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# Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most

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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
I initially picked B, but after reading the passage again, changed my mind into A.
My reasoning is like this.
If older production technologies can be adapted to reduce production of sulfur dioxide, who doesn't modify thier production when there is a regulation that imposes extensive compliance costs on companies that generate sulfur dioxide? In other words, the regulation affects older productions and new production evenly because older production can modify their production. However, since older production cannot be adapted to reduce production of sulfur dioxide, the older production is disadvenataged by the regulation just as the passage explained.

To be sure, I looked up this question and found a lot of people insist the answer for this Q is C.
I can see why those people picked C.

I'd like to hear people's opinions on this issue.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
Can anyone answer the below question?. it is based on the same passage

It can be inferred from the passage that a large plant might have to spend more than a similar but smaller plant on environmental compliance because the larger plant is

(A) more likely to attract attention from local regulators
(B) less likely to be exempt from permit and reporting requirements
(C) less likely to have regulatory costs passed on to it by companies that supply its raw materials
(D) more likely to employ older production technologies
(E) more likely to generate wastes that are more environmentally damaging than those generated by smaller plants
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
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Well, let me try..

Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; "on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size".

There is a contrast being presented and it states that Small firms can sometimes dodge the provisions such as permit or other requirements because of its SIZE.
Now, since its an inference question, and a contrast is presented , we can judiciously infer that LARGE firms wont be able to dodge these regulations and therefore, they may have to pay more compliance costs as compared to small size firms.

Any thoughts ?
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I chose A for Q55. This is how I interpret A and E.

(A)
environmental management problem = uneven environmental regulation costs.
solutions = how to achieve competitive edge in the uneven costs condition (environmental managers can help their companies ...).

(E)
only mentioned misconception, but failed to address the last part of the passage (anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically).

What takeaway / realignment of GMAT world logic should I accept here?
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
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source: OG13

Q53. Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most corporations is the Line belief that environmental regulations affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disadvantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically.

According to the passage, which of the following statements about sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs is true?
A. Older production technologies cannot be adapted so as to reduce production of these outputs as waste products.
B. Under the most recent environmental regulations, industrial plants are no longer permitted to produce these outputs.
C. Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.
D. Many older plants have developed innovative technological processes that reduce the amounts of these outputs generated as waste products.
E. Since the production processes that generate these outputs are less costly than alternative processes, these less expensive processes are sometimes adopted despite their acknowledged environmental hazards.

text from passage wrote:
New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products.

So they regulations are in general and they are applicable to violators.

But option C says that

Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.

but there is nowhere written that Some plants still do it or whether companies stopped doing so after the regulations are imposed.

So how can C be correct choice.
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Nevernevergiveup wrote:
source: OG13

Q53. Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most corporations is the belief that environmental regulations affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disadvantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically.

According to the passage, which of the following statements about sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs is true?
A. Older production technologies cannot be adapted so as to reduce production of these outputs as waste products.
B. Under the most recent environmental regulations, industrial plants are no longer permitted to produce these outputs.
C. Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.
D. Many older plants have developed innovative technological processes that reduce the amounts of these outputs generated as waste products.
E. Since the production processes that generate these outputs are less costly than alternative processes, these less expensive processes are sometimes adopted despite their acknowledged environmental hazards.

text from passage wrote:
New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products.

So they regulations are in general and they are applicable to violators.

But option C says that

Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.

but there is nowhere written that Some plants still do it or whether companies stopped doing so after the regulations are imposed.

So how can C be correct choice.

Dear Nevernevergiveup,

I'm happy to respond. Here's the relevant part of the passage:
Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products.

First of all, the first sentence quoted here is a general-point sentence, and the sentence that follows it is an example sentence. Even if the second sentence were not clear, we would expect it to be about older companies "still continuing" to do something that is now regulated.

In fact, the second sentence is crystal clear. The use of the present participle "using" implies present action, and the adverb "still" reinforces this interpretation. The fact that the paragraph talks about "companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs" means, of course, that right now there are "companies" that "still use older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs." This is stated clearly and unambiguously.

Therefore (C) is absolutely undeniable as the OA.

Does this make sense?
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
Hi mikemcgarry or other experts,
I was confused with choice D in Question 54
54. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the statement about large plants (lines 18-26) to the passage as a whole?
(A) It presents a hypothesis that is disproved later in the passage.
(B) It highlights an opposition between two ideas mentioned in the passage.
(C) It provides examples to support a claim made earlier in the passage.
(D) It exemplifies a misconception mentioned earlier in the passage.
(E) It draws an analogy between two situations described in the passage.

IMO , "addition", the first word in paragraph 2, implies same level as the content preceding "addition".
here is an example which proves the main idea, so I view the comparison of larger company and smaller as an example to prove the main idea.

have a nice day
>_~
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gamerguy0074 wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

can you give your inputs on question 52?
why E is incorrect?

Thanks

Dear gamerguy0074,

I'm happy to respond.

Here is Q 52:
52. It can be inferred from the passage that a large plant might have to spend more than a similar but smaller plant on environmental compliance because the larger plant is
(A) more likely to attract attention from local regulators
(B) less likely to be exempt from permit and reporting requirements
(C) less likely to have regulatory costs passed on to it by companies that supply its raw materials
(D) more likely to employ older production technologies
(E) more likely to generate wastes that are more environmentally damaging than those generated by smaller plants

Remember that inference on the GMAT RC (and on CR) means that something is not directly stated but that it's absolutely undeniable, based on what is explicitly stated. See:

For Q52, this is the crucial sentence from the prompt:
Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size.

If smaller companies, by virtue of their small size, are exempt from permit or reporting requirements, then it must be true that large companies would be subject to these requirements. Answer = (B)

Does all this make sense?
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NandishSS wrote:
Hi hazelnut,

Can you please explain why not A?

1. It can be inferred from the passage that a large plant might have to spend more than a similar but smaller plant on environmental compliance because the larger plant is

(A) more likely to attract attention from local regulators
(B) less likely to be exempt from permit and reporting requirements
(C) less likely to have regulatory costs passed on to it by companies that supply its raw materials
(D) more likely to employ older production technologies
(E) more likely to generate wastes that are more environmentally damaging than those generated by smaller plants

Hi NandishSS,
The below lines have the answer to question 1.
Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. -- comparison based on size of plant

Whereas , the last line of para 1 states the below -
For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. -- Location of a plant matters ,but we are not comparing smaller plants with larger plants in these lines.

6 mins 30 seconds in total , including 2 mins 15 seconds to read . All correct .
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
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gmatretest wrote:
I chose A for Q55. This is how I interpret A and E.

(A)
environmental management problem = uneven environmental regulation costs.
solutions = how to achieve competitive edge in the uneven costs condition (environmental managers can help their companies ...).

(E)
only mentioned misconception, but failed to address the last part of the passage (anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically).

What takeaway / realignment of GMAT world logic should I accept here?

I thought the same. Later I find the issue is different tone: argumentation or presentation . The verb" correct" in E implies argumentation , on the other hand A uses the verb" address" whose tone implies presenting an idea. Thus E suits better considering the tone.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
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Hi, I chose A as the answer for question 4 but got it wrong.

My thought process was that the misconception among the env.managers is definitely a problem. The author goes on to explain how is the misconception a problem and from the last sentence of the passage, the author surely provides a possible solution.

However, I feel E is narrowed because though the author is trying to correct the misconception, this option does not consider a possible solution which the author has stated in the last line of the passage.

Please explain why is my thought process wrong.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
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aviejay wrote:
Hi, I chose A as the answer for question 4 but got it wrong.

My thought process was that the misconception among the env.managers is definitely a problem. The author goes on to explain how is the misconception a problem and from the last sentence of the passage, the author surely provides a possible solution.

However, I feel E is narrowed because though the author is trying to correct the misconception, this option does not consider a possible solution which the author has stated in the last line of the passage.

Please explain why is my thought process wrong.

Sure, you could say that the misconception is a problem, but does the author suggest possible solutions? In the last sentence, the author basically says that environmental managers CAN help their companies by avoiding that misconception, but does that really solve the misconception problem? Even if it does, the author certainly does not present multiple possible solutions to correct the misconception.

Instead, the author simply describes the misconception and attempts to correct that misconception. This is captured perfectly by choice (E).

In other words, the author is not presenting possible solutions for correcting the misconception. Instead, the author corrects the misconception in the passage, and then explains why environmental managers should adopt this corrected view to help their companies.

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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
GMATNinja
As per your explanations if the option a was mentioned as below then would it be a correct answer choice:

What i comprehend from your earlier explanations is that since the author is not providing a number of possible solutions. Hence the option a is wrong.

Pl correct me.
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hassu13 wrote:
GMATNinja
As per your explanations if the option a was mentioned as below then would it be a correct answer choice:

What i comprehend from your earlier explanations is that since the author is not providing a number of possible solutions. Hence the option a is wrong.

Pl correct me.

Not quite... as described in my earlier post, the author is not primarily interested in solving a widespread environmental management problem. Instead, the author is primarily concerned with describing and correcting a common misconception (choice E).

Sure, the author says that environmental managers can better help their companies if they avoid this misconception... but is that really a solution to the management problem? Telling someone to avoid a certain problem isn't really solving the problem. The author tells the environmental managers that they should avoid the problem, but the author does NOT discuss how to avoid the problem.

(E) is still the best answer.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
ammuseeru generis nightblade354 GMATNinja KarishmaB pikolo2510

For Q1,why is (A) incorrect based on below part of passage:
Quote:
For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors
is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs.
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ammuseeru generis nightblade354 GMATNinja KarishmaB pikolo2510

For Q1,why is (A) incorrect based on below part of passage:
Quote:
For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors
is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs.

You have asked very interesting question.

First, it is a inference question. As inference question will not be stated directly in passage, we will have to infer it. Below quote is talking about LOCATION of SMALLER plant. It is not talking about LARGER plant. As per this quote, smaller plants which are located near non-compliant larger plant is less likely to attract regulators than smaller plan which are located in ISOLATED Place. This quote does not say "Larger plan is more/less likely to attract regulators or Larger plans are more non-compliant etc.

large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size.

It says Larger plants can spread compliance costs but smaller plant may not even have to pay for permits/reporting requirements. What does it mean ?
It means, Larger plants are less likely than smaller plants to be exempt from these requirements.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most [#permalink]
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Hi, mikemcgarry and other moderators,
I have a confusion with primary purpose question here,

If I see official explanation it says option E is correct because: The primary purpose aims to dispel the belief that environmental regulations affect all companies in industry uniformly.

And if we see the last para where it is stated "By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation,..."
states they are not equally affected.

Can somebody explain than how answer choice E is correct?

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