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The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha

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The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.


1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the

(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances

(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats

(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight

(D) pterosaurs were reptiles

(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours


2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as

(A) revolutionary
(B) unlikely
(C) unassailable
(D) probable
(E) outdated


3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the

(A) size of its wingspan
(B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones
(C) anatomic origin of its wing strut
(D) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet
(E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its body


4. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

(A) An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.

(B) An animal’s appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.

(C) Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time.

(D) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.

(E) The pterosaurs should be classified as birds, not reptiles.


5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?

(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.

(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.

(C) They flew in order to capture prey.

(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.

(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.


6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?

(A) New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.

(B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.

(C) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence supporting each is given.

(D) Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected.

(E) A summary of the material in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.


7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs

(A) lived near large bodies of water

(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food

(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles

(D) had longer tails than many birds

(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature



JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pterosaurs
Wann Langston Jr.
Scientific American
Vol. 244, No. 2 (February 1981), pp. 122-137
Published by: Scientific American, a division of Nature America, Inc.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/24964287
Page Count: 16

Attachment:
Pterosaurs.pdf [1.34 MiB]
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Originally posted by RaviChandra on 29 Oct 2009, 08:56.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Aug 2019, 05:02, edited 6 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (180).
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 09:03
1
givinggmat wrote:
Can someone please explain question 5? Where in the passage is it given that these animals were not able to fold their wings when not in use ?

Hi givinggmat.

You ask a great question.

GMAT Ninja provides an answer to your question a few posts above yours.

At the same time, the truth is that question 5 is a little weak. Nowhere in the passage is it truly made clear that they could not fold their wings. The only way to get question 5 correct is to eliminate the four choices that are clearly incorrect and then decide that the following sentence, which seems to be focused on a finger, could be interpreted as indicating that they cannot fold their wings.

When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.

The truth is that even some official questions are a little flawed, and this question seems to be such a question.
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2018, 17:52
It looks like question #5 is still creating a lot of doubt here! Let's dive in.

Quote:
5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?

Quote:
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.

There is only one place in the entire passage where the author mentions what pterosaurs do when they're not flying (i.e, when their wings are not in use):

    When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.

If the pterosaur was walking or was stationary, then it was definitely not flying. So this sentence tells us that the wing, when not in use, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal's body. That does not sound like a folded wing, as we'd expect to see on a pigeon walking down along the street.

Even if the whole sentence is a knot of words, there are enough clear word choices here to imply that pterosaurs' wings were stuck in an extended position when they weren't being used for flight. Let's keep (A) and see if it's easier to eliminate the other choices.

Quote:
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.

This is the opposite of what the author writes in the final paragraph:

    "The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight."

So we'll eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.

There isn't a single moment in this passage where the author describes how pterosaurs captured their prey, or even hunted their prey, or even ate anything. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.

As with choice (B), this choice is directly contradicted by the passage, in the second paragraph:

    "The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds."

Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.

As with choice (C), we have no indication of the pterosaurs' habitat in this passage. The final paragraph describes a few settings -- cliffs, trees, and the ocean -- where pterosaurs might have interacted with the environment to become airborne. However, the author brings up these settings as parts of hypotheses that have "difficulties." This reference does not give us enough information to infer that pterosaurs lived primarily in a forest-like habitat, so we'll eliminate (E), too.

(A) remains the only answer choice that is supported by the passage, and that's why we keep it and move on.
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2013, 23:52
5
Sure.
Visit last para. I am quoting lines for you.
Quote:
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.

There were suggestions that pterosaurs:
1) jumped from cliffs
2) dropped from trees
3) rose into light winds from the crests of the waves.
Since there were suggestions that pterosaurs rose into light winds from the crests of the waves( which takes place in oceans-remember crests and troughs), we can deduce that some scientists said so.
Hope that helps.
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2009, 05:06
4
jshah wrote:
Can sombody explain why 7th is A. I cound not find its ref. anywhere in paragraph.


We can assume that the pterosaurs lived near large bodies of water, because one of the hypothesis for how the pterosaurs flew was that they somehow took advantage of "high waves to channel updrafts". Why would the scientists think that if they didn't think pterosaurs lived by water?

Hope it helps. :-D
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2009, 14:16
h2polo wrote:
jshah wrote:
Can sombody explain why 7th is A. I cound not find its ref. anywhere in paragraph.


We can assume that the pterosaurs lived near large bodies of water, because one of the hypothesis for how the pterosaurs flew was that they somehow took advantage of "high waves to channel updrafts". Why would the scientists think that if they didn't think pterosaurs lived by water?

Hope it helps. :-D


But that doesn’t make all that much sense. How do we know that the passage is talking about water waves? When I read it I figured they were talking about waves in the wind like birds fly on.

Also, I see how number 1 is not any answer beside D but how is it that D is right on the money? What in the passage suggests that scientists generally agree that this creature was a reptile?
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2009, 14:35
urchin wrote:
D
B
C
B
A
B
E

Please explain #7. Why A and not E ?

No mention of water in the passage, so should we assume it because they are considered reptiles ?


Well, I got BBCBABD but that first B was just me not paying attention. I can help on the last part for it not being E though. Because inferred means “must be true” on both the GMAT and LSAT, E is wrong. Nothing in the passage says that they must eat 2x their weight daily to maintain their body temp. Their hair is linked to their warmbloodedness not their diet. I don't even remember their diet being mentioned in the passage. I hope that helps. I still have no idea why it’s A though. They gave a dumb question in number 7 IMO.
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2011, 11:36
1
These are my answers, but what are the original answers?

It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the

Ans: D) pterosaurs were reptiles

Supporting Statement:
"Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles"

According to the passage, the skeleton of the pterosaurs can be distinguished from that of a bird by the

Ans: C
Supporting Statement:
"In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features."

It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
Ans: A) lived near large bodies of water
Supporting Statement:
"or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves"

Waves would occur in only large bodies of water, right?
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2013, 23:31
1
Marcab wrote:
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
(D) pterosaurs were reptiles
(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours

2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as
(A) revolutionary
(B) unlikely
(C) unassailable
(D) probable
(E) outdated

3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the
(A) size of its wingspan
(B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones
(C) anatomic origin of its wing strut
(D) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet
(E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its body

4. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
(A) An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
(B) An animal’s appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.
(C) Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time.
(D) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.
(E) The pterosaurs should be classified as birds, not reptiles.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.

6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?
(A) New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.
(B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
(C) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence supporting each is given.
(D) Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected.
(E) A summary of the material in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature.


OA
Soon


Excellent passage! Thank you for sharing it.

DBCBABA 12m 44s

I was stuck on 7 for a second, until I read one of the "explanations," stating that "waves" may have something to do with the animals flight.

Question 5 was also interesting, you have to really pay attention to the authors description of the wing: "wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body"


There is so much fluff in this passage. I think you can easily blow 3-4 minutes if you get caught up in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th paragraph. Read what you need to, and move on...
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2013, 20:32
1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
(A) whether they fly great distances was not tackled
(B) similar with bats in terms of structure as dictated by aerodynamic and not evolution
(C) fossil remains has not resolved how they fly really
(D) Correct. This is the least controversial.
(E) the passage only asserted with an IF

2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as
(A) the author is more on refuting and not commending
(B) Correct.
(C)
(D) the author mentioned that the winds will be too strong for the creature to handle
(E) no issue about dates

3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the
(A) not discussed
(B) this is a similarity
(C) Correct.
(D) the issue is the finger supporting the wing like membrane
(E) the shoulder joint not mentioned

4. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
(A) Brain size was not tackled
(B) The hair is for body insulation and wind draft... Environment and physical capabilities.... Correct.
(C) What family group?
(D) He did not mention any accidental development
(E) He did not mention any class

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.

6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?
(B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.


7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water * tricky....
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 19:26
I used the process elimination for question 7, took a lot of re-glancing through the passage:
7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food: No mention of their teeth in the passage
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles: No mention of pterosaur being prey to a specific predator
(D) had longer tails than many birds: Initially thought this was the correct ans, but glanced through the passage and no mention of pterosaurs tail as compared to birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature: This one is tricky too, passage does mention that pterosaurs were warm blooded, but Huxley does give a hypothesis for the same with no mention of pterosaurs feeding habit.

(A) lived near large bodies of water : By process of elimination, this is what I GUESSED and also the fact that "high waves to channel updrafts" was mentioned towards the end of the passage. Very tricky to be a confident YES.
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2016, 04:18
Hello

Please clarify my doubt regarding question 3, My answer is C. Please tell how B can distinguish pterosaur from a bird?
C) anatomic origin of its wing strut - clearly distinguish it from bird
B) both of them have hollow bones - A common feature and it wont distinguish right?

Thanks!
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, ha  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2016, 09:04
gsrividhya wrote:
Hello

Please clarify my doubt regarding question 3, My answer is C. Please tell how B can distinguish pterosaur from a bird?
C) anatomic origin of its wing strut - clearly distinguish it from bird
B) both of them have hollow bones - A common feature and it wont distinguish right?

Thanks!


To quote the passage bit where the 3rd question is directed:

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the
(10) pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls,
pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of
their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the
class of birds
In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth
finger of each forelimb supported a winglike membrane.
(15) The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp
claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut
of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the
pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers
may have been employed for grasping.
When a
(20) pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth
finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in
an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal's body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in
(25) their overall structure and proportions. This is not sur-
prising because the design of any flying vertebrate is
subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs
and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that repre-
sents a savings in weight.



The above should help us eliminate some options:

3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a
pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by
the
(A) size of its wingspan [this particular comparison with birds hasn't been made]
(B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones [Both have hollow bones]
(C) anatomic origin of its wing strut [YES!!!!]
(D) presence of hook like projections on its hind feet [Not a distinct factor; both birds and pterosaur have hook like projections]
(E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its body [Not a differentiating factor]


Hope this helps in clarifying the doubts around this question.
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New post 09 Dec 2016, 02:03
Shrivathsan wrote:
Please also tell me how is the OA for 7th is A ?


Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-
borne
have led to suggestions that they launched them-
selves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees.
(45) or even by rising into light winds from the crests of
waves
.
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New post 17 Dec 2016, 12:43
This passage has so much info. It took me 13 min to solve all the questions(reading time included) with one wrong (as per the OA).

Can someone please tell me how to read these types of passages. Is there some specific technique for this?
Should we skim through all the details mentioned in the passage?
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New post 19 Dec 2016, 07:00
1
PerseveranceWins wrote:
This passage has so much info. It took me 13 min to solve all the questions(reading time included) with one wrong (as per the OA).

Can someone please tell me how to read these types of passages. Is there some specific technique for this?
Should we skim through all the details mentioned in the passage?


You should remember that per passage 4 to 9 questions are designed, meaning that reading all details is a waste of your time. Imagine on the job you receive an annual report of 300 pages from which 5 questions will be asked during a video conference. Clearly reading the whole thing is a waste of your time.

What I recommend is reading all structure words that convey most meaning with great attention, while just letting your eyes run over technical jargon or the content of details. Knowing where details are located is your mission. Once a questions asks for a specific detail you know where it is discussed and during this second-read you try to understand that particular piece of information with great attention.

So focus on understanding the meaning of each paragraph and do not try to understand or remember every last detail. Understanding or remembering details are actually a distraction to your reading comprehension.

Example first read-through (bold = great attention, not bold = just run your eyes over, make sure to keep your reading pace up)

The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the
pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more
than two centuries. How such large creatures, which
weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider
(5) and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the
problems of powered flight
, and exactly what these
creatures were
--reptiles or birds-are among the ques-
tions scientists have puzzled over.

As you can see those few words are all you need to know to understand the meaning of the paragraph. Again, do not distract yourself with the content of details or technical jargon. If those details are really important, you will find out when a question mentions them. You will know where to find it and (do your second read-through) read the relevant information/sentence(s) just like in critical reasoning.
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New post 11 Jun 2017, 22:04
I would like an explanation too. the only relevant part that would suggest the answer is A is "The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds." but this seems like quiet the inference

adityapareshshah wrote:
Need explanation for question 5.
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New post 12 Jun 2017, 11:36
1
mdacosta wrote:
I would like an explanation too. the only relevant part that would suggest the answer is A is "The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds." but this seems like quiet the inference

adityapareshshah wrote:
Need explanation for question 5.




Answer to your question lies in this line of last para:
The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings

(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.

Landing on trees means non usage of wings.
Since pterosaurs can NOT fold their wings, they end up damaging the same.

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New post 13 Apr 2018, 14:18
basically for #7 if you don't know what "crest of waves" means you get it wrong.

I picked (A) because I thought reptiles have sharp teeth and I honestly thought the waves mentioned in the last paragraph were meant to be air waves
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New post 06 Jun 2018, 22:28
2
soumya170293 wrote:
Would anyone please explain last question ?
thanks in advance.


Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-
borne have led to suggestions that they launched them-
selves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees.
(45) or even by rising into light winds from the crests of
waves.


you can see here that the prior belief about P was they lived around water bodies(waves is the clue here). Though i understand that even winds have waves, in fact each physical thing has waves but out of all options, this is the only deductive answer. According to me this is a poor question by GMAT
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