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In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University

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In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 08:48
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In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University in Seoul, Korea, announced the opening of the first women’s studies program in Asia. Few academic programs have ever received such public attention. In broadcast debates, critics dismissed the program as a betrayal of national identity, an imitation of Western ideas, and a distraction from the real task of national unification and economic development. Even supporters underestimated the program; they thought it would be merely another of the many Western ideas that had already proved useful in Asian culture, akin to airlines, electricity, and the assembly line. The founders of the program, however, realized that neither view was correct. They had some reservations about the applicability of Western feminist theories to the role of women in Asia and felt that such theories should be closely examined. Their approach has thus far yielded important critiques of Western theory, informed by the special experience of Asian women.

For instance, like the Western feminist critique of the Freudian model of the human psyche, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound, but in ways different from those cited by Western theorists. The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-headed family and focuses on the personality formation of the individual, independent of society. An analysis based on such assumptions could be valid for a highly competitive, individualistic society. In the Freudian family drama, family members are assumed to be engaged in a Darwinian struggle against each other—father against son and sibling against sibling. Such a concept projects the competitive model of Western society onto human personalities. But in the Asian concept of personality there is no ideal attached to individualism or to the independent self. The Western model of personality development does not explain major characteristics of the Korean personality, which is social and group-centered. The “self” is a social being defined by and acting in a group, and the well-being of both men and women is determined by the equilibrium of the group, not by individual self-assertion. The ideal is one of interdependency.

In such a context, what is recognized as “dependency” in Western psychiatric terms is not, in Korean terms, an admission of weakness or failure. All this bears directly on the Asian perception of men’s and women’s psychology because men are also “dependent.” In Korean culture, men cry and otherwise easily show their emotions, something that might be considered a betrayal of masculinity in Western culture. In the kinship-based society of Korea, four generations may live in the same house, which means that people can be sons and daughters all their lives, whereas in Western culture, the roles of husband and son, wife and daughter, are often incompatible.

1. Which of the following best summarizes the content of the passage?

(A) A critique of a particular women’s studies program
(B) A report of work in social theory done by a particular women’s studies program
(C) An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a particular women’s studies program
(D) An analysis of the philosophy underlying women’s studies programs
(E) An abbreviated history of Korean women’s studies programs
Spoiler: :: OA
B



2. It can be inferred from the passage that Korean scholars in the field of women’s studies undertook an analysis of Freudian theory as a response to which of the following?

(A) Attacks by critics of the Ewha women’s studies program
(B) The superficiality of earlier critiques of Freudian theory
(C) The popularity of Freud in Korean psychiatric circles
(D) Their desire to encourage Korean scholars to adopt the Freudian model
(E) Their assessment of the relevance and limitations of Western feminist theory with respect to Korean culture
Spoiler: :: OA
E



3. Which of the following conclusions about the introduction of Western ideas to Korean society can be supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) Except for technological innovations, few Western ideas have been successfully transplanted into Korean society.
(B) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society is viewed by some Koreans as a challenge to Korean identity.
(C) The development of the Korean economy depends heavily on the development of new academic programs modeled after Western programs.
(D) The extent to which Western ideas must be adapted for acceptance by Korean society is minimal.
(E) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society accelerated after 1977.
Spoiler: :: OA
B



4. It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast media in Korea considered the establishment of the Ewha women’s studies program
(A) praiseworthy
(B) insignificant
(C) newsworthy
(D) imitative
(E) incomprehensible
Spoiler: :: OA
C



5. It can be inferred from the passage that the position taken by some of the supporters of the Ewha women’s studies program was problematic to the founders of the program because those supporters

(A) assumed that the program would be based on the uncritical adoption of Western theory
(B) failed to show concern for the issues of national unification and economic development
(C) were unfamiliar with Western feminist theory
(D) were not themselves scholars in the field of women’s studies
(E) accepted the universality of Freudian theory
Spoiler: :: OA
A



6. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view of personality development held by the Ewha women’s studies group?

(A) Personality development occurs in identifiable stages, beginning with dependency in childhood and ending with independence in adulthood.
(B) Any theory of personality development, in order to be valid, must be universal.
(C) Personality development is influenced by the characteristics of the society in which a person lives.
(D) Personality development is hindered if a person is not permitted to be independent.
(E) No theory of personality development can account for the differences between Korean and Western culture.
Spoiler: :: OA
C



7. Which of the following statements about the Western feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on Freudian theory.
(B) It was written after 1977.
(C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear, male-headed family.
(D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of daughters in Western society.
(E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in Western society.
Spoiler: :: OA
A



8. According to the passage, critics of the Ewha women’s studies program cited the program as a threat to which of the following?
I. National identity
II. National unification
III. Economic development
IV. Family integrity

(A) I only
(B) I and II only
(C) I, II, and III only
(D) II, III, and IV only
(E) I, II, III, and IV
Spoiler: :: OA
C


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Re: In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 07:40
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Ques 1. Which of the following best summarizes the content of the passage?

(A) A critique of a particular women’s studies program.
Women's studies program is mentioned in the first paragraph and the fact that there are some people in Korea who criticize it, that's about it.

(B) A report of work in social theory done by a particular women’s studies program
The passage does revolve around the work of people who introduced a prestigious Women’s University in Seoul.

(C) An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a particular women’s studies program
Just as answer choice A, this too talks about the women's studies program as to be the summary of the passage, which is clearly not the case.

(D) An analysis of the philosophy underlying women’s studies programs
Whatever philosophy is underlying the women's studies programs is not even discussed in the passage.

(E) An abbreviated history of Korean women’s studies programs
No history of women's studies programs is discussed at all.


Ques 2. It can be inferred from the passage that Korean scholars in the field of women’s studies undertook an analysis of Freudian theory as a response to which of the following?

(A) Attacks by critics of the Ewha women’s studies program
Korean scholars did not undertook the analysis of the Freudian theory to respond to their critics. In fact, it is implied that the critics presented their comments post the introduction of the prestigious school, which would logically happen after the study had already been undertaken and, by extension, after the institution being built.

(B) The superficiality of earlier critiques of Freudian theory
We have no information from the passage about these earlier critics and would Korean scholars respond to them.

(C) The popularity of Freud in Korean psychiatric circles
This is again a weak claim as popularity is not discussed and certainly psychiatric circles is completely unrelated.

(D) Their desire to encourage Korean scholars to adopt the Freudian model
No such desire is highlighted in the passage. Can't pick this to be my answer.

(E) Their assessment of the relevance and limitations of Western feminist theory with respect to Korean culture
Although, this is not said but is certainly implied here: They had some reservations about the applicability of Western feminist theories to the role of women in Asia and felt that such theories should be closely examined.


Ques 3. Which of the following conclusions about the introduction of Western ideas to Korean society can be supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) Except for technological innovations, few Western ideas have been successfully transplanted into Korean society.
We cannot take this to be correct as the passage does not provide us with any evidence about it.

(B) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society is viewed by some Koreans as a challenge to Korean identity.
This can me inferred here: …critics dismissed the program as a betrayal of national identity, an imitation of...

(C) The development of the Korean economy depends heavily on the development of new academic programs modeled after Western programs.
Nowhere mentioned in the passage. Let alone 'depends heavily', such a thought is not even mentioned at all.

(D) The extent to which Western ideas must be adapted for acceptance by Korean society is minimal.
Let us de-clutter this: What is minimal? Extent of adaptation. Of what? Of acceptance of Western ideas in Korean society. Sorry, this is not mentioned in the passage. [TIP: When you find convoluted sentences, take a few seconds and 'untangle' them to understand the intended meaning.]

(E) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society accelerated after 1977.
Accelerated? Not mentioned or implied in the passage anywhere.


Ques 4. It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast media in Korea considered the establishment of the Ewha women’s studies program

We need to comprehend the only line about the broadcast media which goes like this in the passage: Few academic programs have ever received such public attention.

(A) praiseworthy
The broadcast media in not implied to be the critic, it helped it in gaining the public attention. Nothing else is implied.

(B) insignificant
The passage does not imply it to be insignificant. In fact, I think it was quite the talk of the town when it was announced.

(C) newsworthy
Safest answer choice to bank upon.

(D) imitative
Does not say anything in context of the media, the critics pointed this out.

(E) incomprehensible
The passage does not imply it to be incomprehensible.


Ques 5. It can be inferred from the passage that the position taken by some of the supporters of the Ewha women’s studies program was problematic to the founders of the program because those supporters

(A) assumed that the program would be based on the uncritical adoption of Western theory
Can be inferred from here: ...Even supporters underestimated the program; they thought it would be merely another of the many Western ideas that had already proved...

(B) failed to show concern for the issues of national unification and economic development
Not mentioned in context to the supporters of the program.

(C) were unfamiliar with Western feminist theory
We cannot assume this to be true, moreover, nothing of the sort is mentioned in the passage.

(D) were not themselves scholars in the field of women’s studies
We cannot assume this to be true, moreover, nothing of the sort is mentioned in the passage.

(E) accepted the universality of Freudian theory
There is no universality of the Freudian theory, not according to the passage at least.


Ques 6. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view of personality development held by the Ewha women’s studies group?

(A) Personality development occurs in identifiable stages, beginning with dependency in childhood and ending with independence in adulthood.
Does not talk about this at all.

(B) Any theory of personality development, in order to be valid, must be universal.
Actually it is implied to be culture bound - quite opposite of what would be considered universal.

(C) Personality development is influenced by the characteristics of the society in which a person lives.
This can be inferred from here: ...such assumptions could be valid for a highly competitive, individualistic society...

(D) Personality development is hindered if a person is not permitted to be independent.
Nowhere is this discussed in the passage.

(E) No theory of personality development can account for the differences between Korean and Western culture.
Nowhere is this discussed in the passage.


Ques 7. Which of the following statements about the Western feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on Freudian theory.
This can be inferred from here: the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound

(B) It was written after 1977.
Neither mentioned, nor implied. I think, if you prepare a logical chronology it would have happened prior to 1977, not after.

(C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear, male-headed family.
Does not acknowledge the universality of nuclear, male-headed family.

(D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of daughters in Western society.
Role of daughters in the Western society is not discussed at all.

(E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in Western society
It actually mentions it, very clearly.


Ques 8. According to the passage, critics of the Ewha women’s studies program cited the program as a threat to which of the following?
I. National identity
II. National unification
III. Economic development
IV. Family integrity


We can refer to this statement in the passage: …critics dismissed the program as a betrayal of national identity, an imitation of Western ideas, and a distraction from the real task of national unification and economic development....

(A) I only
(B) I and II only
(C) I, II, and III only
(D) II, III, and IV only
(E) I, II, III, and IV



P.S. This took an awfully long time to present in such a detailed manner. I have a new found respect for RC Moderators (@Workout) and everybody who picks up each and every question for a detailed analysis. Cheers!

Please drop a Kudos, if this helped! :grin:

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 17:18
Can anyone explain why the answer to Q1 is B and not D ?
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Re: In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 21:11
vinayakaggrawal wrote:
Can anyone explain why the answer to Q1 is B and not D ?


I too had selected D. I felt that the founders (of the program) were the ones who carried out the work that had the close examination of theories. Not the program itself.

However, after reading through the first paragraph again, I realized D is wrong. It's too vague and overarching, and talks about womens studies programs in general. Here have only 1 program that too in a Korean University. D's scope is way too big.

I agree B has some wording problem - it sounded like the students part of the program carried out the work (the close examination of theories). But it's the least wrong option.
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New post 16 Aug 2017, 21:18
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vinayakaggrawal wrote:
Can anyone explain why the answer to Q1 is B and not D ?

D is talking about the programs, however passage is about only one program.
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Re: In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 21:19
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Korean scholars in the field of women’s studies undertook an analysis of Freudian theory as a response to which of the following?

(A) Attacks by critics of the Ewha women’s studies program
(B) The superficiality of earlier critiques of Freudian theory
(C) The popularity of Freud in Korean psychiatric circles
(D) Their desire to encourage Korean scholars to adopt the Freudian model
(E) Their assessment of the relevance and limitations of Western feminist theory with respect to Korean culture


I had selected A for this option. I felt that E was the trap answer. Turns out, OA is E.

This was my reasoning -
Critics/supporters attacked them calling "imitation" --> Founders felt some reservations, felt theories should be closely examined --> So, Korean scholars undertook Analysis

The question asks what the scholars (or are they the founders of the program, I still can't say) were responding to. They didn't respond to their assessment/reservations. They were responding to the attacks of critics.

Did I miss something here?
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New post 17 Aug 2017, 00:24
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why cant the answer to Question 8 be E since family integrity is explained in last paragraph?
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New post 17 Aug 2017, 01:43
KanakGarg wrote:
why cant the answer to Question 8 be E since family integrity is explained in last paragraph?


Its a specific location question about critique point of view. Which is mentioned in 1st paragraph.

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New post 01 Sep 2017, 03:12
Need help in Q7, could not deduce what the western feminist critique of freudian theory says?
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Re: In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2017, 15:48
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Hi All,

Can someone please clarify the following points?

Q1 -> Why is OA B and not D? How is this passage a report and not an analysis of the underlying philosophy through examples?

Q2 -> How is the IA here B and not D?

Q6 -> I was left with the final 2 options of C and E and eventualy chose E. Can someone please guide on how to eliminate E here?

This was a good RC which i eventualy got but I am unable to crack how to crack such 700+ level RCs. Any insights here would be highly appreciated.

Thanks,
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New post 22 Jul 2018, 02:40
somesh86 wrote:
Hi All,

Can someone please clarify the following points?

Q1 -> Why is OA B and not D? How is this passage a report and not an analysis of the underlying philosophy through examples?

Q2 -> How is the IA here B and not D?

Q6 -> I was left with the final 2 options of C and E and eventualy chose E. Can someone please guide on how to eliminate E here?

This was a good RC which i eventualy got but I am unable to crack how to crack such 700+ level RCs. Any insights here would be highly appreciated.

Thanks,
Somesh.



Question 1:

Option D talks about multiple programs , but we are concerned only about one particular Korean School of thiught . Moreover, I dont think the word "analysis" fits in here . The authir is just reporing about a particular discipline. He doesnot talk about the positive and negatives of this discipline.


Question 2: OA for Question 2 is E , not D
This excerpt from the passage might help you
They had some reservations about the applicability of Western feminist theories to the role of women in Asia and felt that such theories should be closely examined.

Question 6:

The usage of word " NO " makes the choice extreme . There might be a theory which might do so , but has not been talked about in the pasage



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New post 24 Aug 2018, 23:12
Explanation of Q7 please.
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New post 25 Aug 2018, 21:55
4. It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast media in Korea considered the establishment of the Ewha women’s studies program
(A) praiseworthy
(B) insignificant
(C) newsworthy
(D) imitative
(E) incomprehensible


I chose option D rather than C, because of these lines in the passage - "Few academic programs have ever received such public attention. In broadcast debates, critics dismissed the program as a betrayal of national identity, an imitation of Western ideas, and a distraction from the real task of national unification and economic development. "

Could someone please explain why is D incorrect? Is it because C is more general compared to D?



7. Which of the following statements about the Western feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on Freudian theory.
(B) It was written after 1977.
(C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear, male-headed family.
(D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of daughters in Western society.
(E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in Western society.

In Q.7, why is option C incorrect? I did not understand what the question is asking clearly. I got confused by these lines "The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-headed family and focuses on the personality formation of the individual, independent of society."

Thanks!!
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In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2018, 18:45
2
Sreyoshi007, for question 4, answer C is newsworthy because the passage says that few academic courses received such public attention as this one in the past. If you read closely, the question is -"It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast media in Korea considered the establishment of the Ewha women’s studies program - ", the establishment was not imitative, it was rather newsworthy, by being one of the few catching attention. Please hit kudos, if that helped.

workout, need insights.
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New post 29 Aug 2018, 21:29
Gagoosh wrote:
Sreyoshi007, for question 4, answer C is newsworthy because the passage says that few academic courses received such public attention as this one in the past. If you read closely, the question is -"It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast media in Korea considered the establishment of the Ewha women’s studies program - ", the establishment was not imitative, it was rather newsworthy, by being one of the few catching attention. Please hit kudos, if that helped.

workout, need insights.



Thanks that makes it clearer, any insights on Q7?
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New post 30 Aug 2018, 02:01
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Sreyoshi007 wrote:
7. Which of the following statements about the Western feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on Freudian theory.
(B) It was written after 1977.
(C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear, male-headed family.
(D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of daughters in Western society.
(E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in Western society.

In Q.7, why is option C incorrect? I did not understand what the question is asking clearly. I got confused by these lines "The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-headed family and focuses on the personality formation of the individual, independent of society."

Thanks!!


Sreyoshi007

Please read the following excerpt again.

Quote:
For instance, like the Western feminist critique of the Freudian model of the human psyche, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound, but in ways different from those cited by Western theorists. The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-headed family and focuses on the personality formation of the individual, independent of society.


"Like Western feminist critique, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound" implies that Western feminist critique is culture-bound and another way of saying option A

Option C "It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear, male-headed family" is incorrect because it is only the Korean theorists claim and may not be true. Hence option E cannot be inferred.
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New post 30 Aug 2018, 09:39
workout wrote:
Sreyoshi007 wrote:
7. Which of the following statements about the Western feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on Freudian theory.
(B) It was written after 1977.
(C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear, male-headed family.
(D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of daughters in Western society.
(E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in Western society.

In Q.7, why is option C incorrect? I did not understand what the question is asking clearly. I got confused by these lines "The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-headed family and focuses on the personality formation of the individual, independent of society."

Thanks!!


Sreyoshi007

Please read the following excerpt again.

Quote:
For instance, like the Western feminist critique of the Freudian model of the human psyche, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound, but in ways different from those cited by Western theorists. The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-headed family and focuses on the personality formation of the individual, independent of society.


"Like Western feminist critique, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound" implies that Western feminist critique is culture-bound and another way of saying option A

Option C "It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear, male-headed family" is incorrect because it is only the Korean theorists claim and may not be true. Hence option E cannot be inferred.


Oh yes, now it makes sense, i should have read more clearly, thanks a lot :-) :-)
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Re: In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University &nbs [#permalink] 30 Aug 2018, 09:39
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In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University

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