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Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2015, 04:05
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

The conclusion is that the SV40 in the vaccine is the source of the mesothelioma.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

A. SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories. Not relevant
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. Doesn't demonstrate that SV40 in the vaccinate could have caused the mesothelioma.
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.Shows that the virus was present but not that it caused mesothelioma
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos. This could weaken the argument.
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.
Where there was no SV40 contamination, mesotheliomas were not linked to SV40 (rather something else, like asbestos)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2015, 08:26
KayaKaya wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?
A. SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination
with SV40.
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the
virus.
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to
asbestos.
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from
mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Looking Forward to explanations :) GL and HF


Well, the argument is that there are two causes of mesothelioma- asbestos and infection by SV40 Virus. 60% of samples from unhealthy mesothelioma were tested and they were all infected by SV40 virus. There was some polio vaccine that got contaminated and administered in individuals. Researchers hypothesise that vaccine was the source of this virus.

So there are few assumptions:-
1) All the individuals who were tested had the contaminated vaccine.
2) The virus was present in the vaccine before it was administered
3) Virus can live long enough until the time the samples were send to laboratory
4) Those who were not supplied contaminated vaccine are not detected with mesothelioma.

A. SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories. doesn’t matter if it is widely used
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination
with SV40. we are concerned about the contamination happened in the past
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the
virus. This could be a contender, but what if the contamination has happened after 1960 (for example from the environmental exposure etc)
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to
asbestos. we are concerned about those who had exposure to SV40
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from
mesotheliomas do not contain SV40. This is in line with the assumptions

Hope it helps :)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2015, 01:30
mikemcgarry wrote:
sidpopy wrote:
Dear Mike

:) thanks for reply. Now pl suggest me something.

Initially even i thought of the same answer what you have suggested, but further changed my decision when in conclusion I saw the word " this vaccine." I understood it as to find the support only for that particular 1906 contaminated vaccine as only responsible for the outbreak. Whereas your answer no effect no cause make me to understand conclusion as all vaccines are causing issue.Pl suggest
Regards, Sid

Dear Sid,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Are you aware that this request is not very clearly written? I believe I understand what you are asking. It would be excellent practice for you to strive to have all your writing on GMAT Club adhere to the high standards of GMAT SC. Resist the urge to be casual and efficient. Every single thing you do here can serve as practice for your GMAT, and excellence demands no less than that.

Here is the argument again:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

So, yes, the conclusion is about this one and only this one vaccine, the 1960 polio vaccine that was contaminated with SV40.

This doesn't not change anything about my analysis above. Choice (C) only repeats what we already know. It reinforces evidence that was already stated, and makes absolutely no link to mesothelioma. By contrast, in an argument that P causes Q, the evidence "no P, no Q" is very powerful support, and that's precisely what choice (E) provides.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)


Mike, you are like Bunuel for Quant. Anyway, I feel embarrassed to say this, but I chose B because I thought since the manufacturing process now prevents contamination of SV40, surely this virus must have caused a problem (i.e. contributed to mesothelioma). Why else would you change the manufacturing process unless SV40 caused problems right? Therefore, it would be sufficient as an assumption. I know E is definitely the better answer, but what do you think of my reasoning for B?
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2015, 12:11
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SamuelWitwicky wrote:
Mike, you are like Bunuel for Quant. Anyway, I feel embarrassed to say this, but I chose B because I thought since the manufacturing process now prevents contamination of SV40, surely this virus must have caused a problem (i.e. contributed to mesothelioma). Why else would you change the manufacturing process unless SV40 caused problems right? Therefore, it would be sufficient as an assumption. I know E is definitely the better answer, but what do you think of my reasoning for B?

Dear SamuelWitwicky,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Thank you very much for you kind words. I must say, I feel a little humbled by the comparison to Bunuel, whom I hold in tremendous respect.

What you ask is an excellent question. Here's the prompt again:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.


Here's what I think about (B). The hypothesis is that the contamination of the polio vaccine with the virus SV40 contributes to the incidence of mesothelioma. We don't know whether this is true: the researcher think that this is true, and we are asked to strength this conclusion.

If that conjecture were true, then it would be a problem, and (B) would be an excellent solution to the problem. But we are not asked to solve the biological problem discussed: we are asked to strengthen the conclusion. Furthermore, we don't have any additional information. The prediction of the researchers would be that if we changed the vaccine manufacturing technique, eliminating SV40 contamination, then we would expect the incidence of mesothelioma to drop. If we were told all this, then that would be incredibly strong evidence for this conjecture. The problem is: we are not told the result. We are told only that SV40 has been eliminating from the vaccine manufacturing process. Then what happened? Frustratingly, we are not told. The results of this change could be a huge strengthener, but we are not told this. That's the problem with (B).

We can't really make inferences from the manufacturer's motivations. First of all, when a group of scientists speculate that some X is a risk, a lot of people just start avoiding X because it could be a risk, even though sometimes it turns out that this X is perfectly safe. The manufacturers might have caught wind of the scientists' speculation and simply believed them because they are scientists, irrespective of the validity of the conjecture. Furthermore, it is quite likely that the manufacturer made a change that eliminates not just SV40 in particular, but a number of viruses --- for example, some kind of intense heat or flash pasteurization, something that would destroy virtually all viruses. The manufacturers could have made this change on general principles, without any knowledge at all about SV40 in particular. We simply don't know.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2016, 12:21
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iamseer wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?


Category – Strengthen (Cause & Effect)

Premise-1: Primary cause for mesothelioma is asbestos BUT SV40 virus ALSO contributes.

Premise-2: In 1960, vaccine was contaminated with SV40.

Conclusion: Vaccine (cause) => virus in mesotheliomas (effect)

Correct choice can be in any of the follwoing forms:
#1. A choice that says there is no other cause for the above effect. OR
#2. A choice that says there is no other effect for the above cause.
#3. A choice that says there is no cause for the above cause.
#4. A choice that says if no cause then no effect.

A) SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
If a cancer laboratory uses SV40 then we are not sure about the connection of this usage with vaccine having SV40.

B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40
Weakner. It says vaccine cannot have SV40, so what researchers are saying is wrong. Had the question asked for weakner this would have been the correct choice.

C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
This is rephrase of the premise “1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus”. We need a new evidence to support the conclusion. So what already is stated cannot be the answer here becauseThis is not an “coclusion” or “inference” question.

D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
argument says that asbestos is primary cause but SV40 virus also contributes. But does this any says that vaccine causes mesotheliomas? No!

E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40
This is parallel to “if no cause then no effect.”. - CORRECT
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2016, 05:44
The answer is an easy E once you know the rule of the game.
This is a particularly good question that underlies the importance of understanding the rules for CR.

This is a strengthen the conclusion question:-
Now imagine this conversation
You:-Hey Bob, .. I think superman is the most powerful hero
Bob :- Why do u think so ?
You:- Because Superman can fly, stop bullet, reach the sun and breathe underwater.
Bob:- I am still not convinced. Tell me one more thing that superman can do.

Now think what your answer would be :-
Superman once touched an elephant and the elephant fell 5000 feet away.
OR
Superman can fly very fast and very high.

Now Bob has asked you to strengthen your conclusion about superman. He is not convinced with the four reasons that you already told him. He needs one more reason to believe your conclusion. So you must present a NEW REASON to make your conclusion stronger. You cannot state the same reason that you have already presented to him before.


THIS IS WHAT OPTION E IS DOING.
E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40
Option E apart from all the old information, already present in the stimulus, is giving another information that is making our conclusion stronger

OPTION C is wrong because it is repeating what is already said in the stimulus
C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

But we already know that .. don't we ?? the question stem contains this info explicitly :-"in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus."

SO we need a new proof to make our conclusion stronger.







Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

A) SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40
C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2017, 17:21
1
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseachers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.


Causality and Strengthen Questions

Because Strengthen and Weaken questions require you to perform opposite tasks, to strengthen a causal conclusion you take the exact opposite approach that you would in a Weaken question.

In Strengthen questions, supporting a cause and effect relationship almost always consists of performing one of the following tasks:

A. Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect

Because the author believes there is only one cause (the stated cause in the argument), eliminating other possible causes strengthens the conclusion.

B. Show that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs

Because the author believes that the cause always produces the effect, any scenario where the cause occurs and the effect follows lends credibility to the conclusion. This type of answer can appear in the form of an example.

C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur

Using the reasoning in the previous point, any scenario where the cause does not occur and the effect does not occur supports the conclusion. This type of answer also can appear in the form of an example.

D. Eliminate the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed

Because the author believes that the cause and effect relationship is correctly stated, eliminating the possibility that the relationship is backwards (the claimed effect is actually the cause of the claimed cause) strengthens the conclusion.

E. Show that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate, or eliminate possible problems with the data

If the data used to make a causal statement are in error, then the validity of the causal claim is in question. Any information that eliminates error or reduces the possibility of error will support the argument.


Premise : SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus.
Conclusion : Reseachers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Cause → Effect

SV40 → polio vaccine contaminated with mesotheliomas

Quote:
C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur

Using the reasoning in the previous point, any scenario where the cause does not occur and the effect does not occur supports the conclusion. This type of answer also can appear in the form of an example.


Answer : (E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas DO NOT contain SV40.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2019, 19:13
I have a real problem with this answer. E doesn’t support the contention that SV40 is a contributor to mesothelioma. It actually undermines that conclusion by finding cases where SV40 plays no role.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a   [#permalink] 30 Jun 2019, 19:13

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