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Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c

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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2018, 08:58
AbdurRakib wrote:
mbahanoi wrote:
i dont understand this passage
is there any lack of words in line 20?


The missed line added.
Thanks



Could you please confirm when is para 2 ending.
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2018, 09:06
TheMechanic wrote:
There could be a huge debate of where the 2nd passage starts and where it ends. I even looked in official guide 2018 where it can be horridly concluded that the 2nd passage end in line 29.

I just got lost and selected a wrong answer choice. I hope I don't see such instances of bad formatting in actual GMAT.



Same thing happened with me. I also thought that the para 2 is ending at line 29 and chose the wrong option on that basis.
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2018, 13:37
GMATNinjaTwo,

Hi GMATNinja, I was wondering could you please explain the difference between option B and E for Q2? I ended up picking option E but it was more of a lucky guess. Would greatly appreciate it if you could please shed some light on option B especially!
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2018, 07:27
Hi,


I have a similar doubt.. For Q2, option B & option E are very similar.
How does one choose the right one?
Please help!!
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 16:41
Question 2
(Book Question: 515)
The second paragraph in the passage serves primarily to
A. outline the significance of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains to the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton
B. contrast the traditional view of the development of the vertebrate skeleton with a view derived from the 1981 discovery of conodont remains
C. contrast the characteristics of the ostracoderms with the characteristics of earlier soft-bodied vertebrates
D. explain the importance of the development of teeth among the earliest vertebrate predators
E. present the two sides of the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton

I was down to B and D and ended up choosing B because I thought that the 2nd passage end in line 29.
How can we eliminate option B here? Please help.
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 12:13
1
1

So what the heck is up with Question #2?


csaluja wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo,

Hi GMATNinja, I was wondering could you please explain the difference between option B and E for Q2? I ended up picking option E but it was more of a lucky guess. Would greatly appreciate it if you could please shed some light on option B especially!

PAVANIJOSHI374 wrote:
Hi,

I have a similar doubt.. For Q2, option B & option E are very similar.
How does one choose the right one?
Please help!!

Izzyjolly wrote:
I was down to B and D and ended up choosing B because I thought that the 2nd passage end in line 29.
How can we eliminate option B here? Please help.

manishk30 wrote:
I also thought that the para 2 is ending at line 29 and chose the wrong option on that basis.


Indeed, the formatting for this particular passage makes it very tough for us to tell where one paragraph begins and the other ends. (Bunuel, any idea how to fix the formatting? You're the best technical wizard in the GMAT Club family. :))

Anyway, a closer look at the 2018 OG reveals that:

  • Paragraph 1 ends with the words, "development of the vertebrate skeleton."
  • Paragraph 2 ends with the words, "the earliest vertebrates were predators."
  • Paragraph 3 begins with the words, "The stiffening notochord."

Here's paragraph 2 (P2) in full:

Quote:
The vertebrate skeleton had traditionally been regarded as a defensive development, champions of this view postulating that it was only with the much later evolution of jaws that vertebrates became predators. The first vertebrates, which were soft-bodied, would have been easy prey for numerous invertebrate carnivores, especially if these early vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders. Thus, traditionalists argued, these animals developed coverings of bony scales or plates, and teeth were secondary features, adapted from the protective bony scales. Indeed, external skeletons of this type are common among the well-known fossils of ostracoderms, jawless vertebrates that existed from approximately 500 to 400 million years ago. However, other paleontologists argued that many of the definitive characteristics of vertebrates, such as paired eyes and muscular and skeletal adaptations for active life, would not have evolved unless the first vertebrates were predatory. Teeth were more primitive than external armor according to this view, and the earliest vertebrates were predators.

This clarification might resolve a lot of doubts about the passage and question #2. But let's break it down to eliminate any lingering confusion.

Quote:
The second paragraph in the passage serves primarily to

OK, so why did the author write this paragraph?

P1 has already told us that the 1981 discovery -- of conodont remains along with conodont fossils -- has had important implications for hypotheses about the vertebrate skeleton.

In P2, the author then presents two opposing hypotheses about the vertebrate skeleton: The traditional view that it was a defensive development and an opposing view that the skeletal adaptations were part of a predatory evolution. The author offer some details for each side's hypothesis, but the point of the paragraph is to show us these two sides.

Let's see which answer choices line up with our understanding:

Quote:
A. outline the significance of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains to the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton

Nope! P2 doesn't outline the significance of this discovery in any way. The reason that the author writes P2 is to tell us about opposing hypotheses, not get further into the details of the 1981 discovery. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. contrast the traditional view of the development of the vertebrate skeleton with a view derived from the 1981 discovery of conodont remains

(B) is very tempting, but when you read closely, two thoughts should come to mind:

  • Is the author writing P2 to contrast two views?
  • Are the views being contrasted "the traditional view of development of the vertebrate skeleton" and "a view derived from the 1981 discovery"?

You could argue that yes, the author is contrasting two hypotheses. And one of those hypotheses is the traditional view of how and why the vertebrate skeleton developed. We are close to keeping this answer choice.

But when you refer back to the passage, was the second view (of early vertebrates as predators) "derived from the 1981 discovery"? Not quite. The second paragraph doesn't create a link between the view of predatory evolution and the 1981 discovery of conodont remains. The second paragraph doesn't even mention conodonts. That's why we eliminate (B) -- or at the very least, avoid falling in love with (B) right away.

Quote:
C. contrast the characteristics of the ostracoderms with the characteristics of earlier soft-bodied vertebrates

The author didn't write the second paragraph in order to contrast the characteristics of these two groups. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
D. explain the importance of the development of teeth among the earliest vertebrate predators

Choice (D) tempts us by identifying a thing that the author did in P2. But this choice doesn't tell us the reason why the author wrote P2. Because (D) is not answering the question we were asked, we can eliminate it without hesitation.

Quote:
E. present the two sides of the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton

Here we are! Choice (E) does seem similar to Choice (B), but it doesn't make the mistake of naming the wrong sides of this debate. Instead, (E) matches exactly what we know: The author wrote the paragraph in order to present two opposing hypotheses.

This answers the question directly, doesn't add any erroneous wrinkles, and doesn't get stuck on narrow details that miss the purpose of the paragraph. That's why (E) is distinct from (B) and (D). That's also why (E) is the best available choice.

I hope this explanation turned your "conodon'ts" into "can dos"! Please forgive my humor, it's an evolutionary defense mechanism against eye-burning GMAT passages. And I'm practicing my terrible "dad jokes" for when my daughter is old enough to understand them and roll her eyes at me...
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Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2018, 08:41
bellabear wrote:
pikolo2510
For this one, I think D from this
from (30) However, other paleontologists argued that many of
the definitive characteristics of vertebrates, such as
paired eyes and muscular and skeletal adaptations
for active life, would not have evolved unless the
(35)
first vertebrates were predatory. >> Only here to support that first vertebrate were predatory but does not draw the conclusion of paleontologists. You agree?



The paleontologists argued that these are definitive features of a vertebrate. This argument is not derived from the discovery of condonants, but by general belief of scientists.
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2018, 19:21
Can someone explain the third question? I got it right, but I spent almost 3 mins on this one. I had difficulties in locating where should I refer to answer this question.

It can be inferred that on the basis of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains, paleontologists could draw which of the following conclusions?
A The earliest vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders.
B Ostracoderms were not the earliest vertebrates.
C Defensive armor preceded jaws among vertebrates.
DPaired eyes and adaptations for activity are definitive characteristics of vertebrates.
E Conodonts were unlikely to have been predators.

I found the discovery in p1 and p3. p1 just states that the discovery changes the views scientists hold about the development of vertebrate animals. p3 seems talk about the discovery(in a vague and subtle way, there is no obvious link between the discovery talked about in p1)

Cheers!
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2018, 20:42

A closer look at Question #3


Rebekah wrote:
Can someone explain the third question? I got it right, but I spent almost 3 mins on this one. I had difficulties in locating where should I refer to answer this question.

It can be inferred that on the basis of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains, paleontologists could draw which of the following conclusions?
A The earliest vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders.
B Ostracoderms were not the earliest vertebrates.
C Defensive armor preceded jaws among vertebrates.
D Paired eyes and adaptations for activity are definitive characteristics of vertebrates.
E Conodonts were unlikely to have been predators.

I found the discovery in p1 and p3. p1 just states that the discovery changes the views scientists hold about the development of vertebrate animals. p3 seems talk about the discovery(in a vague and subtle way, there is no obvious link between the discovery talked about in p1)

Cheers!

Your approach to this question was sound! It's a legitimately tough question, and difficult to answer without a clear read on the passage structure and process of elimination.

Quote:
It can be inferred that on the basis of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains, paleontologists could draw which of the following conclusions?

The only place this discovery is explicitly mentioned is in P1, but (as you know) this isn't a situation where there's some immediate factoid that we see directly connected to the year 1981. Instead, we see this big-picture statement:

    "However, since the 1981 discovery of fossils preserving not just the phosphatic elements but also other remains of the tiny soft-bodied animals (also called conodonts) that bore them, scientists' reconstructions of the animals' anatomy have had important implications for hypotheses concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton."

This doesn't point us to something that happened in 1981. Instead, the significance of this line is why the author brings up this discovery: To call into question the existing hypotheses about why the vertebrate skeleton evolved.

OK, so let's think about this structurally. P1 tells us that the conodont discovery set up scientists (and us, the readers) to reconsider two hypotheses. P2 is all about presenting those hypotheses (which existed prior to the discovery and did not use conodonts as evidence), so we're not going to find the answer there.

But the purpose of P3 is to tell us that the hypothesis of aggressive evolution seems to be correct. And P3 delivers this statement based on the discovery of conodont remains:

    "The stiffening notochord...V-shaped muscle blocks...and posterior tail fins help to identify conodonts as among the most primitive of vertebrates. The lack of any mineralized structures...indicates that conodonts were more primitive than the armored jawless fishes such as the ostracoderms. It now appears that the hard parts that first evolved in the mouth of an animal improved its efficiency as a predator, and that aggression rather than protection was the driving force behind the origin of the vertebrate skeleton."

All right! The 1981 discovery triggered a new debate over the origin of the vertebrate AND placed conodonts as one of the earliest examples of vertebrate evolution being driven by aggression.

Let's start eliminating:
Quote:
A. The earliest vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders.

Sedentary suspension feeders were mentioned in P2 as potential evidence for vertebrate evolution being defensive. It's a thing that was mentioned in the passage, but it's not a statement that we can infer on the basis of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. Ostracoderms were not the earliest vertebrates.

This looks good! P3 specifically tells us that conodonts were vertebrates AND were more primitive than ostracoderms. This would imply that Ostracoderms were not the earliest vertebrates, because they were predated by conodonts. Let's keep choice (B) around and keep moving.

Quote:
C. Defensive armor preceded jaws among vertebrates.

Nope. Like choice (A), this is not a statement that we can infer on the basis of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains. It's a tempting choices, but we can eliminate (C) just like we eliminated (A).

Quote:
D. Paired eyes and adaptations for activity are definitive characteristics of vertebrates.

Like (A) and (C), this choice is tempting but it's not a fact that we can infer on the basis of the 1981 discovery. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
E. Conodonts were unlikely to have been predators.

Choice (E) is totally off the rails (off the spine?). The entire point of P3 is that conodonts were evolved to be predators. This is the opposite of what this choice says, so let's eliminate (E), too.

(B) is the only choice that directly answers the question and is backed up by our understanding of the 1981 discovery's importance.

I hope this helps clarify how to stay ahead of this question! Whether or not it increases your appreciation of conodonts is up to you. I do hear rumors that they taste like chicken... :tongue_opt2
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Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2018, 00:15
1
arvind910619 wrote:
The passage was easy


The arrogance of Indians in the RC sub-thread blows my mind.

Look at the stats buddy - they tell a different story.

I personally got all correct, but I found this to be one of the more challenging passages.
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2018, 03:35
(Book Question: 514)
According to the passage, the anatomical evidence provided by the preserved soft bodies of conodonts led scientists to conclude that
A. conodonts had actually been invertebrate carnivores
B. conodonts' teeth were adapted from protective bony scales - in the passage it said, teeth came first
C. conodonts were primitive vertebrate suspension feeders
D. primitive vertebrates with teeth appeared earlier than armored vertebrates
E. scientists' original observations concerning the phosphatic remains of conodonts were essentially correct




(Book Question: 515)
The second paragraph in the passage serves primarily to
Second paragraph clearly was presenting the traditional view and the new view
A. outline the significance of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains to the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton
B. contrast the traditional view of the development of the vertebrate skeleton with a view derived from the 1981 discovery of conodont remains
C. contrast the characteristics of the ostracoderms with the characteristics of earlier soft-bodied vertebrates
D. explain the importance of the development of teeth among the earliest vertebrate predators
E. present the two sides of the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton

(Book Question: 516)
It can be inferred that on the basis of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains, paleontologists could draw which of the following conclusions?
A. The earliest vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders.
B. Ostracoderms were not the earliest vertebrates.
C. Defensive armor preceded jaws among vertebrates.
D. Paired eyes and adaptations for activity are definitive characteristics of vertebrates.
E. Conodonts were unlikely to have been predators.
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2019, 14:24
I have an issue with Question 516. I believe you have to understand what the word primitive means to get the correct answer. I thought primitive meant basic so I saw relatively little importance with that fact. However, for question 516, choice B is 100% right if you realize primitive means first/ancient which supports the answer choice that Ostracoderms were not the earliest vertebrates. Just my two cents but I'd be happy to hear if others would comment on this.
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2019, 09:00
Hi,

For 3rd question why option E is not the correct answer?
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Re: Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of c  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2019, 16:06
anc wrote:
Hi,

For 3rd question why option E is not the correct answer?

There's a detailed explanation of question #3 here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/conodonts-th ... l#p2179425. Let us know if that doesn't resolve your doubts.
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