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Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to

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Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 04 Nov 2018, 21:26
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Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to enhance the production of food and other farm products. Genes from another species are added to a crop to introduce new traits, such as resistance to herbicides, that are not present in the original. One widespread application involves the addition of genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, a soil bacterium that produces insecticidal toxins, to corn, producing a hybrid that is resistant to insect pests.

Proponents of this agricultural biotechnology argue that it has enormous potential benefits. The corn hybrids produce delta endotoxins, which are generally thought to be harmless to humans and other nonpest species, but toxic to certain insect pests. Production of the insecticide within the plant reduces crop losses from the pests and also reduces the need for application of conventional insecticides and other agrochemicals, which can harm humans and cause other environmental damage.

Traditional insecticide treatments involve spraying of the delta endotoxins on the vulnerable crops. However, the chemicals break down rapidly when exposed to ultraviolet light, a problem avoided when the toxins are produced internally to the plant.

The growth of genetically modified crops has sparked opposition on a number of counts. The toxins produced in the plant remain in the soil when the crop is plowed under, accumulating over time with unknown effects at high levels of concentration. The insecticide has the potential to spread upwards through the food chain, starting with predators that consume contaminated insects and, in turn, become prey for other species. Transgenes can spread to nearby wild plants through crop-weed hybridization, a process that is extremely difficult to control, transmitting superior traits to unintended recipients. Fears of these “superweeds” motivate a number of the opponents of genetic modification. Finally, transgenic agriculture encourages monocultures, genetically homogeneous fields, which are ironically more vulnerable to pests and disease because they lack the genetic diversity that provides the natural defense of evolution.

1. According to the passage, delta endotoxins

A. are added to a crop, such as corn, to introduce new traits found in another species
B. are one of several types of herbicide
C. are generally perceived to be harmful to humans
D. decompose quickly under certain forms of radiation
E. can spread to nearby plants through crop-weed hybridization

2. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

A. The dangers of transgenic agriculture outweigh any possible benefits.
B. Genetic modification can create crops that are particularly vulnerable to the very dangers it was trying to reduce.
C. Traditional insecticide treatment carries less risk to other species than does transgenically produced insecticide.
D. Proponents of transgenic agriculture cite the creation of “superweeds” as evidence of the technology’s potential benefits.
E. Plants that are contaminated with delta endotoxins shouldbe plowed under the soil.


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Originally posted by VyshakhR1995 on 22 Apr 2017, 03:36.
Last edited by workout on 04 Nov 2018, 21:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 03:25
VyshakhR1995 wrote:
Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified
crops to enhance the production of food and other farm
products. Genes from another species are added to a crop
to introduce new traits, such as resistance to herbicides,
that are not present in the original. One widespread
application involves the addition of genes from Bacillus
thuringiensis, a soil bacterium that produces insecticidal
toxins, to corn, producing a hybrid that is resistant to
insect pests.
Proponents of this agricultural biotechnology argue that
it has enormous potential benefits. The corn hybrids
produce delta endotoxins, which are generally thought to
be harmless to humans and other nonpest species, but
toxic to certain insect pests. Production of the insecticide
within the plant reduces crop losses from the pests and
also reduces the need for application of conventional
insecticides and other agrochemicals, which can harm
humans and cause other environmental damage.

Traditional insecticide treatments involve spraying of the delta
endotoxins on the vulnerable crops. However, the chemicals
break down rapidly when exposed to ultraviolet light,
a problem avoided when the toxins are produced internally
to the plant.

The growth of genetically modified crops has sparked
opposition on a number of counts. The toxins produced in
the plant remain in the soil when the crop is plowed under,
accumulating over time with unknown effects at high
levels of concentration. The insecticide has the potential to
spread upwards through the food chain, starting with
predators that consume contaminated insects and, in turn,
become prey for other species. Transgenes can spread to
nearby wild plants through crop-weed hybridization, a
process that is extremely difficult to control, transmitting
superior traits to unintended recipients. Fears of these
“superweeds” motivate a number of the opponents of
genetic modification. Finally, transgenic agriculture encourages
monocultures, genetically homogeneous fields,
which are ironically more vulnerable to pests and disease
because they lack the genetic diversity that provides the
natural defense of evolution.



According to the passage, delta endotoxins

are added to a crop, such as corn, to introduce new traits
found in another species
are one of several types of herbicide
are generally perceived to be harmful to humans
decompose quickly under certain forms of radiation
can spread to nearby plants through crop-weed hybridization




With which of the following statements would the author of the
passage be most likely to agree?

The dangers of transgenic agriculture outweigh any
possible benefits.

Genetic modification can create crops that are particularly
vulnerable to the very dangers it was trying to reduce.

Traditional insecticide treatment carries less risk to other
species than does transgenically produced insecticide.

Proponents of transgenic agriculture cite the creation of
“superweeds” as evidence of the technology’s potential
benefits.

Plants that are contaminated with delta endotoxins should
be plowed under the soil.



1) D 2) B. Easy to comprehend.
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Re: Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2018, 21:30

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Re: Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 02:50
1
VyshakhR1995 wrote:
Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to enhance the production of food and other farm products. Genes from another species are added to a crop to introduce new traits, such as resistance to herbicides, that are not present in the original. One widespread application involves the addition of genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, a soil bacterium that produces insecticidal toxins, to corn, producing a hybrid that is resistant to insect pests.

Proponents of this agricultural biotechnology argue that it has enormous potential benefits. The corn hybrids produce delta endotoxins, which are generally thought to be harmless to humans and other nonpest species, but toxic to certain insect pests. Production of the insecticide within the plant reduces crop losses from the pests and also reduces the need for application of conventional insecticides and other agrochemicals, which can harm humans and cause other environmental damage.

Traditional insecticide treatments involve spraying of the delta endotoxins on the vulnerable crops. However, the chemicals break down rapidly when exposed to ultraviolet light, a problem avoided when the toxins are produced internally to the plant.

The growth of genetically modified crops has sparked opposition on a number of counts. The toxins produced in the plant remain in the soil when the crop is plowed under, accumulating over time with unknown effects at high levels of concentration. The insecticide has the potential to spread upwards through the food chain, starting with predators that consume contaminated insects and, in turn, become prey for other species. Transgenes can spread to nearby wild plants through crop-weed hybridization, a process that is extremely difficult to control, transmitting superior traits to unintended recipients. Fears of these “superweeds” motivate a number of the opponents of genetic modification. Finally, transgenic agriculture encourages monocultures, genetically homogeneous fields, which are ironically more vulnerable to pests and disease because they lack the genetic diversity that provides the natural defense of evolution.
1. According to the passage, delta endotoxins

A. are added to a crop, such as corn, to introduce new traits found in another species
B. are one of several types of herbicide
C. are generally perceived to be harmful to humans
D. decompose quickly under certain forms of radiation
E. can spread to nearby plants through crop-weed hybridization

2. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

A. The dangers of transgenic agriculture outweigh any possible benefits.
B. Genetic modification can create crops that are particularly vulnerable to the very dangers it was trying to reduce.
C. Traditional insecticide treatment carries less risk to other species than does transgenically produced insecticide.
D. Proponents of transgenic agriculture cite the creation of “superweeds” as evidence of the technology’s potential benefits.
E. Plants that are contaminated with delta endotoxins shouldbe plowed under the soil.



4:34 minutes, both correct!

1. According to the passage, delta endotoxins[/b]

A. are added to a crop, such as corn, to introduce new traits found in another species-In anothr species is not given anywhere in the passage!
B. are one of several types of herbicide-Not mentioned anywhere.
C. are generally perceived to be harmful to humans-Not perceived harmful for humans
D. decompose quickly under certain forms of radiation-Correct, refer "Traditional insecticide treatments involve spraying of the delta endotoxins on the vulnerable crops. However, the chemicals break down rapidly when exposed to ultraviolet light,..". here, DE is "Chemical"!
E. can spread to nearby plants through crop-weed hybridization-DE Cant spread! Transgenes can spread!

2. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

A. The dangers of transgenic agriculture outweigh any possible benefits.-Not as per author's line of reasonings.
B. Genetic modification can create crops that are particularly vulnerable to the very dangers it was trying to reduce.-Correct, refer " Finally, transgenic agriculture encourages monocultures, genetically homogeneous fields, which are ironically more vulnerable to pests and disease because they lack the genetic diversity that provides the natural defense of evolution.."
C. Traditional insecticide treatment carries less risk to other species than does transgenically produced insecticide.-not mentioned explicitly.
D. Proponents of transgenic agriculture cite the creation of “superweeds” as evidence of the technology’s potential benefits.-Opposite!
E. Plants that are contaminated with delta endotoxins shouldbe plowed under the soil.-Should not be plowed!
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Re: Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2018, 00:03
1
2. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

A. The dangers of transgenic agriculture outweigh any possible benefits. - Incorrect - no such claim is made
B. Genetic modification can create crops that are particularly vulnerable to the very dangers it was trying to reduce.
C. Traditional insecticide treatment carries less risk to other species than does transgenically produced insecticide. - Incorrect - we can't infer this as know positives and negatives of both the groups

The toxins produced in the plant remain in the soil when the crop is plowed under, accumulating over time with unknown effects at high levels of concentration. The insecticide has the potential to spread upwards through the food chain, starting with predators that consume contaminated insects and, in turn, become prey for other species.

D. Proponents of transgenic agriculture cite the creation of “superweeds” as evidence of the technology’s potential benefits. - Incorrect - Fears of these “superweeds” motivate a number of the opponents of genetic modification.
E. Plants that are contaminated with delta endotoxins should be plowed under the soil. - Incorrect

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to enhance the production of food and other farm products.

2. Finally, transgenic agriculture encourages monocultures, genetically homogeneous fields, which are ironically more vulnerable to pests and disease because they lack the genetic diversity that provides the natural defense of evolution. --- can be inferred OA-B based on this statement? Just because transgenic agriculture encourages monocultures can we say that genetic modification can create crops that are particularly vulnerable to the very dangers it was trying to reduce?

In my opinion the genetically modified crop itself is not more vulnerable to the very dangers it was trying to reduce but the way in which they might be used cause vulnerability.


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Re: Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2019, 09:55
Hi

Why do we eliminate option-C in question -1?

Second paragraph mentions that traditional insecticides harm humans.

Also 3rd paragraph mentions that endotoxin is a conventional insecticide.

Can't traditional and conventional be equated to one another?
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Re: Transgenic agriculture is the use of genetically modified crops to   [#permalink] 06 Mar 2019, 09:55
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