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# Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2017, 21:44
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

67% (01:50) correct 33% (01:44) wrong based on 288 sessions

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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: CR 169
Page: 151

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’s that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’s own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’s notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support.

(B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion.

(C) The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends.

(E) The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position.

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2017, 23:07
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First Boldface: Premise to the conclusion of scholars.

Second Boldface: Conclusion of scholars.

Author's Conclusion: Okay, you conclusion may be right but guys let's do a little bit more of research.

(A) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support. --> 1st is not the claim. OUT

(B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion.

(C) The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position. --> Author NEVER said "You guys are wrong" rather he said "Do a little more research Guys".

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends. --> 2nd is not the evidence.

(E) The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position. --> 2nd is not the conclusion drawn by Historians.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 09:22
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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’s that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’s own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’s notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

BF1 - Premise for scholar's conclusion
BF2- Scholar's conclusion
Main conclusion - More research is needed to determine the validity of BF2

(A) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support. - Incorrect - first is not a claim

(B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion. - Correct

(C) The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position. - Incorrect - the author does not defend BF2' position

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends. - Incorrect - BF2 is not an evidence

(E) The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position. - Incorrect - BF2 is not historian's conclusion

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2018, 18:07
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Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. --- Fact
Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. --- Fact
It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. --- opinion/ a conclusion
Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. --- Fact
Several scholars have argued that since 1. [the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques], ---- opinion/ supporting above conclusion.
and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques,---- fact/evidence/contradicting above conclusion

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. --- main conclusion

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.

Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented. --- Fact, evidence for above conclusion

$$Final verdict$$- (B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that   [#permalink] 20 Jun 2018, 18:07
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