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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 21:44
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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: CR 169
Page: 151

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’s that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’s own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’s notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support.

(B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion.

(C) The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends.

(E) The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position.

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 23:07
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First Boldface: Premise to the conclusion of scholars.

Second Boldface: Conclusion of scholars.

Author's Conclusion: Okay, you conclusion may be right but guys let's do a little bit more of research.

(A) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support. --> 1st is not the claim. OUT

(B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion.

(C) The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position. --> Author NEVER said "You guys are wrong" rather he said "Do a little more research Guys".

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends. --> 2nd is not the evidence.

(E) The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position. --> 2nd is not the conclusion drawn by Historians.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2017, 09:22
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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’s that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’s own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’s notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

BF1 - Premise for scholar's conclusion
BF2- Scholar's conclusion
Main conclusion - More research is needed to determine the validity of BF2

(A) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support. - Incorrect - first is not a claim

(B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion. - Correct

(C) The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position. - Incorrect - the author does not defend BF2' position

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends. - Incorrect - BF2 is not an evidence

(E) The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position. - Incorrect - BF2 is not historian's conclusion

Answer B
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 18:07
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Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. --- Fact
Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. --- Fact
It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. --- opinion/ a conclusion
Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. --- Fact
Several scholars have argued that since 1. [the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques], ---- opinion/ supporting above conclusion.
and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques,---- fact/evidence/contradicting above conclusion

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. --- main conclusion

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.

Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented. --- Fact, evidence for above conclusion

\(Final verdict\)- (B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 04:07
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Quote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’s that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’s own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’s notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.
Argument Analysis:
Historian: 1. Newton did X...
2. Leibniz developed something closely analogous to X.
3. Traditional View: Both events 1 and 2 were independent of each other.

Researchers:
1. Recently discovered notes of Leibniz’s that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics.
Scholar's argument presents two pieces of evidence to support the conclusion they draw further.
1. Since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques.
2. Since the notes were written before Leibniz’s own development of calculus concepts and techniques.

Conclusion: the traditional view is false (traditional view: both events are independent)
Further piece of evidence is provided: Leibniz’s notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.
In the historian’s reasoning, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
Quote:
(A) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support.
First is not the claim, it is a piece of evidence used to support the final conclusion.
Quote:
(B) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion.
First is the evidence: YES; Second is the conclusion: YES; seems good on the first read. Let's see what else this option says. Historians express reservations on the final conclusion as they definitely hold to their traditional view. True. This option seems good to be held until a better one appears.
Quote:
(C) The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
Historians defend their traditional view, but first provides evidence in support of the conclusion drawn by the scholars. Historians don't defend the second portion of the boldface argument.
Quote:
(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends.
Second is the main conclusion and not the evidence.
Quote:
(E) The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position.
Historian certainly hold reservations of their own, but no where in the argument it says that historians reject that particular position. Second is not the conclusion that historian draw. It's been drawn by the scholars.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 16:56
Hi, lets see how the argument structure is built

Lets Say Historian is the author of this argument , we refer historian as author from now on

Statement 1:Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus.
Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques.


The above two statements are facts that the Author Quotes ( We can say this sets the context of the passage)

Statement 2:It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent.

In the Above statement author presents a generally held belief about Statement 1


Statement 3: Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’s that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics.

Author presents yet another fact: The fact is about researchers discovering some thing

Statement 4: Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and
since the notes were written before Leibniz’s own development of calculus concepts and techniques,
it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false.


Author says : Based on the findings some researchers have come to certain conclusion ( Researchers are of view that traditional belief is not true)


Statement 5: A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.

Author Says: Hey we need to be more careful to draw this conclusion ( Author's View)



Statement 6: Leibniz’s notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.
Author then gives reason why did he say so . In a way he is presenting a reasoning for his view



So we know by now that the author's conclusion is the main conclusion and in re-word the conclusion of author as " It is too much to conclude that Leibniz’s work on calculus was based on Newton’s concepts and techniques on calculus."

So Authors view and researchers view are in opposite direction


Lets Analyze our Bold Face Statements which are in Statement 4:
1st Bold Face in Pink
What is the role played by the pink part in statement 4 :It’s a fact presented by the researchers to conclude that the traditional belief is false
What is the Relation of this part to main conclusion . Since authors view is in opposite to view of researchers , certainly this statement is against the main conclusion.
2nd Bold Face which is in green part
What is the role played by this statemnt : Oh this is the conclusion that researchers draw from a fact that they have presented

What is the Relation of this part to main conclusion: As noted above since this is researchers view ( conclusion ) it's against the author's view ( main conclusion of the argument)

So we can Say BF1 and BF2 are in the same direction, but are in opposite direction to the main conclusion of the argument.

best way to understand answer choices is to dissect them into parts and see if we get Yes/ No for each part.

Answer Choices
A \(The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a position that that claim has been used to support\)
The first is a claim :No. It’s a fact used by the researchers to support their conclusion.
that the historian rejects;:No. The historian (author) does not reject this fact. He rejects the conclusion the researchers draw from this fact .
the second is a position :Yes. It is the conclusion made by the researchers so we can call this as position taken by the researchers .
that that claim has been used to support.:No. Here ' that claim ' refers to BF1 ' . But since we know that BF1 is not a claim .

this choice is incorrect.

Option B: The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion about which the historian expresses reservations; the second is that conclusion

The first is evidence :Yes. A fact can be called evidence when it is used to support some conclusion
that has been used to support a conclusion:Yes. It has been used to support the conclusion made by the researchers.
about which the historian expresses reservations;:Yes. the author opposes conclusion drawn by researchers from this fact(evidence)
the second is that conclusion:Yes. Here that conclusion refers to 'a conclusion' in the first part of answer choice which is is 'the conclusion' drawn by the researchers. ans this conclusion is opposed by author .

B is correct choice.

C: The first provides evidence in support of a position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
The first provides evidence :Yes. A fact can be called evidence when it is used to support some conclusion
in support of a position : Yes. It has been used to support the position( conclusion made by researchers) taken by the researchers
that the historian defends;:No. The author does not agree with the researchers. He rather opposes it.
the second is that position. :Yes. here 'that position' refers to 'a position' mentioned in first part of answer choice . Since second BF2 is a potion ( conclusion of researchers) we can say that It is the position taken by the researchers and which the authordisagrees with.
Thus, this is not the correct choice.

D : The first and the second each provide evidence in support of a position that the historian defends.

The first and the second each provide evidence : No. The BF1 is fact and hence can be called evidence. But BF2 is not a evidence (fact) . BF2 is a claim ( a conclusion) drawn by researchers based on BF1.
in support of a position that the historian defends. :No. Here ' a position' refers to position taken by researchers. Since we know that author disagrees with conclusion drawn by researchers, so this is incorrect


E: The first has been used in support of a position that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion that the historian draws from that position

The first has been used in support of a position : Yes. It’s a fact used by the researchers to support their conclusion or we can say that first is used to support position taken by the researchers.
that the historian rejects;: Yes author does not agree with conclusion drawn from this fact and hence opposes researchers position
the second is a conclusion: Yes Second is 'a conclusion' a conclusion drawn by researchers.
that the historian draws from that position.: No. Second itself is "the position" taken by researchers . And researchers draw this position from a fact mentioned in BF1

this is not the correct choice.


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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that &nbs [#permalink] 05 Oct 2018, 16:56
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