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A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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A
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C
D
E

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Question Stats:

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

The correct answer is E.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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New post 25 Oct 2004, 13:25
OA is "E".
I had a tie between A and E. I chose A because the incident reported, had happened in the past. The doctors chose to retire. They are not choosing to retire. The survey shows that the doctors "chose" they are not choosing....

Could you please support your claims

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Here's an attempt at an explanation...

In the sentence given, there isn't really a sequence of events, it's a stating a recent study.

Here's an example of where had will make sense,

The doctors had retired before the lawyers sued them for malpractice.

In this sentence, had is used to indicate that an event occured before another event. First the doctors retired, then the lawyers sued them. "Had" in this sentence establishes that sequence.

Hope this helps...

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New post 25 Oct 2004, 14:19
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E is better because it is using present perfect tense. The passage is in the present tense so talking about an event that happened prior to another event in the present(and could be still ongoing), we use present perfect.

present perfect: ie I am playing scrabble but note that I have achieved my goal --> I achieved the goal and then, presently, I am playing scrabble
past perfect: ie I played scrabble but I had achieved my goal --> I played scrabble(in the past) but at some point before that, I achieved my goal.

Read on about present and past perfect(and verb tenses in general):
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/tens ... tm#perfect
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You cannot elect early retirement, but you can elect to retire early.
Only (D) and (E) are possible choices.

(E) is the best for parallellism because "elected to retire" is parallel to "face"

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New post 09 Feb 2005, 11:13
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Don't you have to say "to face" instead of "face"?

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New post 09 Feb 2005, 11:28
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Here I am talking about usage of verbs to maintain the parallelism.

"have elected to retire" is a verb or an action
"face" is also an action or a verb.

If you use "to" before "face" then it looks like the doctors have elected to face something. It looked awkward.

In all the other sentences verb and gerunds/participles are used. Those sentences are least parallel.


Parallellism means you should use similar class of sentence fragment/elements.

Noun/Noun Phrase + Noun/Gerund/Noun Phrase/Gerund Phrase
Verb + Verb

I hope I have clarified my point.

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New post 09 Feb 2005, 12:41
Anybody has any info on "rather than" vs "instead of".I looked at the grammer sites,could not find any info.

Thanks for your help.

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New post 09 Feb 2005, 12:42
My understanding is only nouns can follow "instead of".

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New post 09 Feb 2005, 15:24
As Anand mentioned pl'ism should be between "have elected" and "facing", not between "retiring" and "facing".Hence C is wrong.

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New post 13 May 2005, 16:54
I'd go with C.

Since "have" is to be used instead of "had" A and B can be rejected.
D violates parallelism. (have and facing).
E voilates parallelism because "retire" and "face" would not go well with
"rising"
C is fine because "retiring" and "facing" go alongwith "rising".

Any other ideas?
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New post 13 May 2005, 23:28
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C sounds a bit better than E. I think it is because of 'within'. If it was 'recently' I think, I'd go with E. Parallel structures aren't a problem in E or C imo.

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New post 14 May 2005, 10:34
Really?

The phrase "elected to" sounds alot better than just "elected early"

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New post 14 May 2005, 10:50
Let's get rid of A and B and put in the sentence HAVE as the right verb.

many doctors have elected -> this is subject + correct verb
early retirement rather than face -> these are 2 objects of the verb TO ELECT
[FACE] the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance -> these are 2 objects of the verb TO FACE.

The rising cost has therefore a different grammatical function, and SHOULD NOT be parallel to RETIREMENT AND FACE.

As far as idiom is concerned, I think elect to + verb is correct. D and E remain. D is not parallel.
E is parallel in my opinion since [TO] before face is not needed.

Final sentence:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

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New post 31 Aug 2005, 07:02
I will go with E on this.

I know its between C and E.

instead of vs rather than.

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I have found this material when looking for instead of vs rather than:

The phrase rather than consists of an adverb and a conjunction and often means "and not," as in I decided to skip lunch rather than eat in the cafeteria again. It is grammatically similar to sooner than in that it is used with a "bare" infinitive—an infinitive minus to: I would stay here and eat flies sooner than go with them.

Rather than can also be used with nouns as a compound preposition meaning "instead of": I bought a mountain bike rather than a ten-speed. But some people object to this use, insisting that than should be used only as a conjunction. They therefore object to constructions in which rather than is followed by a gerund, as in Rather than buying a new car, I kept my old one.

In some cases, however, rather than can only be followed by a gerund and not by a bare infinitive. If the main verb of the sentence has a form that does not allow parallel treatment of the verb following rather than, you cannot use a bare infinitive, and you must use a gerund. This is often the case when the main verb is in a past tense or has a participle. Thus, you must say The results of the study, rather than ending (not end or ended) the controversy, only added to it. If the main verb was in the present tense (add), you could use the bare infinitive end.

Curiously, when the rather than construction follows the main verb, it can use other verb forms besides the bare infinitive. Thus you can say The results of the study added to the controversy rather than ended it.

The overriding concern in all of this should be to avoid faulty parallels, as in sentences like Rather than buy a new car, I have kept my old one and Rather than take a cab, she is going on foot.

Clearly, it is grammatically defensible to follow rather than with a gerund, but if you prefer to avoid the controversy, use instead of with gerunds.


Based on what the bolded paragraph says the answer I think is C.

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New post 01 Sep 2005, 04:08
I choose E.

Huskers,
Your explanation on use of rather than vs instead is very helpful. However, the infinitive form (to be) form of the verb is more appropriate than the limited present-tense “isâ€

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New post 01 Sep 2005, 04:11
I would go for E.

to retire rather than face is correct.
rather than is usually followed by an infinitive without to

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New post 01 Sep 2005, 08:47
OA is E. We need parallel structure to retire... (to) face..

The second infinitive does not need the 'to' to be stated explicitly.

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New post 29 Sep 2005, 09:38
Thats Odd!

C is explicitly parallel, so wondering why its not C over E which is implicitly parallel!!!!!!!
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