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Dowsing is the practice of detecting resources or objects beneath the

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Dowsing is the practice of detecting resources or objects beneath the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Sep 2019, 06:43
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 93, Date : 19-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Dowsing is the practice of detecting resources or objects beneath the ground by passing handheld, inert tools such as forked sticks, pendulums, or metal rods over a terrain. For example, dowsers typically determine prospective water-well drilling locations by walking with a horizontally held forked tree branch until it becomes vertical, claiming the branch is pulled to this position. The distance to the water from the surface and the potential well's flow rate are then determined by holding the branch horizontally again and either walking in place or backwards while the branch is pulled vertical again. The number of paces indicates the distance to the water, and the strength of the pull felt by the dowser correlates with the potential well's flow rate.

Those skeptical of dowsing's efficacy point to the crudeness of its methods as a self-evident reason to question it. They assert that dowsers' use of inert tools indicates that the dowsers themselves actually make subconscious determinations concerning the likely location of groundwater using clues derived from surface conditions; the tools' movements merely reflect the dowsers' subconscious thoughts. Further, skeptics say, numerous studies show that while a few dowsers have demonstrated considerable and consistent success, the success rate for dowsers generally is notably inconsistent. Finally, skeptics note, dowsing to locate groundwater is largely confined to areas where groundwater is expected to be ubiquitous, making it statistically unlikely that a dowsed well will be completely dry.

Proponents of dowsing point out that it involves a number of distinct techniques and contend that each of these techniques should be evaluated separately. They also note that numerous dowsing studies have been influenced by a lack of care in selecting the study population; dowsers are largely self-proclaimed and self-certified, and verifiably successful dowsers are not well represented in the typical study. Proponents claim that successful dowsers may be sensitive to minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field associated with variations in subsurface conditions. They also claim that these dowsers have higher success rates than geologists and hydrologists who use scientific tools such as electromagnetic sensors or seismic readings to locate groundwater.

The last two claims were corroborated during a recent and extensive study that utilized teams of the most successful dowsers, geologists, and hydrologists to locate reliable water supplies in various arid countries. Efforts were concentrated on finding groundwater in narrow, tilted fracture zones in bedrock underlying surface sediments. The teams were unfamiliar with the areas targeted, and they agreed that no surface clues existed that could assist in pinpointing the locations of fracture zones. The dowsers consistently made significantly more accurate predictions regarding drill sites, and on request even located a dry fracture zone, suggesting that dowsers can detect variations in subsurface conditions.
1. Which one of the following most accurately describes the primary purpose of the second paragraph?

(A) to add detail to the description presented in the first paragraph
(B) to offer two perspectives that are synthesized into a new perspective presented in the final paragraph
(C) to present arguments against which the third paragraph presents counterarguments
(D) to explore in detail the ramifications of one claim made in the first paragraph
(E) to clarify the issues on both sides in a dispute that the third paragraph attempts to resolve



2. According to the passage, dowsing's skeptics acknowledge which one of the following?

(A) A few dowsers have shown considerable and consistent success.
(B) Dowsing techniques are generally rejected by scientists.
(C) Successful dowsers are not well represented in the typical study of dowsing's efficacy.
(D) Successful dowsers may be sensitive to minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field.
(E) Each dowsing technique should be evaluated separately.



3. The reasoning in which one of the following is most analogous to an argument explicitly attributed to dowsing's skeptics in the passage?

(A) Some weather analysts claim that no one can forecast the weather a week ahead with better than 40 percent accuracy, but some computer models have been known to perform with more accuracy than that.
(B) Some people claim to have seen ghosts, but very few of these people can adduce even the smallest piece of credible evidence to support their claims.
(C) Some musicians perform so well that their performances have been said to express a pure, innate talent, but such performances are in fact due to years of very intense practice.
(D) Some people claim to be able to sense where the area's good fishing spots are, but the lakes in the area are so loaded with fish it would be difficult not to pick a good spot.
(E) Some people have memories of participating in historical events in which they did not actually participate, but this does not prove that they have been reincarnated.



4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the results of the groundwater-locating study discussed in the final paragraph?

(A) The results suggest that geologists and hydrologists would likely be of little service to any groundwater-locating effort.
(B) The results leave open the possibility that dowsers can sense minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field.
(C) The results prove conclusively that dowsing is the most dependable technique for finding water in arid countries.
(D) The results demonstrate that dowsers are most successful in their efforts to locate groundwater when they use tools that are typically employed by geologists and hydrologists.
(E) The results do not help to refute skeptics' arguments, because the results provide evidence for dowsing's efficacy in only one type of terrain.



5. The passage provides information most helpful in answering which one of the following questions?

(A) When was dowsing first employed as a means of locating groundwater?
(B) Is the success of dowsers affected by rainstorms that may have saturated the ground in the area being dowsed?
(C) What proportion of successful dowsers use forked sticks in locating groundwater?
(D) Is dowsing ever utilized to try to locate anything other than water?
(E) What are some of the specific surface clues that can indicate the presence of groundwater?



6. The passage provides the most support for inferring which one of the following statements?

(A) Narrow, tilted fracture zones in underlying bedrock are more likely to be found in arid regions than in other regions.
(B) There are no reliable studies indicating that dowsers are consistently able to locate subsurface resources other than groundwater.
(C) A dowser attempting to locate a dry fracture zone would not use the same tools as a dowser attempting to locate groundwater.
(D) Geologists and hydrologists participating in the groundwater-locating study described in the final paragraph could not locate a dry fracture zone upon request.
(E) The groundwater-locating study described in the final paragraph was not a typical dowsing study.




  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 81 (June 2017)
  • Difficulty Level: 600

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 19 Mar 2019, 09:02.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 03 Sep 2019, 06:43, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (385).
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Re: Dowsing is the practice of detecting resources or objects beneath the  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2019, 12:57
3
saintlyzero
prototypevenom
Raj30

Here it is.

Explanation


5. The passage provides information most helpful in answering which one of the following questions?

Explanation

A prediction cannot be made here. Instead, go through the answers one at a time and research when necessary to make sure there is a directly stated answer to the question provided.

Evaluate the Answer Choices

(A) is not answered. No timeline is given in the passage.

(B) is not answered. The effect of rain is not brought up.

(C) is not answered. Forked sticks are brought up as one method for finding water, but there's no mention of whether this is the most common or how it compares statistically to other methods.

(D) is answered in the first sentence. Dowsing is used to detect resources (e.g., water) or objects—which suggests physical items other than water.

(E) is not answered. Skeptics only broadly refer to using surface clues, but never mention any specific clues.

ANSWER: D


6. The passage provides the most support for inferring which one of the following statements?

Identify the Question Type

The correct answer is something for which there is "support for inferring," making this an Inference question.

Research the Relevant Text

There are no Research Clues, so the entire text is relevant.

Make a Prediction

With no clues, there's no choice but to go through the answers, eliminate those that are clearly wrong, and test the remaining answers as necessary.

Evaluate the Answer Choices

(A) is a Distortion. The study in the last paragraph was conducted around narrow, tilted fracture zones. And while dowsers did find a dry zone on request, that is not to say the entire region was arid. Nor does that suggest that such fracture zones are more common in arid regions than in other regions. The comparison is unsubstantiated.

(B) is Extreme and Out of Scope. The passage only discusses studies related to finding groundwater, not other resources. Further, there's nothing to suggest that no reliable studies have been performed.

(C) is not supported. There's no mention in the final study what tools were used or whether they would be any different from tools used in different zones.

(D) is a Distortion. It is merely said that dowsers were able to locate a dry zone. That doesn't mean that other scientists couldn't. Perhaps they also did, or perhaps they just weren't asked.

(E) is supported. According to proponents of dowsing, successful dowsers "are not well represented in the typical study". However, the study in the last paragraph was extensive and used teams of "the most successful dowsers." Combined, that suggests the last study is not your typical study involving a poor representative sample.

ANSWER: E


Hope it Helps
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Re: Dowsing is the practice of detecting resources or objects beneath the  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2019, 06:19
1
All correct in 12 mins, including 4 mins and 30 seconds to read.

Para 1- Dowsing- what it is and how it works?
Para 2- what skeptics say?
Para 3- what proponents say?
Para 4- study corroborates 2 claims; dowsers consistently made significantly more accurate predictions than geologists and hydrologists

1. Which one of the following most accurately describes the primary purpose of the second paragraph?
(C) to present arguments against which the third paragraph presents counterarguments- Correct

2. According to the passage, dowsing's skeptics acknowledge which one of the following?
(A) A few dowsers have shown considerable and consistent success.

Further, skeptics say, numerous studies show that while a few dowsers have demonstrated considerable and consistent success, the success rate for dowsers generally is notably inconsistent.

3. The reasoning in which one of the following is most analogous to an argument explicitly attributed to dowsing's skeptics in the passage?
(D) Some people claim to be able to sense where the area's good fishing spots are, but the lakes in the area are so loaded with fish it would be difficult not to pick a good spot.

Finally, skeptics note, dowsing to locate groundwater is largely confined to areas where groundwater is expected to be ubiquitous, making it statistically unlikely that a dowsed well will be completely dry.

4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the results of the groundwater-locating study discussed in the final paragraph?
(B) The results leave open the possibility that dowsers can sense minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field.-- Correct; this makes sense because in the study 'dowsers consistently made significantly more accurate predictions than geologists and hydrologists'

5. The passage provides information most helpful in answering which one of the following questions?
(D) Is dowsing ever utilized to try to locate anything other than water?

The dowsers consistently made significantly more accurate predictions regarding drill sites, and on request even located a dry fracture zone, suggesting that dowsers can detect variations in subsurface conditions.

6. The passage provides the most support for inferring which one of the following statements?
(B) There are no reliable studies indicating that dowsers are consistently able to locate subsurface resources other than groundwater.-- no evidence to support this
(E) The groundwater-locating study described in the final paragraph was not a typical dowsing study.

I eliminated other options but took some time to find the following-

They also note that numerous dowsing studies have been influenced by a lack of care in selecting the study population; dowsers are largely self-proclaimed and self-certified, and verifiably successful dowsers are not well represented in the typical study.

The last two claims were corroborated during a recent and extensive study that utilized teams of the most successful dowsers, geologists, and hydrologists to locate reliable water supplies in various arid countries.
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Dowsing is the practice of detecting resources or objects beneath the  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2019, 02:35
2
Hi everyone,
Took 15 minutes including 5 minutes to read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point formulation.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P1

This paragraphs describes how the practice of dowsing works. Plus we have an example explaining how this practice can determine the location of underground water, the distance to the water from the surface and the potential well's flow rate.

P2

This paragraph talks about the skeptics.
Their point of view:
-crude method
-dowsing=subconscious of the dowser
-only few cases of success, lots of cases of inconsistency and failure
-dowsing successful only when lots of water

P3

This paragraph talks about the proponents of dowsing.
-Dowsing studies did not take into consideration a significant sample.
-Dowsers may be sensitive to electromagnetic field
-higher success rates than geologists and hydrologists to locate underground water

P4

Paragraphs 4 intends to support the last 2 claims made in paragraph 3 :

#1 successful dowsers may be sensitive to minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field associated with variations in subsurface conditions
#2 these dowsers have higher success rates than geologists and hydrologists who use scientific tools such as electromagnetic sensors or seismic readings to locate groundwater.

So Dowsers, geologists and hydrologists are put together in an unfamiliar area where no clues on the surface are indicative of the presence of underground water. Dowsers are the best.

MP

Describe the practice of dowsing and support the proponents of this practice rather than those skeptical of it

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1. Which one of the following most accurately describes the primary purpose of the second paragraph?

Pre-thinking:
Refer to the paragraph map above.

(A) to add detail to the description presented in the first paragraph
P2 talks about the skeptics. Hence incorrect

(B) to offer two perspectives that are synthesized into a new perspective presented in the final paragraph
P2 talks about the skeptics. Plus last paragraph is i support of the proponents. Hence incorrect

(C) to present arguments against which the third paragraph presents counterarguments
Wordy put but correct. Hence correct

(D) to explore in detail the ramifications of one claim made in the first paragraph
P2 talks about the skeptics. Hence incorrect

(E) to clarify the issues on both sides in a dispute that the third paragraph attempts to resolve
P2 talks about the skeptics. Hence incorrect

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. According to the passage, dowsing's skeptics acknowledge which one of the following?

Pre-thinking:
My guess is that there are some cases of success in the practice of dowsing acc to skeptics

(A) A few dowsers have shown considerable and consistent success.
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(B) Dowsing techniques are generally rejected by scientists.
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) Successful dowsers are not well represented in the typical study of dowsing's efficacy.
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) Successful dowsers may be sensitive to minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field.
Not in line with pre-thinking. Plus out of context. Hence incorrect

(E) Each dowsing technique should be evaluated separately.
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. The reasoning in which one of the following is most analogous to an argument explicitly attributed to dowsing's skeptics in the passage?

Pre-thinking:
Let's analyze the answer choices

(A) Some weather analysts claim that no one can forecast the weather a week ahead with better than 40 percent accuracy, but some computer models have been known to perform with more accuracy than that.
Out of scope. Hence incorrect

(B) Some people claim to have seen ghosts, but very few of these people can adduce even the smallest piece of credible evidence to support their claims.
Out of scope. Hence incorrect

(C) Some musicians perform so well that their performances have been said to express a pure, innate talent, but such performances are in fact due to years of very intense practice.
Out of scope. Hence incorrect

(D) Some people claim to be able to sense where the area's good fishing spots are, but the lakes in the area are so loaded with fish it would be difficult not to pick a good spot.
Along the lines of the last sentence in P2. Hence correct

(E) Some people have memories of participating in historical events in which they did not actually participate, but this does not prove that they have been reincarnated.
Out of scope. Hence incorrect

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the results of the groundwater-locating study discussed in the final paragraph?

Pre-thinking:
Last P supports two claims made by the proponents. Any statement along with the lines of those claims will be our answer.

#1 successful dowsers may be sensitive to minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field associated with variations in subsurface conditions
#2 these dowsers have higher success rates than geologists and hydrologists who use scientific tools such as electromagnetic sensors or seismic readings to locate groundwater.


(A) The results suggest that geologists and hydrologists would likely be of little service to any groundwater-locating effort.
Opposite. Hence incorrect

(B) The results leave open the possibility that dowsers can sense minute changes in Earth's electromagnetic field.
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) The results prove conclusively that dowsing is the most dependable technique for finding water in arid countries.
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) The results demonstrate that dowsers are most successful in their efforts to locate groundwater when they use tools that are typically employed by geologists and hydrologists.
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) The results do not help to refute skeptics' arguments, because the results provide evidence for dowsing's efficacy in only one type of terrain.
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. The passage provides information most helpful in answering which one of the following questions?

Pre-thinking:
Let's evaluate the answer choices

(A) When was dowsing first employed as a means of locating groundwater?
The passage toes not help on this one. Hence incorrect

(B) Is the success of dowsers affected by rainstorms that may have saturated the ground in the area being dowsed?
The passage toes not help on this one. Hence incorrect

(C) What proportion of successful dowsers use forked sticks in locating groundwater?
The passage toes not help on this one. Hence incorrect

(D) Is dowsing ever utilized to try to locate anything other than water?
Dowser can locate objects according to the first lines of P1. Hence correct

(E) What are some of the specific surface clues that can indicate the presence of groundwater?
The passage toes not help on this one. Hence incorrect


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. The passage provides the most support for inferring which one of the following statements?

Pre-thinking:
Let's analyze the answer choices

(A) Narrow, tilted fracture zones in underlying bedrock are more likely to be found in arid regions than in other regions.
Cannot be inferred from the given information. Hence incorrect

(B) There are no reliable studies indicating that dowsers are consistently able to locate subsurface resources other than groundwater.
Cannot be inferred from the given information. Hence incorrect

(C) A dowser attempting to locate a dry fracture zone would not use the same tools as a dowser attempting to locate groundwater.
Cannot be inferred from the given information. Hence incorrect

(D) Geologists and hydrologists participating in the groundwater-locating study described in the final paragraph could not locate a dry fracture zone upon request.
Cannot be inferred from the given information. Hence incorrect

(E) The groundwater-locating study described in the final paragraph was not a typical dowsing study.
Study talks about successful dowsers and successful dowsers are just a few. Plus the study is conducted in arid regions with no surface clue Hence correct

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Dowsing is the practice of detecting resources or objects beneath the   [#permalink] 16 Sep 2019, 02:35
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