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Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and

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Re: Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2018, 23:44
5. The attitude of the author of the passage toward the work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of

(A) respectful regard
(B) qualified approbation
(C) implied skepticism
(D) pointed criticism
(E) fervent advocacy

Hi GMATNinja,

I am confused between A and B in question 5.
I understood the reasoning behind eliminating C,D and E but not for eliminating B .

Can you please delineate these to options and how to eliminate B
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New post 10 Jun 2018, 21:42
Can someone explain question 6.
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New post 11 Jun 2018, 19:06
Need help with Q2 .
According to C. Vann ..Jim crow laws codified traditional practice + effort to erase progress made by black people..

He challenged prevailing dogma when he said this.

So should'nt the prevailing dogma be that jim crows law were passed for uniformity and maintain order ... i.e. option B

Thanks in advance

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Re: Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 09:13
1

Q2, Explained


raveesh1203 wrote:
Need help with Q2 .
According to C. Vann ..Jim crow laws codified traditional practice + effort to erase progress made by black people..

He challenged prevailing dogma when he said this.

So should'nt the prevailing dogma be that jim crows law were passed for uniformity and maintain order ... i.e. option B

Quote:
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the “prevailing dogma” (line 10) held that

To answer this question, let’s take a closer look at the text:

    "In the fall of 1954, for example, C. Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia which challenged the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South.”

"Concerning" means "about." If I mention that I have a belief concerning cat videos, I haven't told you what the content of my belief is. Maybe I love cat videos, or maybe I hate them. Perhaps I have an interesting theory about cat videos and why they’re so popular. Likewise, when the author mentions “the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South," we have learned nothing about what the prevailing dogma was. We only know that there was some dominant belief about the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South. Let's keep reading.

    "He argued that the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only codified traditional practice but also were a determined effort to erase the considerable progress made by Black people during and after Reconstruction in the 1870’s.

Aha! Vann Woodward argued that Jim Crow not only codified traditional practice, but also meant to erase the progress that black people had made. His argument says that Jim Crow wasn't just turning traditions into law (this was the existing belief about the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation). According to Van Woodward, Jim Crow was also undoing progress that black people had had made during Reconstruction (this was the revisionist view that made a big impact on how people interpreted the continuity of Jim Crow as a traditional practice).

To help understand the logical structure here, consider the following example:
  • Say that the prevailing dogma about butter is that it is bad for your heart. To keep things simple, let's say that this is the only bad thing about butter according to the prevailing view.
  • You then conduct a bunch of research related to butter and conclude that butter also kills brain cells (let's hope not!).
  • You then might say, "Butter is NOT ONLY bad for your heart BUT ALSO bad for your brain!"
  • The "not only" part was the accepted dogma, while the "but also" was something new. This new discovery challenges the existing view, which is that butter is only bad for your heart.
  • Note that you are NOT saying that butter is good for your heart, but you are still challenging the prevailing dogma.

Similarly:
  • The prevailing dogma saw Jim Crow as a continuation of traditional, discriminatory practices.
  • Vann Woodward argued that Jim Crow was also a reversal of Reconstruction.

Let's make sure we review every answer choice and confirm whether it matches this understanding.

Quote:
(A) Jim Crow laws were passed to give legal status to well-established discriminatory practices in the South

This matches what we’ve read. At the time, people believed that Jim Crow laws had codified (i.e. made into law) traditional practices of discrimination against black people. Vann Woodward challenged this belief in the historical continuity of racial segregation by arguing that Jim Crow laws also erased the prior progress black people had made during Reconstruction.

Quote:
(B) Jim Crow laws were passed to establish order and uniformity in the discriminatory practices of different southern states

Was the point of Jim Crow to reduce differences between individual states? No. Vann Woodward challenged a widely held belief in the historical continuity of Jim Crow, not the geographic continuity of Jim Crow. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Jim Crow laws were passed to erase the social gains that Black people had achieved since Reconstruction

This is what Vann Woodward argued, not the dogma he argued against. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) the continuity of racial segregation in the South was disrupted by passage of Jim Crow laws

Both Vann Woodward and people of his time believed that Jim Crow had codified, not disrupted, traditional practices of racial segregation. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were passed to reverse the effect of earlier Jim Crow laws

There is no mention of "earlier" Jim Crow Laws anywhere in the passage. Eliminate (E).

(A) is the best choice available.


Q4 Choice D, Explained


papasmurf wrote:
I don't understand why the OA for question 4 isn't option D. That particular portion is even referenced in the passage!

Remember that the question asks us to pick the choice that is not a similarity between Vaan Woodward and Paine suggested in the passage.

Quote:
4. The passage suggests that C. Vann Woodward and Thomas Paine were similar in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
(D) The works of both had a significant effect on events following their publication.

  • Vaan Woodward's "The Strange Career of Jim Crow" had a significant effect on the civil rights movement. According to the passage, MLK Jr. himself testified to this effect.
  • Paine's "Common Sense" had "a comparable impact" on the American Revolution.

(D) is backed up by the passage, so we eliminate choice (D).


Q5 Choices A and B, Explained


arvind910619 wrote:
5. The attitude of the author of the passage toward the work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of

(A) respectful regard
(B) qualified approbation
(C) implied skepticism
(D) pointed criticism
(E) fervent advocacy

I am confused between A and B in question 5.
I understood the reasoning behind eliminating C,D and E but not for eliminating B .

Can you please delineate these to options and how to eliminate B

Approbation is another way of saying "praise." Qualified has multiple meanings. When used to describe a statement that someone is making, it means “limited” — not “meeting the necessary qualifications.” For instance:
  • “Bob qualified his praise of the film with a critique of a major plot hole.”
  • “Maria wasn’t happy with the candidate’s debate performance, so she offered a qualified endorsement that didn’t attract any new voters. On the other hand, Reema’s unqualified praise for the candidate motivated her entire neighborhood to show up and vote.”

The author is praising Vann Woodward’s work, but this praise doesn’t come with significant limitations or doubts. It’s consistently positive, as Vann Woodward’s lectures provide a great example for the author’s point, and the author clearly has a high opinion of the impact these lectures made on the events of their time. That’s why we eliminate (B).

Now let's check on choice (A). "Regard" is another way of saying "attention" or "consideration," and the regard that this author pays to Vann Woodward is surely respectful. This is more in line with the author’s attitude than “qualified approbation,” so we’re sticking with (A).


Q6, Explained


subhadeepb4 wrote:
Can someone explain question 6.

Check out this earlier post.

Thanks for the questions, everybody! I hope that the answers make some sense.
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New post 10 Jul 2018, 23:58
RaviChandra wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 129 ~ 134
Page: 390

Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and experienced before it is studied, interpreted, and read. These latter activities have their own history, of course, which may impinge in unexpected ways on public events. It is difficult to predict when “new pasts” will overturn established historical interpretations and change the course of history.

In the fall of 1954, for example, C. Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia which challenged the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South. He argued that the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only codified traditional practice but also were a determined effort to erase the considerable progress made by Black people during and after Reconstruction in the 1870’s. This revisionist view of Jim Crow legislation grew in part from the research that Woodward had done for the NAACP legal campaign during its preparation for Brown v. Board of Education. The Supreme Court had issued its ruling in this epochal desegregation case a few months before Woodward’s lectures.

The lectures were soon published as a book, The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Ten years later, in a preface to the second revised edition, Woodward confessed with ironic modesty that the first edition “had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that might be expected in a history of the American Revolution published in 1776.” That was a bit like hearing Thomas Paine apologize for the timing of his pamphlet Common Sense, which had a comparable impact. Although Common Sense also had a mass readership, Paine had intended to reach and inspire: he was not a historian, and thus not concerned with accuracy or the dangers of historical anachronism. Yet, like Paine, Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary moment, and of how historical evidence could undermine the mythological tradition that was crushing the dreams of new social possibilities. Martin Luther King, Jr., testified to the profound effect of The Strange Career of Jim Crow on the civil rights movement by praising the book and quoting it frequently.


1. The “new pasts” mentioned in line 6 can best be described as the

(A) occurrence of events extremely similar to past events
(B) history of the activities of studying, interpreting, and reading new historical writing
(C) change in people’s understanding of the past due to more recent historical writing
(D) overturning of established historical interpretations by politically motivated politicians
(E) difficulty of predicting when a given historical interpretation will be overturned



2. It can be inferred from the passage that the “prevailing dogma” (line 10) held that

(A) Jim Crow laws were passed to give legal status to well-established discriminatory practices in the South
(B) Jim Crow laws were passed to establish order and uniformity in the discriminatory practices of different southern states
(C) Jim Crow laws were passed to erase the social gains that Black people had achieved since Reconstruction
(D) the continuity of racial segregation in the South was disrupted by passage of Jim Crow laws
(E) the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were passed to reverse the effect of earlier Jim Crow laws



3. Which of the following is the best example of writing that is likely to be subject to the kinds of “handicaps” referred to in line 27?

(A) A history of an auto manufacturing plant written by an employee during an auto-buying boom
(B) A critique of a statewide school-desegregation plan written by an elementary school teacher in that state
(C) A newspaper article assessing the historical importance of a United States President written shortly after the President has taken office
(D) A scientific paper describing the benefits of a certain surgical technique written by the surgeon who developed the technique
(E) Diary entries narrating the events of a battle written by a soldier who participated in the battle



4. The passage suggests that C. Vann Woodward and Thomas Paine were similar in all of the following ways EXCEPT:

(A) Both had works published in the midst of important historical events.
(B) Both wrote works that enjoyed widespread popularity.
(C) Both exhibited an understanding of the relevance of historical evidence to contemporary issues.
(D) The works of both had a significant effect on events following their publication.
(E) Both were able to set aside worries about historical anachronism in order to reach and inspire.



5. The attitude of the author of the passage toward the work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of

(A) respectful regard
(B) qualified approbation
(C) implied skepticism
(D) pointed criticism
(E) fervent advocacy



6. Which of the following best describes the new idea expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his University of Virginia lectures in 1954?

(A) Southern racial segregation was continuous and uniform.
(B) Black people made considerable progress only after Reconstruction.
(C) Jim Crow legislation was conventional in nature.
(D) Jim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying traditional practice as they might have.
(E) Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation.



For Q 6. He argued that "the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only codified traditional practice but also were a determined effort to erase the considerable progress made by Black people during and after Reconstruction in the 1870’s"(Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation). He did not only X but also Y. So codifying was only one part, it erased gains of reconstruction was another. Option E says that.
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Re: Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2018, 06:35
GMATNinja wrote:
ShashankDave wrote:
Somebody please help with Q3. I didn't understand the meaning of handicaps even when I read the passage. Please somebody explain the meaning in the passage. Also in the last question, please explain why A is wrong.

Quote:
3. Which of the following is the best example of writing that is likely to be subject to the kinds of “handicaps” referred to in line 27?

(A) A history of an auto manufacturing plant written by an employee during an auto-buying boom
(B) A critique of a statewide school-desegregation plan written by an elementary school teacher in that state
(C) A newspaper article assessing the historical importance of a United States President written shortly after the President has taken office
(D) A scientific paper describing the benefits of a certain surgical technique written by the surgeon who developed the technique
(E) Diary entries narrating the events of a battle written by a soldier who participated in the battle

Quote:
Ten years later, in a preface to the second revised edition, Woodward confessed with ironic modesty that the first edition “had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that might be expected in a history of the American Revolution published in 1776.”

In this sentence, a "handicap" is a challenge or an obstacle (i.e. "A fear of public speaking is a severe handicap to anyone running for public office.").
In 1776, the American Revolution was in its early stages. It would be difficult to write a history of a revolution while the revolution is still in its early stages. It would be easier to write such a history after the revolution so that you could look back and get the full picture.

Similarly, it would be difficult to assess the historical importance of a US President shortly after that President has taken office (and yes, I'm biting my tongue in a desperate effort keep this forum politically neutral). It would be easier to assess the historical importance of a President after that President's term is over. Hence, choice (C) is the best option.

Quote:
6. Which of the following best describes the new idea expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his University of Virginia lectures in 1954?

(A) Southern racial segregation was continuous and uniform.
(B) Black people made considerable progress only after Reconstruction.
(C) Jim Crow legislation was conventional in nature.
(D) Jim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying traditional practice as they might have.
(E) Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation.

As for the last question, refer to the following portion: "In the fall of 1954, for example, C. Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia which challenged the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South."

Woodward challenged the idea that racial segregation in the South was continuous and uniform. Choice (A) represents the "prevailing dogma" that Woodward challenged, not Woodward's new idea.

I hope that helps!


Please let us know where the passage suggests that the american revolution was at it's early stages in 1776.
The passage doesn't suggest that the american revolution was at it's early stages in 1776. This is assumed.
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New post 11 Jul 2018, 08:34
GittinGud wrote:
Please let us know where the passage suggests that the american revolution was at it's early stages in 1776.
The passage doesn't suggest that the american revolution was at it's early stages in 1776. This is assumed.

GittinGud, hopefully this post will help!
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New post 11 Jul 2018, 22:12
Hi can anyone please explain me the answer for Question 2 on prevailing dogma???
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Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Jul 2018, 00:33
5.The attitude of the author of the passage toward the work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of

(A) respectful regard
(B) qualified approbation
(C) implied skepticism
(D) pointed criticism
(E) fervent advocacy

Option c , d and e can be easily eliminated. In the passage the author writes that
' Yet, like Paine, Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary moment, and of how historical evidence could undermine the mythological tradition that was crushing the dreams of new social possibilities. '

this line suggests respect and regard also nowhere in the passage the author approves or praises the work of C. Vann Woodward he simply quotes that Martin Luther King, Jr., testified to the profound EFFECT of The Strange Career of Jim Crow on the civil rights movement by praising the book and quoting it frequently.
so the answer is A.

Originally posted by goofytiwari69 on 12 Jul 2018, 00:03.
Last edited by goofytiwari69 on 13 Jul 2018, 00:33, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 12 Jul 2018, 01:18
In Ques 6, the answer choice E mentions Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation.
This is precisely what Van Woodward expressed in his University of Virginia lectures.

Read following lines from the passage:

....Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia which challenged the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South. He argued that the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only codified traditional practice but also were a determined effort to erase the considerable progress made by Black people during and after Reconstruction in the 1870’s....


No other answer choice correctly points this out. Hence (E) is correct.

Hope this helps.
subhadeepb4 wrote:
Can someone explain question 6.

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 01:22
Even I was thinking on the same lines, but to answer the question one may not necessarily know that. The passage is sufficient to answer the questions associated with it.

GittinGud wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
ShashankDave wrote:
Somebody please help with Q3. I didn't understand the meaning of handicaps even when I read the passage. Please somebody explain the meaning in the passage. Also in the last question, please explain why A is wrong.

Quote:
3. Which of the following is the best example of writing that is likely to be subject to the kinds of “handicaps” referred to in line 27?

(A) A history of an auto manufacturing plant written by an employee during an auto-buying boom
(B) A critique of a statewide school-desegregation plan written by an elementary school teacher in that state
(C) A newspaper article assessing the historical importance of a United States President written shortly after the President has taken office
(D) A scientific paper describing the benefits of a certain surgical technique written by the surgeon who developed the technique
(E) Diary entries narrating the events of a battle written by a soldier who participated in the battle

Quote:
Ten years later, in a preface to the second revised edition, Woodward confessed with ironic modesty that the first edition “had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that might be expected in a history of the American Revolution published in 1776.”

In this sentence, a "handicap" is a challenge or an obstacle (i.e. "A fear of public speaking is a severe handicap to anyone running for public office.").
In 1776, the American Revolution was in its early stages. It would be difficult to write a history of a revolution while the revolution is still in its early stages. It would be easier to write such a history after the revolution so that you could look back and get the full picture.

Similarly, it would be difficult to assess the historical importance of a US President shortly after that President has taken office (and yes, I'm biting my tongue in a desperate effort keep this forum politically neutral). It would be easier to assess the historical importance of a President after that President's term is over. Hence, choice (C) is the best option.

Quote:
6. Which of the following best describes the new idea expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his University of Virginia lectures in 1954?

(A) Southern racial segregation was continuous and uniform.
(B) Black people made considerable progress only after Reconstruction.
(C) Jim Crow legislation was conventional in nature.
(D) Jim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying traditional practice as they might have.
(E) Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation.

As for the last question, refer to the following portion: "In the fall of 1954, for example, C. Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia which challenged the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South."

Woodward challenged the idea that racial segregation in the South was continuous and uniform. Choice (A) represents the "prevailing dogma" that Woodward challenged, not Woodward's new idea.

I hope that helps!


Please let us know where the passage suggests that the american revolution was at it's early stages in 1776.
The passage doesn't suggest that the american revolution was at it's early stages in 1776. This is assumed.

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 01:26
I generally go about questions like these by eliminating the incorrect ones and by hoping my vocabulary doesn't fail me with the answer choices that are left after elimination.
goofytiwari69 wrote:
5.The attitude of the author of the passage toward the work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of

(A) respectful regard
(B) qualified approbation
(C) implied skepticism
(D) pointed criticism
(E) fervent advocacy

Option c , and e can be easily eliminated. In the passage the author writes that
' Yet, like Paine, Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary moment, and of how historical evidence could undermine the mythological tradition that was crushing the dreams of new social possibilities. '

this line suggests respect and regard also nowhere in the passage the author approves or praises the work of C. Vann Woodward he simply quotes that Martin Luther King, Jr., testified to the profound EFFECT of The Strange Career of Jim Crow on the civil rights movement by praising the book and quoting it frequently.
so the answer is A.

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 07:11
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shweta234 wrote:
Hi can anyone please explain me the answer for Question 2 on prevailing dogma???

shweta234, check out this post.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2018, 23:04
@abhimahna,@daagh,@KarishmaB,souvonik2k
Author mentions great work such as lecturing against dogma . He also explains that book was highly praised and mentioned many times by Martin Luther King Jr.IMO he is advocating his work by giving example of the praises by Martin Jr. He also tries to explain that he is qualified because author has done his homework for the court case.
Overall i see more of advocacy than respect in passage.Please help he understand this.
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Re: Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 22:29
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AnkitOrYadav - I picked B too, but after reading through the thread I can see where I went wrong.

The first thing you should note is that the question asks about the attitude of the author of the passage toward the work Woodward; True, MLK did testify the book’s profound effect, praise the book and quote it frequently. But it was MLK who did those things and not the author. Basically the author mentions that the book was praised but he himself didn’t praise the book. The author does mention that the book was praised by MLK, that the book had a mass readership, that Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary movement. After reading all this I’d choose regard/respect over praise.

Now coming to the word qualified- it has two interpretations: One which means substantiation (such as giving examples - the meaning you’ve mentioned). The other interpretation is explained wonderfully by GMATNinja in one of the posts above. Read this example sentence: “the critic qualified his praise of the book by taking about the book’s loopholes” - in this context "qualified" means giving a sorta proper picture and not blind praise. This usage of the word ‘qualified' is very common in the “purpose of the text/lines” questions in RC. (I conveniently forgot this usage when I was attempting this RC btw)

Be very wary of questions that repeat the verbiage exactly as used in the passage, especially for inference type questions. Such options need to be carefully evaluated.
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Re: Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2018, 00:08
it took me 11 ins to do this passage. Is it acceptable? and i got 2 wrong
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Re: Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and &nbs [#permalink] 11 Sep 2018, 00:08

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Historians sometimes forget that history is continually being made and

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