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The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction

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The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Feb 2019, 08:26
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 10, Date : 05-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction into education would remove the conventionality, artificiality, and backward-lookingness which were characteristic; of classical studies, but they were gravely disappointed. So, too, in their time had the humanists thought that the study of the classical authors in the original would banish at once the dull pedantry and superstition of mediaeval scholasticism. The professional schoolmaster was a match for both of them, and has almost managed to make the understanding of chemical reactions as dull and as dogmatic an affair as the reading of Virgil's Aeneid. The chief claim for the use of science in education is that it teaches a child something about the actual universe in which he is living, in making him acquainted with the results of scientific discovery, and at the same time teaches him how to think logically and inductively by studying scientific method.

A certain limited success has been reached in the first of these aims, but practically none at all in the second. Those privileged members of the community who have been through a secondary or public school education may be expected to know something about the elementary physics and chemistry of a hundred years ago, but they probably know hardly more than any bright boy can pick up from an interest in wireless or scientific hobbies out of school hours. As to the learning of scientific method, the whole thing is palpably a farce. Actually, for the convenience of teachers and the requirements of the examination system, it is necessary that the pupils not only do not learn scientific method but learn precisely the reverse, that is, to believe exactly what they are told and to reproduce it when asked, whether it seems nonsense to them or not.

The way in which educated people respond to such quackeries as spiritualism or astrology, not to say more dangerous ones such as racial theories or currency myths, shows that fifty years of education in the method of science in Britain or Germany has produced no visible effect whatever. The only way of learning the method of science is the long and bitter way of personal experience, and, until the educational or social systems are altered to make this possible, the best we can expect is the production of a minority of people who are able to acquire some of the techniques of science and a still smaller minority who are able to use and develop them.
1. The author implies that the professional schoolmaster has

A. no interest in teaching science
B. thwarted attempts to enliven education
C. aided true learning
D. supported the humanists
E. been a pioneer in both science and humanities.

2. The authors apparently believes that secondary and public school education in the sciences is

A. severely limited in its benefits
B. worse than that in the classics
C. grossly incompetent
D. a stimulus to critical thinking
E. deliberately obscurantist

3. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece, he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions?

A. Do students know more about the world about them?
B. Do students spend more time in laboratories?
C. Can students apply their knowledge logically?
D. Have textbooks improved?
E. Do they respect their teachers?

4. All of the following can be inferred from the text EXCEPT

A. at the time of writing, not all children received a secondary school education
B. the author finds chemical reactions interesting
C. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children
D. the author believes that many teachers are authoritarian
E. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method




Adapted from: The Social Function of Science, John D Bernal (1939)

Source: Www.MajorTest.com
Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 05 Feb 2017, 00:48.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 05 Feb 2019, 08:26, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 06:16
Official Explanation


1. The author implies that the professional schoolmaster has?

Explanation

The author says that the professional schoolmaster was a match for people who tried to bring new ideas and attitudes into education. This means that the schoolmaster succeeded in making the new subjects dull. And so B is the best answer.

ANSWER: B


2. The authors apparently believes that secondary and public school education in the sciences is?

Explanation

The author tells us that some pupils might have learned some facts but that they would not have learned anything of the scientific method. He expresses himself very forcefully but still not strongly enough to make B, C or E the correct answers. The correct answer, A, is best ? strong without being excessive.

ANSWER: A


3. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece, he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions?

Explanation

Passage show what the author expects science education to do. He goes on to say that practically no progress has been made towards the aim of helping the student to think logically. The last sentence confirms that he would expect good science education to enable students to use scientific knowledge.

ANSWER: C


4. All of the following can be inferred from the text EXCEPT

Explanation

In an except question we are looking for something that is wrong. The word relatively in answer E clearly makes this statement wrong.

ANSWER: E


Hope it helps
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Re: The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2017, 23:30
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Source: http://www.MajorTest.com

The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its
introduction into education would remove the conventionality,
artificiality, and backward-lookingness which were characteristic;
of classical studies, but they were gravely disappointed. So, too, in
5 their time had the humanists thought that the study of the classical
authors in the original would banish at once the dull pedantry and
superstition of mediaeval scholasticism. The professional
schoolmaster was a match for both of them, and has almost
managed to make the understanding of chemical reactions as dull
10 and as dogmatic an affair as the reading of Virgil's Aeneid.

The chief claim for the use of science in education is that it
teaches a child something about the actual universe in which he is
living, in making him acquainted with the results of scientific
15 discovery, and at the same time teaches him how to think logically
and inductively by studying scientific method. A certain limited
success has been reached in the first of these aims, but practically
none at all in the second. Those privileged members of the
community who have been through a secondary or public school
20 education may be expected to know something about the
elementary physics and chemistry of a hundred years ago, but they
probably know hardly more than any bright boy can pick up from
an interest in wireless or scientific hobbies out of school hours.
As to the learning of scientific method, the whole thing is palpably
25 a farce. Actually, for the convenience of teachers and the
requirements of the examination system, it is necessary that the
pupils not only do not learn scientific method but learn precisely
the reverse, that is, to believe exactly what they are told and to
reproduce it when asked, whether it seems nonsense to them or
30 not. The way in which educated people respond to such quackeries
as spiritualism or astrology, not to say more dangerous ones such
as racial theories or currency myths, shows that fifty years of
education in the method of science in Britain or Germany has
produced no visible effect whatever. The only way of learning the
35 method of science is the long and bitter way of personal
experience, and, until the educational or social systems are altered
to make this possible, the best we can expect is the production of a
minority of people who are able to acquire some of the techniques
of science and a still smaller minority who are able to use and
40 develop them.


1. The author implies that the �professional schoolmaster� (line 7) has

A. no interest in teaching science
B. thwarted attempts to enliven education
C. aided true learning
D. supported the humanists
E. been a pioneer in both science and humanities.

2. The author�s apparently believes that secondary and public school education in the sciences is

A. severely limited in its benefits - This reflects the overall tone of the passage. hence Correct
B. worse than that in the classics
C. grossly incompetent
D. a stimulus to critical thinking
E. deliberately obscurantist

3. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece, he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions?

A. Do students know more about the world about them?
B. Do students spend more time in laboratories?
C. Can students apply their knowledge logically?
In the 2nd para the author mentions that while emplying scientific school of thought has managed to impart the knowledge about the world, applying knowledge logically hasnt happened at all. Hence we can safely infer that the author wants to know the answer to this question
D. Have textbooks improved?
E. Do they respect their teachers?

4. All of the following can be inferred from the text except

A. at the time of writing, not all children received a secondary school education
Those privileged members of the
community who have been through a secondary or public school
The above sentence from 2nd para implies that not all received education.
B. the author finds chemical reactions interesting
This is implied in the 1st para when the authors tries to describe the efforts of the professional teacher.
C. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children
The proof of this is in 2nd para
D. the author believes that many teachers are authoritarian
Line 25from para 2nd provides proof that the author believes this
E. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method - this is no where implied in the Passage. Correct


Adapted from: The Social Function of Science, John D Bernal (1939)


1. The author implies that the �professional schoolmaster� (line 7) has

A. no interest in teaching science
B. thwarted attempts to enliven education
C. aided true learning
D. supported the humanists
E. been a pioneer in both science and humanities.

someone explain this one. My pick is A for this one. In the 1st para , the author says the teaching was dull and pedantry. so the answer should be A isn't it?
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Re: The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2017, 01:46
1
goforgmat wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Source: http://www.MajorTest.com

The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its
introduction into education would remove the conventionality,
artificiality, and backward-lookingness which were characteristic;
of classical studies, but they were gravely disappointed. So, too, in
5 their time had the humanists thought that the study of the classical
authors in the original would banish at once the dull pedantry and
superstition of mediaeval scholasticism. The professional
schoolmaster was a match for both of them, and has almost
managed to make the understanding of chemical reactions as dull
10 and as dogmatic an affair as the reading of Virgil's Aeneid.

The chief claim for the use of science in education is that it
teaches a child something about the actual universe in which he is
living, in making him acquainted with the results of scientific
15 discovery, and at the same time teaches him how to think logically
and inductively by studying scientific method. A certain limited
success has been reached in the first of these aims, but practically
none at all in the second. Those privileged members of the
community who have been through a secondary or public school
20 education may be expected to know something about the
elementary physics and chemistry of a hundred years ago, but they
probably know hardly more than any bright boy can pick up from
an interest in wireless or scientific hobbies out of school hours.
As to the learning of scientific method, the whole thing is palpably
25 a farce. Actually, for the convenience of teachers and the
requirements of the examination system, it is necessary that the
pupils not only do not learn scientific method but learn precisely
the reverse, that is, to believe exactly what they are told and to
reproduce it when asked, whether it seems nonsense to them or
30 not. The way in which educated people respond to such quackeries
as spiritualism or astrology, not to say more dangerous ones such
as racial theories or currency myths, shows that fifty years of
education in the method of science in Britain or Germany has
produced no visible effect whatever. The only way of learning the
35 method of science is the long and bitter way of personal
experience, and, until the educational or social systems are altered
to make this possible, the best we can expect is the production of a
minority of people who are able to acquire some of the techniques
of science and a still smaller minority who are able to use and
40 develop them.


1. The author implies that the �professional schoolmaster� (line 7) has

A. no interest in teaching science
B. thwarted attempts to enliven education
C. aided true learning
D. supported the humanists
E. been a pioneer in both science and humanities.

2. The author�s apparently believes that secondary and public school education in the sciences is

A. severely limited in its benefits - This reflects the overall tone of the passage. hence Correct
B. worse than that in the classics
C. grossly incompetent
D. a stimulus to critical thinking
E. deliberately obscurantist

3. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece, he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions?

A. Do students know more about the world about them?
B. Do students spend more time in laboratories?
C. Can students apply their knowledge logically?
In the 2nd para the author mentions that while emplying scientific school of thought has managed to impart the knowledge about the world, applying knowledge logically hasnt happened at all. Hence we can safely infer that the author wants to know the answer to this question
D. Have textbooks improved?
E. Do they respect their teachers?

4. All of the following can be inferred from the text except

A. at the time of writing, not all children received a secondary school education
Those privileged members of the
community who have been through a secondary or public school
The above sentence from 2nd para implies that not all received education.
B. the author finds chemical reactions interesting
This is implied in the 1st para when the authors tries to describe the efforts of the professional teacher.
C. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children
The proof of this is in 2nd para
D. the author believes that many teachers are authoritarian
Line 25from para 2nd provides proof that the author believes this
E. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method - this is no where implied in the Passage. Correct


Adapted from: The Social Function of Science, John D Bernal (1939)


1. The author implies that the �professional schoolmaster� (line 7) has

A. no interest in teaching science
B. thwarted attempts to enliven education
C. aided true learning
D. supported the humanists
E. been a pioneer in both science and humanities.

someone explain this one. My pick is A for this one. In the 1st para , the author says the teaching was dull and pedantry. so the answer should be A isn't it?



It says that the teacher made the understanding of chemical reactions as dull as Virgil's Aenid. Does not say the teacher him or herself was not interested. However, since it explicitly says that the teacher made it boring, it shows how the teacher explicitly thwarted attempts to enliven education, by taking something interesting and making it super boring.
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Re: The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 08:33
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The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 08:48
4. All of the following can be inferred from the text EXCEPT[/b]

A. at the time of writing, not all children received a secondary school education
B. the author finds chemical reactions interesting
C. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children
D. the author believes that many teachers are authoritarian
E. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method=> "The only way of learning the method of science is the long and bitter way of personal experience, and, until the educational or social systems are altered to make this possible"- the point in the last paragraph is contrast to this choice.
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Re: The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 15:53
2
1. The author implies that the professional schoolmaster has

A. no interest in teaching science - not specifically stated in passage
B. thwarted attempts to enliven education - correct - info available in first para
C. aided true learning - not specifically stated in passage
D. supported the humanists - not specifically stated in passage
E. been a pioneer in both science and humanities.- not specifically stated in passage

2. The authors apparently believes that secondary and public school education in the sciences is

A. severely limited in its benefits - correct
B. worse than that in the classics - passage never says it is worse, passage allludes that it failed to achieve the benefits that classics couldn't achieve
C. grossly incompetent - Too strong
D. a stimulus to critical thinking - passage refutes this info
E. deliberately obscurantist - Not supported

3. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece, he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions?

A. Do students know more about the world about them? -this is something author agrees to an extent
B. Do students spend more time in laboratories? --out of scope
C. Can students apply their knowledge logically? - yes correct -this is something author believes science education has not achieved
D. Have textbooks improved? - out of scope
E. Do they respect their teachers? - out of scope

4. All of the following can be inferred from the text EXCEPT

A. at the time of writing, not all children received a secondary school education - given in 2nd para
B. the author finds chemical reactions interesting - given in 1st para
C. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children - - given in 2nd para
D. the author believes that many teachers are authoritarian - given in 2nd para
E. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method - correct
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Re: The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2019, 15:53
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