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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula

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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 20 Jul 2019, 02:20
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 42, Date : 21-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumulate industrial and urban pollution at stopover sites, toxins that are subsequently released in sudden high doses as fat is burned during migratory flights, disrupting the bird’s ability to make migratory decisions. For example, large contaminant doses might hamper refueling by altering the satiation signal in shorebirds so that they do not accumulate sufficient fat for migration. A recent study found that, out of those shorebirds that were unable to migrate, some weighed as much as 20% less than the average migrating bird of their species. Whether such findings are a result of shorebirds suffering from trophic contamination, or whether such birds simply cut their migrations short by landing in a foreign ecosystem, is unlikely to be resolved until further studies are conducted.

One promising line of research involves organochlorines, toxins deposited on mudflats in the 1970s and 1980s, now buried by sediments but finally close enough to the surface to be of issue to foraging shorebirds. Organochlorines should be more accessible to long-billed shorebirds that probe deeply for prey than to short-billed species that forage at or near the surface. We predict that an increased number of long-billed shorebirds will either be unable to migrate or will be found along an aberrant flight path

1. The most immediate effect on birds that have accumulated toxins in their fat deposits is

A a tendency to navigate along a divergent flight path
B an inability to realize when they have eaten a sufficient amount of food
C a diminished capacity to retrace their migratory route
D an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species
E an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species


2. According to the passage, the long-billed shorebird is expected to be more likely than the short-billed shorebird to have trouble migrating because

A it is more vulnerable to the effects of organochlorines
B it typically is unable to differentiate between a foreign ecosystem and a familiar one
C it stops feeding before it is fully satiated
D it grazes in parts of the mudflat in which the surface is known to have a higher concentration of organochlorines
E it digs deeper into the earth and is therefore more likely to encounter toxins


3. the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds?

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.



Difficulty Level: 700

Originally posted by chesstitans on 12 Jan 2018, 11:55.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 20 Jul 2019, 02:20, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2018, 06:36
Can any one explain solution for question 1?

I selected C

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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2018, 21:37
2
The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumulate industrial and urban pollution at stopover sites, toxins that are subsequently released in sudden high doses as fat is burned during migratory flights, disrupting the bird’s ability to make migratory decisions.
3. the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds?

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.

I believe the answer to this question would be B as per the highlighted region.
Experts, please guide.
Thank you.
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2018, 09:13
3
1
Adi93 wrote:
Can any one explain solution for question 1?

I selected C

Regards,
Adi

1. The most immediate effect on birds that have accumulated toxins in their fat deposits is

A a tendency to navigate along a divergent flight path -- close answer
B an inability to realize when they have eaten a sufficient amount of food-- close answer
C a diminished capacity to retrace their migratory route-- close answer
D an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species --- not talked in the passage
E an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species --not talked in the passage

Now out of the top 3 close answers, think of effects of toxins on shorebirds as 3 step process 1) birds eat toxins that make them realise they have eaten sufficient "For example, large contaminant doses might hamper refueling by altering the satiation signal in shorebirds so that they do not accumulate sufficient fat for migration"
2) Now birds will take flight and hence they may taken divergent path or unable to retrace migratory route

Hence option B makes more sense as also supported by passage an logically out of the top 3 close answers, serial order of activities will happen in this particular order

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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2019, 07:53
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2019, 11:48
2
1. The most immediate effect on birds that have accumulated toxins in their fat deposits is

A a tendency to navigate along a divergent flight path
B an inability to realize when they have eaten a sufficient amount of food- CORRECT (For example, large contaminant doses might hamper refueling by altering the satiation signal in shorebirds so that they do not accumulate sufficient fat for migration)
C a diminished capacity to retrace their migratory route
D an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species
E an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species

2. According to the passage, the long-billed shorebird is expected to be more likely than the short-billed shorebird to have trouble migrating because

A it is more vulnerable to the effects of organochlorines
B it typically is unable to differentiate between a foreign ecosystem and a familiar one
C it stops feeding before it is fully satiated
D it grazes in parts of the mudflat in which the surface is known to have a higher concentration of organochlorines
E it digs deeper into the earth and is therefore more likely to encounter toxins- CORRECT (Organochlorines should be more accessible to long-billed shorebirds that probe deeply for prey than to short-billed species that forage at or near the surface

3. the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds?

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.- CORRECT (A recent study found that, out of those shorebirds that were unable to migrate, some weighed as much as 20% less than the average migrating bird of their species)
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2019, 06:04
Firstly thanks for starting the RC Butler series SajjadAhmad
I have a doubt in question 3:

the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds? OA D

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.
A recent study found that, out of those shorebirds that were unable to migrate, some weighed as much as 20% less than the average migrating bird of their species.
How can we say that the action of unable to migrate lead to a reduction in the weight for the shorebirds.Please explain.
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2019, 23:38
1
apovit wrote:
Firstly thanks for starting the RC Butler series SajjadAhmad
I have a doubt in question 3:

the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds? OA D

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.
A recent study found that, out of those shorebirds that were unable to migrate, some weighed as much as 20% less than the average migrating bird of their species.
How can we say that the action of unable to migrate lead to a reduction in the weight for the shorebirds.Please explain.
Thanks


apovit
Firstly , there is nowhere in the passage which may suggest that " unable to migrate LEADS to reduction !! ...rather it is the opposite !!! reduction in weight that is less fat intake leads to unabl to migrate

towards he question :

I'll explain to you step by step !!!

First lets ubderstad first para :

Quote:
The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumulate industrial and urban pollution at stopover sites, toxins that are subsequently released in sudden high doses as fat is burned during migratory flights, disrupting the bird’s ability to make migratory decisions.

understand: "TCH" states a hypothesis . It says that Accumulation of pollution in shorebids leads to intake of more toxins simultaneously with burning of fat.. It measn that when the bird is migrating obviously it needs energy to do so and hence it needs fat...but as it passes from the "stopover sites" it intakes toxins too ...now this consequently leads to bird's ABILITY to make mig decision !!

map : migration >> fat burning>> passing from pollution >> intake of toxins>> disruption in ability !!


Quote:
For example, large contaminant doses might hamper refueling by altering the satiation signal in shorebirds so that they do not accumulate sufficient fat for migration.


Understand: Now the author puts forward an example of the hypothesis (to explain) . he says when the bird intakes LARGE DOSES of toxins the bird might feel that it is actually satiated ( feeling that i am full or satisfied :food wise) ..But due to this FALSE SATIATION the bird may not actually consume enough calories to make its migration !!


Quote:
A recent study found that, out of those shorebirds that were unable to migrate, some weighed as much as 20% less than the average migrating bird of their species.


Understand : Author here presents the "findings" of a study: out of the shorebirds that were unable t migrate (please note this modifier) , some weighted as 20% less than the avg shorebird (general)


Quote:
Whether such findings are a result of shorebirds suffering from trophic contamination, or whether such birds simply cut their migrations short by landing in a foreign ecosystem, is unlikely to be resolved until further studies are conducted.


Understand : first of all always make note when there are pronouns (referances) : here "such findings" refers back to the findings the author present in earlier sentence (study FOUND that) ... so the author claims that the explanation behing "the findings : less weight" is due to Tropic contamination or by landing on foreign eco is not clear !!

Para summary : A hypothesus is presneted and explained with the hel nof an example. Finding of a study are presented. Claim is made abou the explanation about the findings of the study !!

3. the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds?

Note that the "Foreign econsystem" was stated as POSSIBLE explanatio to the finding of the study !!! so if this the explanation then in other words this is the cause.. and then what is the effect of this??? it is the reduced weight .. remember the question states "potential" effect... So we dont need conclusive answer !!

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators.
not mentioned

B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins.
- the foregin ecosystem is not linked to toxins ... ON THE CONTRARY it is alternative explnation to toxic contamination !!! if even forein lands had toxic things hy would author make it a distinct piunt???mBy giving an alternative to toxic pollution he wants to say that the "foreign ECOSYSTEM" which may imply the diet may change accoding to the availability of food on the foreign land !!!

C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate.
- NOT a direct link !!!

D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight.
- This is the direct potentioal effect becasue author makes it ckear by trying to provide explanations for this finding !!

E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock.
- useless
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2019, 20:34
chesstitans SajjadAhmad

For question 1 choices D and E are same.if you have the original passage with you.kindly make the changes.

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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Jul 2019, 00:33
1
Hi,

According to me

P1: presentation of a phenomenon "TCH" which is possibly linked to some birds affected by weight loss
P2: evidence that could help find the reason behind the weight loss for a specific category of birds
MP: to present a possible explanation for birds affected by weight loss along with evidence that could explain the reason behind the weight loss


1. The most immediate effect on birds that have accumulated toxins in their fat deposits is

For this question refer to the first part of the first paragraph and especially to: "For example, large contaminant doses might hamper refueling by altering the satiation signal in shorebirds so that they do not accumulate sufficient fat for migration."

A a tendency to navigate along a divergent flight path - even tough this could be likely a consequence it is never mentioned
B an inability to realize when they have eaten a sufficient amount of food - this seems very in line with what is stated in the portion of the passage
C a diminished capacity to retrace their migratory route - same reasoning for A1
D an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species -completely out of scope
E an increased likelihood to exhibit aggression towards other species - completely out of scope

2. According to the passage, the long-billed shorebird is expected to be more likely than the short-billed shorebird to have trouble migrating because

For this question refer to the second paragraph and especially to: "Organochlorines should be more accessible to long-billed shorebirds that probe deeply for prey than to short-billed species that forage at or near the surface."

A it is more vulnerable to the effects of organochlorines - nowhere it's mentioned that LBS is more vulnerable. It's just more likely to find Organochlorines
B it typically is unable to differentiate between a foreign ecosystem and a familiar one - nowhere mentioned. note that foreign ecosystems are mentioned in the previous paragraphs for other reasons
C it stops feeding before it is fully satiated - nowhere it is mentioned that it would stop feeding even tough it is likely that it will eat less
D it grazes in parts of the mudflat in which the surface is known to have a higher concentration of organochlorines -if Organochlorines is in the surface then it is accessible also to SBB hence wrong
E it digs deeper into the earth and is therefore more likely to encounter toxins - this is in line with the highlighted portion of the second paragraph




3. the author implies that foreign ecosystems have which potential effect on shorebirds?

for this question refer to the last part of the first paragraph after " a recent study...."
The reasoning here seems to be that a study noticed that some birds weight less than the others and then it is not sure whether the cause is trophic contamination or smith else related to foreign ecosystems. So it would make sense to link foreign ecosystems to weight loss

A They can make a bird more vulnerable to predators. -no mention
B They can expose shorebirds to foreign toxins. - it seems that it's either toxins or FE the reason for weight loss not both, hence incorrect
C They can diminish a bird’s ability to navigate. - we are concerned to explain the weight loss, hence incorrect
D They can lead to a reduction in the bird’s weight. - along the lines of our prethinking
E They can cause a bird to become separated from its flock. - we do not know that since it might be just a single bird that is affected by weight loss or many and if many they might stay all together-

Hope this helps,
Any feedback on the reasoning and on paragraph summaries and main point formulation will be much appreciated!

Originally posted by auradediligodo on 20 Jul 2019, 02:00.
Last edited by auradediligodo on 21 Jul 2019, 00:33, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2019, 23:32
How do we rule out (eliminate) the last option in the last question?
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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 00:35
kas007@india.com wrote:
How do we rule out (eliminate) the last option in the last question?


We don't know wether just one bird or many birds will be affected by weight loss and if many are affected by weight loss they could still remain together... anyhow this is a very vague answer choice
hope it helps
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The ‘trophic contamination hypothesis’ posits that shorebirds accumula   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2019, 00:35
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