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# A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2004, 10:56
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55% (01:47) correct 45% (00:58) wrong based on 2649 sessions

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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25 Oct 2004, 11:19
I'd go with E... had is used to show a sequence of events
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25 Oct 2004, 13:25
OA is "E".
I had a tie between A and E. I chose A because the incident reported, had happened in the past. The doctors chose to retire. They are not choosing to retire. The survey shows that the doctors "chose" they are not choosing....

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25 Oct 2004, 13:43
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Here's an attempt at an explanation...

In the sentence given, there isn't really a sequence of events, it's a stating a recent study.

Here's an example of where had will make sense,

The doctors had retired before the lawyers sued them for malpractice.

In this sentence, had is used to indicate that an event occured before another event. First the doctors retired, then the lawyers sued them. "Had" in this sentence establishes that sequence.

Hope this helps...
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25 Oct 2004, 14:19
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E is better because it is using present perfect tense. The passage is in the present tense so talking about an event that happened prior to another event in the present(and could be still ongoing), we use present perfect.

present perfect: ie I am playing scrabble but note that I have achieved my goal --> I achieved the goal and then, presently, I am playing scrabble
past perfect: ie I played scrabble but I had achieved my goal --> I played scrabble(in the past) but at some point before that, I achieved my goal.

http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/tens ... tm#perfect
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09 Feb 2005, 10:53
55. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

Can we have some discussion please.
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09 Feb 2005, 11:11
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You cannot elect early retirement, but you can elect to retire early.
Only (D) and (E) are possible choices.

(E) is the best for parallellism because "elected to retire" is parallel to "face"
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09 Feb 2005, 11:13
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Don't you have to say "to face" instead of "face"?
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09 Feb 2005, 11:28
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Here I am talking about usage of verbs to maintain the parallelism.

"have elected to retire" is a verb or an action
"face" is also an action or a verb.

If you use "to" before "face" then it looks like the doctors have elected to face something. It looked awkward.

In all the other sentences verb and gerunds/participles are used. Those sentences are least parallel.

Parallellism means you should use similar class of sentence fragment/elements.

Noun/Noun Phrase + Noun/Gerund/Noun Phrase/Gerund Phrase
Verb + Verb

I hope I have clarified my point.
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09 Feb 2005, 12:41
Anybody has any info on "rather than" vs "instead of".I looked at the grammer sites,could not find any info.

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09 Feb 2005, 12:42
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09 Feb 2005, 14:47
I pick E.
A & B have wrong tense. C & D fail in parallelism.
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09 Feb 2005, 15:24
As Anand mentioned pl'ism should be between "have elected" and "facing", not between "retiring" and "facing".Hence C is wrong.
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13 May 2005, 15:30
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24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
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13 May 2005, 16:54
I'd go with C.

Since "have" is to be used instead of "had" A and B can be rejected.
D violates parallelism. (have and facing).
E voilates parallelism because "retire" and "face" would not go well with
"rising"
C is fine because "retiring" and "facing" go alongwith "rising".

Any other ideas?
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13 May 2005, 23:28
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C sounds a bit better than E. I think it is because of 'within'. If it was 'recently' I think, I'd go with E. Parallel structures aren't a problem in E or C imo.
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14 May 2005, 05:01
Kapslock nailed the parallel form. I`m in with C.
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14 May 2005, 10:34
Really?

The phrase "elected to" sounds alot better than just "elected early"
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14 May 2005, 10:50
Let's get rid of A and B and put in the sentence HAVE as the right verb.

many doctors have elected -> this is subject + correct verb
early retirement rather than face -> these are 2 objects of the verb TO ELECT
[FACE] the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance -> these are 2 objects of the verb TO FACE.

The rising cost has therefore a different grammatical function, and SHOULD NOT be parallel to RETIREMENT AND FACE.

As far as idiom is concerned, I think elect to + verb is correct. D and E remain. D is not parallel.
E is parallel in my opinion since [TO] before face is not needed.

Final sentence:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance
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14 May 2005, 14:32
The OA is E.

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