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Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2013, 05:10
I was torn between C and E. In the end I picked C because I thought it was reinforcing the argument.

However, after reading gmatnub' explanation, i see why E is the answer. Moreover, C seems to be re-instating the already given assumption that
"SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus" - Fact

C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus - already stated above

I think strengthener answers should add new information or another angle to the arguement

E)

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2013, 04:22
Well guys I think the answer is C. Reason explained below

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

the whole game here is of conclusion = " Vaccine was the source of virus found in mesotheliomas decades later. "
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores. - Irrelevant

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. " this could be a good answer in case the conclusion were about contamination in cause effect scene
c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus. - " Ask your self does it relate with the conclusion regardless of the degree of support it gives from 1%- 100%- Correct answer.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos. no history of asbestos does not mean a history of Virus.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40. --it is irrelevant as it does not help us to prove that the Vaccine of 1960 was the source of Virus.

I hope it will help

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2013, 10:05
sidpopy wrote:
Well guys I think the answer is C. Reason explained below

Sid,
With all due respect, the OA and best answer is (E). Please see my post from March 20th, above.
Mike :-)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2013, 12:19
Dear Mike

:) thanks for reply. Now pl suggest me something.

Initially even i thought of the same answer what you have suggested, but further changed my decision when in conclusion I saw the word " this vaccine." I understood it as to find the support only for that particular 1906 contaminated vaccine as only responsible for the outbreak. Whereas your answer no effect no cause make me to understand conclusion as all vaccines are causing issue.

Pl suggest

Regards
Sid

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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sidpopy wrote:
Dear Mike

:) thanks for reply. Now pl suggest me something.

Initially even i thought of the same answer what you have suggested, but further changed my decision when in conclusion I saw the word " this vaccine." I understood it as to find the support only for that particular 1906 contaminated vaccine as only responsible for the outbreak. Whereas your answer no effect no cause make me to understand conclusion as all vaccines are causing issue.Pl suggest
Regards, Sid

Dear Sid,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Are you aware that this request is not very clearly written? I believe I understand what you are asking. It would be excellent practice for you to strive to have all your writing on GMAT Club adhere to the high standards of GMAT SC. Resist the urge to be casual and efficient. Every single thing you do here can serve as practice for your GMAT, and excellence demands no less than that.

Here is the argument again:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

So, yes, the conclusion is about this one and only this one vaccine, the 1960 polio vaccine that was contaminated with SV40.

This doesn't not change anything about my analysis above. Choice (C) only repeats what we already know. It reinforces evidence that was already stated, and makes absolutely no link to mesothelioma. By contrast, in an argument that P causes Q, the evidence "no P, no Q" is very powerful support, and that's precisely what choice (E) provides.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2014, 03:37
iamseer wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

A) SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40
C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40



I had a tough time understanding the problem...What I understood was Asbestos is the primary cause but apart from asbestos, a virus SV40 is another factor for the Cancer M...Is this correct assessment of the passage..The wording that SV is contributing cause is some what confusing...
Experts please confirm
The passages goes on to conclude that the source of virus SV 40 found in samples of Mesotheliomas decades later was contaminated vaccine...
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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Dear GMAT club members. The following question is from the official GMAT prep course:

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers’ hypothesis?

A. SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Now option E states...."In Finland"..... I cant remember exactly where I have read it, but I always thought if there is an answer choice that is a fragment of the whole population it is generally considered incorrect. What I cant remember is where this theory hold.

My logic tells me that the fragmentation answer choice is generally incorrect in "assumption" questions where the answer needs to provide ESSENTIAL information for the conclusion to be true. In "strenghten" questions, the answer choice should provide ADDITIONAL information for the conclusion to be held true and hence fragmentation can be appropriate.

Could someone please confirm that my thinking is correct?

Many thanks

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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As Ron Purewal says, we , in certain cases, need to create a noise free premise.
So a flab-free premise says: SV40(CAUSE)---> Cancer(effect)
Now, as per causality rules, when the cause is not there the effect should not be there
option E says, In poland, No SV40 virus(nocause) -- > No Cancer (No effect)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2015, 05:36
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.


Please explain when choosing your answer.



Applying what i learnt from CR bible book:
One of the ways of strengthening a Cause-Effect relationship(C->E) is saying !C->!E

Coming back to the question, we have to strengthen contaminated vaccine was responsible for SV40 virus
(E) says- no contaminated vaccine hence no SV40 virus(!C->!E form)

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2015, 09:59
E
Conclusion - vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas
Strengthen - The point that where vaccine was not contaminated by the virus, mesotheliomas samples do not contain SV40
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2015, 03:05
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

The conclusion is that the SV40 in the vaccine is the source of the mesothelioma.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

A. SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories. Not relevant
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. Doesn't demonstrate that SV40 in the vaccinate could have caused the mesothelioma.
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.Shows that the virus was present but not that it caused mesothelioma
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos. This could weaken the argument.
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.
Where there was no SV40 contamination, mesotheliomas were not linked to SV40 (rather something else, like asbestos)

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2015, 07:26
KayaKaya wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?
A. SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination
with SV40.
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the
virus.
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to
asbestos.
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from
mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Looking Forward to explanations :) GL and HF


Well, the argument is that there are two causes of mesothelioma- asbestos and infection by SV40 Virus. 60% of samples from unhealthy mesothelioma were tested and they were all infected by SV40 virus. There was some polio vaccine that got contaminated and administered in individuals. Researchers hypothesise that vaccine was the source of this virus.

So there are few assumptions:-
1) All the individuals who were tested had the contaminated vaccine.
2) The virus was present in the vaccine before it was administered
3) Virus can live long enough until the time the samples were send to laboratory
4) Those who were not supplied contaminated vaccine are not detected with mesothelioma.

A. SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories. doesn’t matter if it is widely used
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination
with SV40. we are concerned about the contamination happened in the past
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the
virus. This could be a contender, but what if the contamination has happened after 1960 (for example from the environmental exposure etc)
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to
asbestos. we are concerned about those who had exposure to SV40
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from
mesotheliomas do not contain SV40. This is in line with the assumptions

Hope it helps :)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2015, 20:06
I don't think the argument is discussing the causal relation between SV40 and Mesothelioma. Although I was misled into thinking the same after I saw the words 'cause' and 'one of the possible causes' and also because the argument is discussing two things - cause of mesothelioma and cause of entry of SV40.
I think
SV40 (also) causes Mesothelioma = taken for granted

argument is about how SV40 entered the population.
SV40 = found in some samples of Mesothelioma
SV40 entered the population through a contaminated vaccine

A conclusion about 'the mode of entry of SV40' is made based on the 'incidence of SV40 in Mesothelioma cases in US'

Anything that would strengthen should say:
SV40 did not enter in any other way than the vaccine (option E addresses this indirectly). In those countries where there was no possible way for SV40 to enter, Mesothelioma cases did not have any SV40 in their tissues. It says SV40 virus was not some sort of side-effect of Mesothelioma. Had it been so, this population will have it as well. If this population had SV40, but without the contaminated vaccine - then it means that Mesothelioma patients have the propensity to contract the virus SV40. Then we cannot assert that SV40 entered US population only through vaccine.
I think that choice E strengthens the argument in this manner.
I'm no expert. just wanted to share how I came to the choice E.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2015, 21:12
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

A) SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40
C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40

Let me try to explain it.

we have to strengthen the hypothesis that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

The argument discusses that infection is done due to SV40 virus, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. Further it goes on to say that in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus.

The only way the hypothesis can be strengthened by the similar fact showing contaminated vaccine was the source of virus found in mesotheliomas.

Option C addresses only one part of the total argument that relates to the presence of the virus. In other words, recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.. This choice partially strengthens the argument.

whereas if you look at option E, it address the whole. It says that vaccine was not contaminated and samples don't have SV 40. It completely strengthens the argument by touching two parts, vaccine with virus and its presence in mesotheliomas.


Hope it helps.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2015, 07:03
iamseer wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

A) SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40
C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40
[Reveal] Spoiler:
How did you eliminate C? And why is E the answer?

Other posts on MGMAT forum and this forum say that C states something we already know. I disagree.
the reasoning is:
Yes, we know vaccine was contaminated. But whether it could have an effect 40-50 years down the line is not known. So, knowing that those vaccine still have traces of SV40 gives a subtle new information that the virus can actually survive 40-50 years. So, it strengthens the hypotheses.

vaccine was contaminated with virus SV40 in 1960 ---> (Virus is still present in those vaccine samples of 1960 i.e. virus can survive 40-50 years) ---> vaccine is the source of virus found in cancer tissue.

To make things clear I tried to form an analogy:

David answers a question today. 50 years ago, David read a book that had the answer. The quiz master hypothesizes that reading that book helped David answer the question today.

Now, if we have to strengthen this hypothesis and 2 options are:

1. In a recent interview David mentioned that he remembers what he had read in that book.
2. Tom who never read the book, could not answer the question.

which one of the option would one choose?

Analogy:
David - Polio vaccine of US
Tom - Polio vaccine of Finland
Reading the book - contamination by virus
answering the question in quiz - virus in mesotheliomas
mentioned that he remembers - still show traces


C is already stated in the argument,though put in a different way.We cannot use a premise stated as a fact in in the argumentas support.E is the best choice among the rest.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2015, 00:30
mikemcgarry wrote:
sidpopy wrote:
Dear Mike

:) thanks for reply. Now pl suggest me something.

Initially even i thought of the same answer what you have suggested, but further changed my decision when in conclusion I saw the word " this vaccine." I understood it as to find the support only for that particular 1906 contaminated vaccine as only responsible for the outbreak. Whereas your answer no effect no cause make me to understand conclusion as all vaccines are causing issue.Pl suggest
Regards, Sid

Dear Sid,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Are you aware that this request is not very clearly written? I believe I understand what you are asking. It would be excellent practice for you to strive to have all your writing on GMAT Club adhere to the high standards of GMAT SC. Resist the urge to be casual and efficient. Every single thing you do here can serve as practice for your GMAT, and excellence demands no less than that.

Here is the argument again:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

So, yes, the conclusion is about this one and only this one vaccine, the 1960 polio vaccine that was contaminated with SV40.

This doesn't not change anything about my analysis above. Choice (C) only repeats what we already know. It reinforces evidence that was already stated, and makes absolutely no link to mesothelioma. By contrast, in an argument that P causes Q, the evidence "no P, no Q" is very powerful support, and that's precisely what choice (E) provides.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)


Mike, you are like Bunuel for Quant. Anyway, I feel embarrassed to say this, but I chose B because I thought since the manufacturing process now prevents contamination of SV40, surely this virus must have caused a problem (i.e. contributed to mesothelioma). Why else would you change the manufacturing process unless SV40 caused problems right? Therefore, it would be sufficient as an assumption. I know E is definitely the better answer, but what do you think of my reasoning for B?

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SamuelWitwicky wrote:
Mike, you are like Bunuel for Quant. Anyway, I feel embarrassed to say this, but I chose B because I thought since the manufacturing process now prevents contamination of SV40, surely this virus must have caused a problem (i.e. contributed to mesothelioma). Why else would you change the manufacturing process unless SV40 caused problems right? Therefore, it would be sufficient as an assumption. I know E is definitely the better answer, but what do you think of my reasoning for B?

Dear SamuelWitwicky,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Thank you very much for you kind words. I must say, I feel a little humbled by the comparison to Bunuel, whom I hold in tremendous respect.

What you ask is an excellent question. Here's the prompt again:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.


Here's what I think about (B). The hypothesis is that the contamination of the polio vaccine with the virus SV40 contributes to the incidence of mesothelioma. We don't know whether this is true: the researcher think that this is true, and we are asked to strength this conclusion.

If that conjecture were true, then it would be a problem, and (B) would be an excellent solution to the problem. But we are not asked to solve the biological problem discussed: we are asked to strengthen the conclusion. Furthermore, we don't have any additional information. The prediction of the researchers would be that if we changed the vaccine manufacturing technique, eliminating SV40 contamination, then we would expect the incidence of mesothelioma to drop. If we were told all this, then that would be incredibly strong evidence for this conjecture. The problem is: we are not told the result. We are told only that SV40 has been eliminating from the vaccine manufacturing process. Then what happened? Frustratingly, we are not told. The results of this change could be a huge strengthener, but we are not told this. That's the problem with (B).

We can't really make inferences from the manufacturer's motivations. First of all, when a group of scientists speculate that some X is a risk, a lot of people just start avoiding X because it could be a risk, even though sometimes it turns out that this X is perfectly safe. The manufacturers might have caught wind of the scientists' speculation and simply believed them because they are scientists, irrespective of the validity of the conjecture. Furthermore, it is quite likely that the manufacturer made a change that eliminates not just SV40 in particular, but a number of viruses --- for example, some kind of intense heat or flash pasteurization, something that would destroy virtually all viruses. The manufacturers could have made this change on general principles, without any knowledge at all about SV40 in particular. We simply don't know.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2016, 20:41
rachitshah wrote:
Still not convinced why C is wrong and E is right. Can someone elaborate?

Thanks


May be I'm too late to answer your question but I want to share my thought anyway :-D

C is wrong because we don't know when the vaccine was contaminated; it may be contaminated in 2010. Therefore, we can't say that the vaccine was the souce of the virus.

But E says that no contamination = no virus (No source = No virus)

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2016, 21:02
C is out of scope. The passage says: virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

So, basically the argument is talking about around, let’s say 1990. SV40 virus was found in mesotheliomas in 1990 and researchers hypothesize that this was because in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus.

Now, whether or not recently discovered (which means in 2016) samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus, is immaterial to the researchers' hypothesis.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a   [#permalink] 22 Mar 2016, 21:02

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