for Mike's service, not for your bicycle.

The idea is the same in this question. Both D and E use "whose" to modify "projects", but D wins because it uses a correct idiom "so X that Y'.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2014, 09:24
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Simply because is the right answer :-D :-D :twisted: :roll:

Jokes aside, Sir you are a good student :) glad to help you.

Well even though this is not a super tough question, you can learn a lot from this one: how to attack a question (easy or difficult), how to disentagle a possible pitfall, and so forth

Remember : the best strategy is as soos as you read along the way the entire question (is important to read the WHOLE question as it is) to spot the error already from the forst underlined words. So let go and analize the single answer choices:

A) the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that

the cost of which raises.........even though you do not see an error , is easy to figure out thet is awkward and sound weird. moreover, which you know that 99% of the time is used to refer to its antecedent in the form: X,which......favourite gmat construction

B) at a cost raising water bills so high that

make a lonmg story short: similar to the previous one

C) at a cost which raises water bills high enough so

ditto

E) whose cost will raise water bills high enough so that

whose cost (the cost itself) raise water bills ?? a cost raise the bill ?? well this is fine until now: the cost of both things mentioned earlier in the first part of the sentence. good.

high enough : is weird, wordy really bad as construction....this is main issue with E. It seems that that refers to enough,and this to the bills and this is nonsensical, eventually

D) whose cost will raise water bills so high that

first part as in E but the second part is fine: there is that and that is used for restrictive clause

Quote:
What Is a Restrictive Clause?
A restrictive clause is a clause which functions as an adjective to identify the word it modifies. A restrictive clause is essential for the intended meaning. A restrictive clause is not offset with commas


In E you have high enough so that: wrong

In D you have so high that: right

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Re: The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 05:34
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adymehta29 wrote:
Hey goodyear2013,
You can even eliminate C on the basis of Subject-Verb error
" A number of water treatment and conservation projects " - Plural
" raises" - singular, should be "raise"- Plural:)

Actually in C, which is modifying costs.

Apart from other errors, a reason to quickly eliminate C is that it does not use a comma before which. When which is used as a classical relative pronoun (as is the case here), there must be a comma before which.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses a framework to determine what which modifies, its application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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PrakharGMAT
The intent is to say that the costs are excessively high. Whereas, ‘high enough’ means that the costs are high sufficiently. It can be seen that there is a paradox in-built in the phrase ‘high enough’.
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Re: The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2016, 18:35
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PrakharGMAT wrote:
daagh wrote:
PrakharGMAT
The intent is to say that the costs are excessively high. Whereas, ‘high enough’ means that the costs are high sufficiently. It can be seen that there is a paradox in-built in the phrase ‘high enough’.



Hi daagh,

Can you please elaborate....?


Sense of the sentence when using high enough:
The water bills may NOT be excessively high, but they are high enough so as to raise alarm.
There is a level of cost that raises alarm - the bills are at least above that level.

Sense of the sentence when using so high:
The water bill is excessively high - so high that they raise alarm.
There is a level of cost that raises alarm - the bills are so high that they are above that level.

The blue highlighted portions depict the paradox.
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Re: The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2016, 10:17
tinateng wrote:
daagh wrote:
Grammar Point: Only ‘Who’ can be used for humans. ‘Who’ cannot be used anyone or any people other than humans. However, ‘whose’ can be used for humans as well as for other lower animates such as cattle, birds, or so on. ‘Whose’ can also be used for inanimate ones like tables and projects. This is because there is no other word than ‘whose’ that can replace it, while still carrying the possessive meaning. Can you think of any such word?

Some body said costs is the real subject. Nay; it is the projects which is actually the object of the main cluse that becomes the subject of the subordinate clause and gets represented by a relative possessive pronoun ‘whose’, in order to avoid the repetition of saying “projects’”.


How about "of which cost will raise water bills so high that" ?


"My pen" and "pen of mine" mean the same.

Thus....yes, the construction you posted above makes sense.... :

whose cost: project's cost
cost of which: cost of project.

However it would be preferable to say "cost of which" rather than "of which cost".
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Re: The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2019, 07:35
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Can you please brief what's wrong in B ?
I was unable to differentiate between B and D in meaning.
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The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 08:14
The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation projects the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that even environmentalists are beginning to raise alarms.

(A) the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that- incorrect; since the city has only proposed the projects -- and these projects might not actually happen -- the sentence cannot say that their cost raises water bills (in the present); usage of so that is to denote a purpose-- incorrect here
(B) at a cost raising water bills so high that - incorrect; a present participle (such as RAISING) implies an action happening at the same time as the main action (Has proposed). Since the city has only PROPOSED the projects -- and these projects might not actually happen -- the sentence cannot say that their cost is raising water bills (in the present)
(C) at a cost which raises water bills high enough so- same as A; usage of high enough is illogical as if it is used for a threshold
(D) whose cost will raise water bills so high that- Correct
(E) whose cost will raise water bills high enough so that- idiom issue; enough so that

Answer D

'who' and 'whom' can refer only to people, 'whose' can refer to ANYTHING.
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The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation pro   [#permalink] 13 Feb 2019, 08:14
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