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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula

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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Jan 2018, 02:21
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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumulate industrial and urban pollution at stopover sites, toxins that are subsequently released in sudden high doses as fat is burned during migratory flights, disrupting the bird’s ability to make migratory decisions. For example, large contaminant doses might hamper refueling by altering the satiation signal in shorebirds so that they do not accumulate sufficient fat for migration. A recent study found that, out of those shorebirds that were unable to migrate, some weighed as much as 20% less than the average migrating bird of their species. Whether such findings are a result of shorebirds suffering from trophic contamination, or whether such birds simply cut their migrations short by landing in a foreign ecosystem, is unlikely to be resolved until further studies are conducted.

One promising line of research involves organochlorines, toxins deposited on mudflats in the 1970s and 1980s, now buried by sediments but finally close enough to the surface to be of issue to foraging shorebirds. Organochlorines should be more accessible to long-billed shorebirds that probe deeply for prey than to short-billed species that forage at or near the surface. We predict that an increased number of long-billed shorebirds will either be unable to migrate or will be found along an aberrant flight path

1. The most immediate effect on birds that have accumulated toxins in their fat deposits is

A a tendency to navigate along a divergent flight path
B an inability to realize when they have eaten a sufficient amount of food
C a diminished capacity to retrace their migratory route
D an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species
E an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species


2. According to the passage, the long-billed shorebird is expected to be more likely than the short-billed shorebird to have trouble migrating because

A it is more vulnerable to the effects of organochlorines
B it typically is unable to differentiate between a foreign ecosystem and a familiar one
C it stops feeding before it is fully satiated
D it grazes in parts of the mudflat in which the surface is known to have a higher concentration of organochlorines
E it digs deeper into the earth and is therefore more likely to encounter toxins


3. the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds?

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.


Originally posted by chesstitans on 12 Jan 2018, 11:55.
Last edited by broall on 15 Jan 2018, 02:21, edited 1 time in total.
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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2018, 06:36
Can any one explain solution for question 1?

I selected C

Regards,
Adi
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2018, 21:37
The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumulate industrial and urban pollution at stopover sites, toxins that are subsequently released in sudden high doses as fat is burned during migratory flights, disrupting the bird’s ability to make migratory decisions.
3. the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds?

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.

I believe the answer to this question would be B as per the highlighted region.
Experts, please guide.
Thank you.
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2018, 09:13
Adi93 wrote:
Can any one explain solution for question 1?

I selected C

Regards,
Adi

1. The most immediate effect on birds that have accumulated toxins in their fat deposits is

A a tendency to navigate along a divergent flight path -- close answer
B an inability to realize when they have eaten a sufficient amount of food-- close answer
C a diminished capacity to retrace their migratory route-- close answer
D an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species --- not talked in the passage
E an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species --not talked in the passage

Now out of the top 3 close answers, think of effects of toxins on shorebirds as 3 step process 1) birds eat toxins that make them realise they have eaten sufficient "For example, large contaminant doses might hamper refueling by altering the satiation signal in shorebirds so that they do not accumulate sufficient fat for migration"
2) Now birds will take flight and hence they may taken divergent path or unable to retrace migratory route

Hence option B makes more sense as also supported by passage an logically out of the top 3 close answers, serial order of activities will happen in this particular order

Please hit kudos if you like the explanation
Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula   [#permalink] 03 Feb 2018, 09:13
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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula

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