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The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has

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The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 04 Mar 2018, 05:40
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55% (03:09) correct 45% (02:45) wrong

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The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has reached endangered status in a mere few decades. Those who account for the sudden loss of the bird do so in terms of either pollution or climate change. Fagen notes how hydrocarbons from oil tankers have increased in a proportion commensurate with the decline in the number of arctic curlew. He believes that the birds not only ingest hydrocarbons while wading in polluted water but that they also feed on worms and small fish that themselves have accrued modest amounts of hydrocarbons. Miller, on the other hand, believes that climate change alone can account for the depletion of the arctic curlew. She argues that since many of the areas in which it once fed no longer provide adequate sustenance, the bird has been forced to change migratory paths and must land in a foreign ecosystem where it is unable find adequate nutrition.

Both theories, however, are somewhat correct but not in a way that either Fagen or Miller would have likely anticipated. The theory positing that the hydrocarbons birds ingest affect their ability to navigate contains elements relating to both climate change and pollution. For example, when a curlew ingests tainted fish, its ability to navigate for several hours afterwards is diminished and it will often veer from its traditional path. Where at one point such deviations would not have affected the bird’s ability to forage, climate change has resulted in a significant diminishment of areas capable of providing sufficient sustenance for the arctic curlew. As a result, it often succumbs to starvation.

1 The theory offered in the second paragraph differs most from Miller’s theory in regards to the

A type of sustenance that the curlew attempts to find
B reason the arctic curlew veers from its traditional flight path
C influence of oil tankers on the curlew’s ability to make navigational decisions
D the amount of area available to a migrating curlew
E extent to which its navigational course is affected by its environment


2 According to the passage, an arctic curlew suffering navigational issues is most consistent with which of the following?

A Fagen’s theory
B Miller’s theory
C A theory with which the passage disagrees
D A decrease in hydrocarbons
E A decrease in areas providing adequate nutrition


3. Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?

A To describe how elements of two theories are consistent with a third theory
B To highlight shortcomings in two theories and to support a third theory
C To contrast two theories and show how together both are sufficient
D To discuss how a third theory is similar to two competing theories
E To introduce three theories and describe notable flaws in each


Originally posted by chesstitans on 12 Jan 2018, 10:08.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 04 Mar 2018, 05:40, edited 2 times in total.
edited passage topic
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Re: The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2018, 19:51
Dear experts,

Please explain question 3. Thanks.
I have chosen answer C: Because the first paragraph compare 2 theories and the second paragraph, it states "Both theories, however, are somewhat correct but not in a way that either Fagen or Miller would have likely anticipated" - I have concluded that it needs both theories to be correct.

Please explain ans: A

Thanks
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Re: The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2018, 05:56
Valhalla wrote:
Dear experts,

Please explain question 3. Thanks.
I have chosen answer C: Because the first paragraph compare 2 theories and the second paragraph, it states "Both theories, however, are somewhat correct but not in a way that either Fagen or Miller would have likely anticipated" - I have concluded that it needs both theories to be correct.

Please explain ans: A

Thanks



C states that together they are sufficient to explain a phenomenon. The passage doesn't state.
Only few elements are correct from both the theories.
Points from first theory that is consistent with the third one - hydrocarbons impairing navigational skills.
Points from second theory that is consistent with the third one - when they divert from their usual path , non availability of food due to climate change.

These are the only points that are in agreement with the third one.
Hence A is right.
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Re: The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2018, 18:23
Please post OE for this RC. Would like to see if my reasoning was correct!
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Re: The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2018, 00:07
Please provide the reasoning for Q2 and Q3
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Re: The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2018, 05:53
3
1
All correct in 6 mins 40 seconds, including 3 mins to read.

1 The theory offered in the second paragraph differs most from Miller’s theory in regards to the

A type of sustenance that the curlew attempts to find
B reason the arctic curlew veers from its traditional flight path
C influence of oil tankers on the curlew’s ability to make navigational decisions
D the amount of area available to a migrating curlew
E extent to which its navigational course is affected by its environment

Miller --> since many of the areas in which it once fed no longer provide adequate sustenance, the bird has been forced to change migratory paths and must land in a foreign ecosystem where it is unable find adequate nutrition.

Theory offered in 2nd paragraph -
when a curlew ingests tainted fish, its ability to navigate for several hours afterwards is diminished and it will often veer from its traditional path. Where at one point such deviations would not have affected the bird’s ability to forage, climate change has resulted in a significant diminishment of areas capable of providing sufficient sustenance for the arctic curlew.

Answer B

2 According to the passage, an arctic curlew suffering navigational issues is most consistent with which of the following?

A Fagen’s theory
B Miller’s theory
C A theory with which the passage disagrees
D A decrease in hydrocarbons
E A decrease in areas providing adequate nutrition

Both theories, however, are somewhat correct but not in a way that either Fagen or Miller would have likely anticipated. The loss of navigational ability can be attributed to factor described in Fagen's theory(ingestion of hydrocarbon hampers navigation)

3. Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?

A To describe how elements of two theories are consistent with a third theory - Correct
B To highlight shortcomings in two theories and to support a third theory -- shortcomings are not highlighted
C To contrast two theories and show how together both are sufficient -- even together the two theories are not sufficient in the original way
D To discuss how a third theory is similar to two competing theories -- Incorrect
E To introduce three theories and describe notable flaws in each -- no flaw in third was stated

Both theories, however, are somewhat correct but not in a way that either Fagen or Miller would have likely anticipated. The first line of second paragraph states the essence.
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The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2018, 07:27
2 According to the passage, an arctic curlew suffering navigational issues is most consistent with which of the following?

A Fagen’s theory- Fagen's theory is related to navigation and explains why curlew suffers navigational issue. Miller's theory explains loss of areas capable of providing sufficient sustenance- correct.
B Miller’s theory- consistent with the "significant diminishment of areas capable of providing sufficient sustenance for the arctic curlew", not with the navigational issue.
C A theory with which the passage disagrees
D A decrease in hydrocarbons
E A decrease in areas providing adequate nutrition

3. Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?

A To describe how elements of two theories are consistent with a third theory- Correct
B To highlight shortcomings in two theories and to support a third theory
C To contrast two theories and show how together both are sufficient
D To discuss how a third theory is similar to two competing theories- out
E To introduce three theories and describe notable flaws in each- out
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Re: The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2018, 09:19
Passage summary:
1) Introduces a problem: the population of the arctic curlew has contracted. There are two theories to explain this:
a) Fagen explains the observation in terms of polluting factors;
b) Miller does the same in terms of a broader explanation - climate change

2) The author claims that both theories are correct in some way because his or her theory shows that the two are interrelated to explain the cause underlying the decrease in the arctic curlew.


1 The theory offered in the second paragraph differs most from Miller’s theory in regards to the
Relevant text: She argues that since many of the areas in which it once fed no longer provide adequate sustenance, the bird has been forced to change migratory paths <...> For example, when a curlew ingests tainted fish, its ability to navigate for several hours afterwards is diminished and it will often veer from its traditional path.
A type of sustenance that the curlew attempts to find agrees with Miller's
B reason the arctic curlew veers from its traditional flight path correct
C influence of oil tankers on the curlew’s ability to make navigational decisions regards Fagen's theory, not Miller's
D the amount of area available to a migrating curlew
E extent to which its navigational course is affected by its environment agrees with Miller's

2 According to the passage, an arctic curlew suffering navigational issues is most consistent with which of the following?
A Fagen’s theory correct, because he provides a reasons to explain why the bird veers from tradition path, and the author agrees with that
B Miller’s theory actually the third theory disagrees with Miller's on the part that what causes the deviation in the birds' migratory routs
C A theory with which the passage disagrees
D A decrease in hydrocarbons supprts Fagen's
E A decrease in areas providing adequate nutrition supports Miller's

3. Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?
A To describe how elements of two theories are consistent with a third theory correct
B To highlight shortcomings in two theories and to support a third theory
C To contrast two theories and show how together both are sufficient
D To discuss how a third theory is similar to two competing theories
E To introduce three theories and describe notable flaws in each
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Re: The arctic curlew, a once common wading species in the tundra, has &nbs [#permalink] 27 Oct 2018, 09:19
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