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Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]

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Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 15:31
1
15
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A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

78% (01:43) correct 22% (02:05) wrong based on 1174 sessions

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Boreal owls range over a much larger area than do other owls of similar size. Scientists have hypothesized that it is scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely. This hypothesis would be hard to confirm directly, since it is not possible to produce a sufficiently accurate count of the populations of small mammals inhabiting the forests where boreal owls live. Careful study of owl behavior has, however, shown that boreal owls do range over larger areas when they live in regions where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse. This indicates that the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation.

In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first presents an explanatory hypothesis; the second states the main conclusion of the argument.

B. The first presents an explanatory hypothesis; the second presents evidence tending to support this hypothesis.

C. The first presents an explanatory hypothesis; the second presents evidence to support an alternative explanation.

D. The first describes a position that the argument opposes; the second presents evidence to undermine the support for the position being opposed.

E. The first describes a position that the argument opposes; the second states the main conclusion of the argument.


OG 2019 Question
ID CR02146

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Re: Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2018, 16:53
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BID (Boil It Down): Scarce owl prey -> Wider ranging

The Goal: We need to identify the purpose of each statement, and the relationship between the two.

    Statement 1: Scientists’ hypothesis (scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely)
    Statement 2: Wider ranging owls in areas where food that owl’s prey eats is scarcer (lends support to the idea that scarcer prey causes boreal owls to range over a wider area.


The relationship between the two: The second provides support for the first, which leads the author to state that the hypoth is plausible.

Formal Recap of Argument
Conclusion: This argument has two conclusions. The author’s conclusion is that the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation – it does have support. The scientists’ conclusion/hypothesis is that boreal owls range over unusually large areas because of a scarcity of prey.

Evidence: Boreal owls range over unusually large areas when they live where food eaten by small mammals is relatively sparse. Since this evidence supports the scientists, it also supports the author of the argument.

Assumption: The scarcity of small mammal food indicates a scarcity of small mammals. It should be noted, however, that the author does not make a definite claim; it merely says that the scientists are not merely speculating.

Attack the Options
As always, let’s check out the stance of the options to see which ones botch it. Notice that D and E botch the first statement. The argument DEFINITELY does not oppose the hypothesis. In fact the author makes the case that the hypothesis is pretty reasonable.

Between A, B, and C, let’s see what’s going on with the back half of the options:

A: the second statement is not the conclusion. It’s proof that the author finds promising. Chuck it.

Now, between B, and C there’s more of a nuance, but C references some sort of alternative hypothesis. Nowhere in this prompt do we see any indication of an alternative hypothesis. Drop option C.

Option B is correct. The first statement does provide a hypothesis; it hypothesizes an explanation for the wide range of boreal owls: scarcity of prey. The second portion, while not definitive, does provide some support to the hypothesis, and the author acknowledges that this proof adds credence to the hypothesis. Since the owls range over larger areas when the food of small mammals is scarce, this might well be because the small mammals eaten by the owls are scarce.
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Re: Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2018, 01:07
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BF 1 presents a hypothesis.
BF 2 validates the hypothesis.
Therefore, the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation.

D and E can easily be eliminated - The argument seeks to provide evidence to validate BF 1.
C is out as well (BF 2 supports the hypothesis)
BF 2 is not a conclusion so A is also out

Hence, B is the best answer choice.
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Re: Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 09:37
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Boreal owls range over a much larger area than do other owls of similar size. --- issue in hand/ hypothesis/ a conclusion

Scientists have hypothesized that it is scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely. --- evidence for above hypothesis / not fact, hypothesis

This hypothesis would be hard to confirm directly, since it is not possible to produce a sufficiently accurate count of the populations of small mammals inhabiting the forests where boreal owls live. --- objection in line

Careful study of owl behavior has, however, shown that boreal owls do range over larger areas when they live in regions where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse. --- something in support of above hypothesis

This indicates that the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation. --- main conclusion

Connection of two BF with main conclusion:
BF1- Scientists hypothesis on issue in hand/
BF2- A support given for main conclusion

B. The first presents an explanatory hypothesis; the second presents evidence tending to support this hypothesis. --- on the same lines as we thought.
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Re: Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 03:32
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Can you advise why (D) is incorrect?

Boreal owls range over a much larger area than do other owls of similar size. Scientists have hypothesized that it is scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely. This hypothesis would be hard to confirm directly, since it is not possible to produce a sufficiently accurate count of the populations of small mammals inhabiting the forests where boreal owls live. Careful study of owl behavior has, however, shown that boreal owls do range over larger areas when they live in regions where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse. This indicates that the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation.

Boreal owls range over a much larger area than do other owls of similar size.
Background facts

Scientists have hypothesized that it is scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely.
The claim of scientists.

This hypothesis would be hard to confirm directly, (author's opinion, main conclusion)
since it is not possible to produce a sufficiently accurate count of the populations of small mammals inhabiting the forests where boreal owls live.
(premise supporting above claim)

Careful study of owl behavior has, however, shown that boreal owls do range over larger areas when they live in regions where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse.
Counter-premise to author's claim - - ---(1)

This indicates that the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation.
Intermediate claim supporting scientists hypothesis.

Quote:
D. The first describes a position that the argument opposes; the second presents evidence to undermine the support for the position being opposed.


BF1: Yes author does oppose the claim of scientists by saying it is hard to confirm the claim by direct evidence.
BF2 : the second presents evidence (refer 1)

to undermine the support for the position being opposed. (basically, it weakens authors' claim)
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Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 06:16
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adkikani Please see my comments in green.

Can you advise why (D) is incorrect?

Boreal owls range over a much larger area than do other owls of similar size. Scientists have hypothesized that it is scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely. This hypothesis would be hard to confirm directly, since it is not possible to produce a sufficiently accurate count of the populations of small mammals inhabiting the forests where boreal owls live. Careful study of owl behavior has, however, shown that boreal owls do range over larger areas when they live in regions where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse. This indicates that the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation.

Boreal owls range over a much larger area than do other owls of similar size.
Background facts

Scientists have hypothesized that it is scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely.
The claim of scientists.

This hypothesis would be hard to confirm directly, (author's opinion, main conclusion)
since it is not possible to produce a sufficiently accurate count of the populations of small mammals inhabiting the forests where boreal owls live.
(premise supporting above claim)

Careful study of owl behavior has, however, shown that boreal owls do range over larger areas when they live in regions where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse.
Counter-premise to author's claim but supports Scientists hypothesis

This indicates that the scientists’ hypothesis is not sheer speculation.
Main Conclusion

Quote:
D. The first describes a position that the argument opposes; the second presents evidence to undermine the support for the position being opposed.


BF1: Yes author does oppose the claim of scientists by saying it is hard to confirm the claim by direct evidence. The first part is not True as Argument in whole does not oppose the Hypothesis
BF2 : the second presents evidence (refer 1)The second part is not True as well


On the Other hand option B

B. The first presents an explanatory hypothesis; the second presents evidence tending to support this hypothesis.

The first indeed presents a hypothesis.
The second presents evidence ( where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse) to support the hypothesis

Hence Option B is right.

Take Away: When dealing with Bold Face questions identify the Main Conclusion and the Main point.This always helps in identifying the Bold faced statements.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you still need any clarification
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Boreal Owls range over a much larger area than do [Boldface]   [#permalink] 07 Oct 2018, 06:16
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