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As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a

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Re: As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 02:15
Aman1012 wrote:
Just a thought
in option D 'which' is used after 'in' as I have read many places in Gmat club itself that which is always preceded by , . So can u explain me why this is the exception

Yes Aman. A notable exception to this comma rule is when which appears as part of a prepositional phrase (in which in this sentence).
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Re: As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 03:57
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-

Bunuel wrote:
As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a few individuals reproducing and the rest serve the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or battling intruders.

(A) As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a few individuals reproducing

(B) As do ants, termites have an elaborate social structure, which includes a few individuals to reproduce

(C) Just as with ants, termite social structure is elaborate, including a few individuals for reproducing

(D) Like ants, termites have an elaborate social structure in which a few individuals reproduce

(E) Like that of ants, the termite social structure is elaborate, including a few individuals that reproduce


Choice A: This answer choice incorrectly compares "ants" to "the termite social structure". This answer choice also incorrectly uses the continuous tense to state a universal truth, leading to a parallelism break with the verb "serve", which is in the simple present tense. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice B: This answer choice incorrectly uses "as" to compare the nouns "ants" and "termites". This answer choice also breaks parallelism between the verbs "to reproduce" and "serve". Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice C: This answer choice repeats the comparison error found in Option A. This answer choice also repeats the tense-related error found in Option A by using the continuous verb "including". Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice D: This answer choice maintains parallelism and proper tense use throughout the sentence and correctly uses "like" to compare the comparable nouns "ants" and "termites". Thus, this answer choice is correct.

Choice E: This answer choice breaks parallelism between the phrases "individuals that reproduce" and "the rest serve"; remember, elements connected by conjunction must always be parallel. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Hence, D is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Simple Tenses on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):



To understand the concept of "Like v/s As on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):



All the best!
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Re: As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 07:43
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Aman1012 wrote:
Just a thought
in option D 'which' is used after 'in' as I have read many places in Gmat club itself that which is always preceded by , . So can u explain me why this is the exception

Hello, Aman1012. You might find this thread to be of interest, in which you will find the reason for when it is appropriate to use a preposition in front of which.

Happy reading.

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 07:58
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Aman1012 wrote:
Just a thought
in option D 'which' is used after 'in' as I have read many places in Gmat club itself that which is always preceded by , . So can u explain me why this is the exception



Hello Aman1012,

You ask a good question. The modifier which is a noun modifier that modifies the preceding noun. Generally, we see a comma between the noun (that which modifies) and which. In such a structure, the noun that is modified by which is associated with an action. This noun performs an action.

But when the sentence intends to describe a noun in which some action takes place, that's when we use the phrase in which. For example, I went to a concert in which all the participating bands were new. The same is the usage in this official sentence. The official sentence talks about an elaborate social structure in which a few activities take place.


Hope this helps. :-)
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As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 08:48
Aman1012 wrote:
Just a thought
in option D 'which' is used after 'in' as I have read many places in Gmat club itself that which is always preceded by , . So can u explain me why this is the exception


Hi,

The following paragraph is from the Official Guide, pointing out certain issues not tested on the GMAT:

Punctuation as editorial style: You will need to judge issues of punctuation only insofar as they involve standard conventions that make a difference for the meaning and coherence of the sentence. Beyond the basic grammatical principles, some punctuation conventions vary by region or academic discipline, are matters of pure style, or are determined by publishers or editors for their own purposes

Following the thought, "in which" refers to the noun "structure" whether a comma precedes it or not and conveys the meaning that something takes place "within/in" the social structure. There is no perceptible change in meaning and GMAT treads lightly on such issues.

Hope this helps. :)
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Re: As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 20:49
When you see that the question begins with ‘As’ and is comparing two things, we know that we have to look at 'As' and 'Like' in more detail. We know that we generally use ‘like’ to compare two nouns that are similar in some sense or the other.

When you read till the end of the question, you notice ‘reproducing’ and ‘serve’ and realize that this is a case of parallelism.

These two pointers are enough to quickly eliminate Options A, B, and C (Also, Ants must be compared to Termites)

Now you are left with Options D and E

With E, you notice that the sentence is ‘a few individuals that reproduce’, which isn’t parallel.

This leaves you with D, which is the right answer.

Sure, you can go into more details about illogical comparisons and altered intent. But this quick scanning gives you the right answer in a matter of seconds.

Hope this helps.
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Re: As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2020, 23:19
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Aman1012 wrote:
Just a thought
in option D 'which' is used after 'in' as I have read many places in Gmat club itself that which is always preceded by , . So can u explain me why this is the exception


Hi Aman

In this particular case, we are to read "in which" as a combined prepositional phrase and not as "which" separately preceded by "in". This "in which" structure can be used in two specific instances:

a) To point to a physical location/inside:

On the shelf there is a blue box where the sugar is kept. This is incorrect as we intend to say that the sugar is "inside" the box, and not merely any general position for which "where" can be used. Hence the correct usage would be "in which" instead of "where" as stated below.

On the shelf there is a blue box in which the sugar is kept.

b) To describe metaphorical place such as situations or circumstances:

My friend and I had an argument when she nearly lost her temper. This is incorrect. The friend nearly lost her temper in a situation, which is argument with me. Therefore the correct usage would be "in which" instead of "when" or "where".

My friend and I had an argument in which she nearly lost her temper.

Hope this clarifies.
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Re: As with ants, the elaborate social structure of termites includes a   [#permalink] 29 Jan 2020, 23:19

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