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# The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine

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Senior SC Moderator
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The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2020, 23:25
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35% (medium)

Question Stats:

67% (01:37) correct 33% (01:28) wrong based on 245 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Sentence Correction (SC2)

The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

A) Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

B) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

C) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, to dramatically used lighting,

D) Caravaggio) combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

E) Caravaggio) which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and

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Re: The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2020, 20:24
3
I settled on B.

Quote:
A) The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

The plural subject paintings does not agree in number with the singular verb combines. In addition, we are unclear what the modifying phrase had a formative influence on Baroque painting modifies. Does it modify paintings or does it modify lighting?

Quote:
B) The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

Stripped-down version: The paintings of Caravaggio had a formative influence on Baroque painting. Everything seems fine. No S-V agreement error. The modification issue in the original sentence is avoided. Keep B.

Quote:
C) The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, to dramatically used lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

Combine a realistic observation to dramatically used lighting is unidiomatic and thus incorrect. Dramatically used lighting? Eliminate C.

Quote:
D) The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

The unclear modifier issue in A is repeated in D although the S-V agreement error is corrected. Eliminate D.

Quote:
E) The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

This option does not have a working verb since the verb had is made parallel to combine. Stripped-down version: The paintings of Caravaggio. Eliminate E.
##### General Discussion
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The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2020, 23:34
3
1
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Quote:
The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

A) Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

B) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

C) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, to dramatically used lighting,

D) Caravaggio) [, which] combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

E) Caravaggio) which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and

Strip the sentence, this way:

The paintings of Caravaggio combines a realistic observation of the human state with a dramatic use of lighting had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

• Split #1 - subject/verb agreement
Who or what combines a realistic observation of the human state with a dramatic use of lightning?
The paintings.
(GMAC is not terribly consistent about the rule that things can't have human agency.
Furthermore, in certain areas such as art and literature, in English we do actually say that the art "does" something even though the person responsible is the artist or author.)

The paintings [by Caravaggio] (plural).
We need the plural verb combine.

Option A incorrectly uses the singular combines.
Eliminate A

•Split #2: fragments

Remember to keep glancing at the prompt and that there is non-underlined text after the text of the options.

In option D, we need a [comma + which] right after "Caravaggio" in order to set off everything that follows as nonessential so that the verb had (an infuence) makes sense. As option D stands, it is a fragment.
Option A is also a fragment. Neither A nor D uses "which."

Option E creates a fragment in a different way. The placement of and before the verb had creates a fragment because it deprives the sentence of a main verb
Insert (E) into the stripped sentence:

The paintings of Caravaggio, which combine a realistic observation of the human state with a dramatic use of lighting and had a formative influence on Baroque painting.
"And" means that there should be another verb.
The paintings did X and Y. Just one problem. No "X" (other verb) exists.
Eliminate E

• Split #3 - combine TO is not idiomatic
Option C uses combine ... to

We combine A with B, or
We combine A and B.

Combine A to B is not idiomatic.

"Combine" connotes "mix together," not "attach."

The phrasing in C is weird and not as parallel as the phrasing in B.

B) which combine a realistic observation of the human state [noun, prepositional phrase]... with a dramatic use of lighting [noun, prepositional phrase]

C) which combine a realistic observation of the human state [noun, prepositional phrase]. . . to dramatically used lighting [adverb, participial adjective, noun]

Eliminate C

(And in option B, you can remove the non-essential material set off by [comma + which]. The sentence will still make sense.

sauravleo123 and abcdddddd , again, welcome.

This kind of sentence can be challenging because it has so many words.
You all tracked well, keeping your eye on the "prize": the subject and the main verb or verbs.

These explanations range from good to outstanding.
eakabuah , I am bumping you to Best Community Reply.
Kudos to all. Nice work.
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The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2020, 00:12
1

A) Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,: SV Agreement : Combines won't go with Paintings

B) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,: Incorrect Modifier

C) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, to dramatically used lighting, Incorrect Modifier

D) Caravaggio) combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, Correct

E) Caravaggio) which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and : Incorrect Modifier.
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Re: The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2020, 01:39
4
Probably a good idea to get an understanding of the overall structure before tackling this. The stuff in the commas is 'cuttable' and the sentence should work without them.

The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

A) Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

The paintings....COMBINE not COMBINES. Freebie Elimination.

B) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,
Sounds good. Make the sentence shorter and we get - The paintings of Caravagio had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

C) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, to dramatically used lighting,
Close but that TO DRAMATICALLY part throws it off. Yellow flag this if you must.

D) Caravaggio) combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,
The structure throws this answer out of consideration. The last part beginning with HAD is made ungrammatical. To understand why it may be helpful to cut out the BOTH PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL part and read the sentence.

E) Caravaggio) which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and

Freebie elimination. WHICH cannot be used this way on the GMAT

Some Kudos would be nice. Need 15 to reach the next level!
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Re: The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2020, 01:58
1
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Sentence Correction (SC2)

The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

A) Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

B) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

C) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, to dramatically used lighting,

D) Caravaggio) combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,

E) Caravaggio) which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and

Notice that the non underlined portion already has a verb"had ", so the underlined portion has to be turned into a modifier for the sentence to not be a run on.
A. This sentence misses a conjunction "and" before had. Moreover the subject paintings does not agree with verb combines- Incorrect
B. Correct. The middle portion has been converted into a modifier by using which. Notice that which cannot refer to caravaggio as that will not make sence.
C. To dramatically ysed does not make sense, should be with- Incorrect
D. Like A it misses the conjunction and- Incorrect
E. Which is used without enclosing in comma. Moreover usage of and makes the sentence incorrect as "the paintings" do not have a verb- Incorrect
B is correct
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Re: The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2020, 03:27
1
The paintings of Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

1) This fragment "had a formative influence on Baroque painting" is not properly connected with the rest of the sentence. This makes the meaning of the sentence unclear.

2) Also, paintings are plural and does not agree with singular verb 'combines'. Thus, there is a subject-verb agreement error in this statement as well.

Let's look at the options now:

A) Caravaggio) combines a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,
This choice is incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,
This is the correct choice. It corrects the subject-verb agreement error by changing 'combines' to 'combine'. The main verb in the sentence is 'had' (simple past tense) now.

C) Caravaggio), which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, to dramatically used lighting,
This option corrects the subject-verb agreement error in the first sentence, however, it is not clear what the modifier "to dramatically used lighting" modifies in this sentence. It is very awkwardly worded. Thus, this choice is incorrect. Also combine with is the correct usage of the idiom. Combine to is incorrect.

D) Caravaggio) combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting,
This choice corrects the subject-verb agreement error in the first sentence. However, in this choice again the fragment "had a formative influence on Baroque painting" is not properly connected with the rest of the sentence. Hence, it is incorrect.

E) Caravaggio) which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and
The usage of 'which' here is fine. There is no issue with it as it is used to give more information about the paintings of Caravaggio. However, the use of "and" transforms this into a list - where 'which combine' should be parallel to 'had a formative influence'. However, they are not parallel entities. Thus, this choice is also incorrect.

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Re: The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2020, 08:48
1
My answer is (B). It took me 1 minute and 4 seconds.

(A) It does contain SVA error, but the major issue, which option (D) repeats, is that there are two verbs ("combine" and "had") that vie for the same subject (“The paintings of Caravaggio”). It is grammatically wrong.
(B) It fixes the major issue in (A) and (D) by introducing relative pronoun ("which"), which serves as subject for "combine", leaving the subject (“The paintings of Caravaggio”) to form main clause with "had".
(C) It also fixes the major issue in (A) and (D). But "to dramatically used lighting" does not make much sense. When we see the other 4 options all use "with a dramatic use of lighting" (, and it reads all right), we must be extremely audacious to believe that "to dramatically used lighting" should be better.
(D) Major issue as discussed in (A)
(E) There should be a comma before "which".
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Re: The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2020, 04:15
1
The official explanation is here
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Re: The paintings of Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio combine   [#permalink] 08 Apr 2020, 04:15