In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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The core point here is that the psychologists declared about something that had happened earlier. So the act of declaration requires a simple past such as declared and the earlier event failing requires a past perfect such as had filed.

A. psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,----- lacks a working verb for the subject psychologists. So a fragment


B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and ….same problem as in A; in addition the use of like to denote example is incorrect.

C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, ---- The subordinate clause introduced by since lacks a verb and hence a fragment

D. psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size, ------- shift of tense using a present tense verb fail is wrong; as also, use of like is wrong.

E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size, ------- correct choice with proper sequence of tense and use of such as to mark examples.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,---- Declaring does not represent the correct verb tense
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and---- Declaring does not represent the correct verb tense
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, -having failed is again wrong
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,----declared is simple past which is not incorrect but a past perfect is just what we need
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,---bingo
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 20:42
I have a feelling after going through OG 12 & 13, that in Quant section questions are categorized as per topics. In Verbal it is based on increasing level of difficulty
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2013, 00:33
What is interesting in this question is that "since" is used to express a reason. I didn't see this question in OG12.

Does this mean that GMAT now accepts "since" to express reason?

Kindly put in your valuable comments.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2013, 01:17
unfortunately the only option without 'since' is not correct.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2013, 01:31
Yes, I agree with you on the options.

But, considering it is present in the correct option, do you think GMAT accepts "since" to express reason?
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2013, 04:16
In OG 13 I have noticed few options with "since" as the OA. I guess they have started considering it as official, but I would like few more to confirm on that
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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

POE:
1. Subject psychologists needs a main verb and gerund (declaring)cannot be a main verb.so use of verb declared is correct.
so A & B is out.
2.In choice C: having failed is a participial form and as such cannot be the main verb in the clause.also it looks very awkward.so choice is also out.
3.In choice D: English has a rule of sequence of tenses:
once a verb form is marked for past tense,the following verb forms that describe the same object or event have to be in the past tense as well. Thus,fail is the wrong verb form. The expression such X like Y is incorrect in English; the correct usage is such X as Y.
by this reason D is also out.

so we are left with correct choice E.
however one can argue why past perfect is used in choice E?where are the sequence of event? and this may confuse some one whether this is the correct choice!!
here is explanation for past perfect "had failed" is correctly used
:

All the events in the statement:

1. Psychologists declared
2. Studies failed
3. Could not be taken seriously

Are all of these three events independent?

The answer is No.

The first event i.e. declaration is independent because the act of declaring is not dependent on what was declared.

However, the failure of studies and taking them seriously are dependent. The failure of studies to control for variables must precede the event - they cannot be taken seriously. Isn’t it?

Can we say that both the second and the third events take place simultaneously? It means saying that studies failed to control for variables and at the same time, they could not be taken seriously.

No. The second event must precede third event. Why? The reason is that the second event explains the third event. First, the studies failed. And because it failed, it could not be taken seriously.


So to express this sequence that first the studies failed and then they could be taken seriously, past perfect tense is used for the event that took place earlier.

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Last edited by USADream on 07 Jul 2014, 03:20, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2013, 09:47
Thanks for the discussion on this question.
I have a different question here.
Which part of the sentence is modified by the following clause 'In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's' ?
If it's a modifier, could you please explain the rules.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2014, 06:32
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
In OG 13 I have noticed few options with "since" as the OA. I guess they have started considering it as official, but I would like few more to confirm on that


I have noticed that too.. I saw this in critical reasoning questions. Since was actually used to explain further. But since mostly used for contradicting opinion I think.

Btw E is correct, No any other choice make sense.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2014, 00:21
macjas wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...


Right off the bat, they're talking about a past event, so we cannot have present participle. A and B gone.

Because we're modifying studies, we need had/have + past participle, thus we cannot use D (which is using present tense "fail") and C (which is using present participle "having"). E is the only one that uses "had failed" correctly, so we go with E
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2014, 11:32
daagh wrote:
The core point here is that the psychologists declared about something that had happened earlier. So the act of declaration requires a simple past such as declared and the earlier event failing requires a past perfect such as had filed.

A. psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,----- lacks a working verb for the subject psychologists. So a fragment


B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and ….same problem as in A; in addition the use of like to denote example is incorrect.

C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, ---- The subordinate clause introduced by since lacks a verb and hence a fragment

D. psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size, ------- shift of tense using a present tense verb fail is wrong; as also, use of like is wrong.

E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size, ------- correct choice with proper sequence of tense and use of such as to mark examples.


I think Comma+Ing MODIFIER funda is also there.?
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2014, 10:45
We have posted a video solution to this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... p?id=ogsc1

Notice this question partially tests "such as" vs "like"

When you are listing out examples, you should use "such as"...
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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macjas wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...


Meaning

After reviewing 2000 studies on human behavior swiss psychologists declared something.
This declaration stated that most of the studies didn't take into account variables such as class and family size.
Due to this discrepancy in studies, none of the studies could be taken seriously

Error Analysis

In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

The original statement has 2 major errors.

Modifier Error: The modifier declaring is placed after swiss psychologists and before the close. It is ambiguous what is "declaring" modifying in the statement. The correct answer choice should change this modifier to verb-ed modifier or remove ambiguity

Usage of As: "Such Variables" are compared to social class and family size. When as is used for comparison it is used along with a clause. " Variable were biased as they were inconclusive" . In this sentence the correct usage of as would be to present examples, hence we need to use such as.

POE

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
For the original errors mentioned in error analysis
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
In this case Modifier error still stands. Also as is replaced by like. Like can be used for comparison between 2 entities, hence usage of like is wrong here
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
Although the sentence corrects the original modifier error it introduces the modifier having failed to control which creates ambiguity in the sentence. Modifier placed after a clause modifier the entire clause. Hence, in this cases the declaration of psychologist is modified by having. As error still stands
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Correct the modifier error but introduces like which is incorrect form of comparison
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
This statement is correct as it corrects the modifier error and also introduces social class and family size as example

This is the e-gmat way :). Do weigh in experts.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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farhanc85 wrote:
The original statement has 2 major errors.

Modifier Error: The modifier declaring is placed after swiss psychologists and before the close. It is ambiguous what is "declaring" modifying in the statement. The correct answer choice should change this modifier to verb-ed modifier or remove ambiguity

I don't believe there is any ambiguity. declaring is modifying two Swiss psychologists.

Quote:
Usage of As: "Such Variables" are compared to social class and family size. When as is used for comparison it is used along with a clause. " Variable were biased as they were inconclusive" . In this sentence the correct usage of as would be to present examples, hence we need to use such as.

The sentence does use such variables as. This construct is also valid, when the intent is to give examples. There are quite a few examples of this nature in the OG. For example: #64, OG-13: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption ....

Quote:
A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
For the original errors mentioned in error analysis

A major issue with this option is that with this option, the original sentence is not a sentence at all. It is just a fragment, because there is no main verb. Please note that declaring should be changed to declared. However, this declared is not (what you have called) a verb-ed modifier. It is actually a verb (a simple past tense verb).

Quote:
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
In this case Modifier error still stands.

Again, there is no ambiguity with respect to modifier. The issue is same as it is in option A: It is just a fragment.

Quote:
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
[b]Although the sentence corrects the original modifier error it introduces the modifier having failed to control which creates ambiguity in the sentence. Modifier placed
after a clause modifier the entire clause. Hence, in this cases the declaration of psychologist is modified by having. As error still stands

The major issue is that since is used as a subordinating conjunction here, and so, must be followed by a clause. But, most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size is not a clause.

Quote:
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Correct the modifier error but introduces like which is incorrect form of comparison

This option is better than the above options, in the sense that this is at least a sentence. An issue is with tense, since this uses simple present tense (fail) to depict an event that happened in past. Also, as you have rightly pointed out, like is incorrect.

Quote:
Do weigh in experts.

Hope it helped. Please note that before we start applying the myriad micro rules (modifier error, pronoun ambiguity, subject verb agreement etc. etc.), please make sure that you apply the macro rule: Is the option resulting in a sentence at all!

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses "Clauses", their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2014, 09:49
EducationAisle wrote:
I don't believe there is any ambiguity. declaring is modifying two Swiss psychologists.

There isn't ambiguity but as you rightly pointed out later there is a subject verb disagreement. I guess overanalyzing sometimes gives you wrong reasons :)

Quote:
Usage of As: "Such Variables" are compared to social class and family size. When as is used for comparison it is used along with a clause. " Variable were biased as they were inconclusive" . In this sentence the correct usage of as would be to present examples, hence we need to use such as.

The sentence does use such variables as. This construct is also valid, when the intent is to give examples. There are quite a few examples of this nature in the OG. For example: #64, OG-13: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption ....

Thank you this is something new that i learned today

Quote:
A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
For the original errors mentioned in error analysis

A major issue with this option is that with this option, the original sentence is not a sentence at all. It is just a fragment, because there is no main verb. Please note that declaring should be changed to declared. However, this declared is not (what you have called) a verb-ed modifier. It is actually a verb (a simple past tense verb).

I got confused with the properties of present participle and past participle, What I am calling a verb-ed modifier is actually a verb

Quote:
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
In this case Modifier error still stands.

Again, there is no ambiguity with respect to modifier. The issue is same as it is in option A: It is just a fragment.

Quote:
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
[b]Although the sentence corrects the original modifier error it introduces the modifier having failed to control which creates ambiguity in the sentence. Modifier placed
after a clause modifier the entire clause. Hence, in this cases the declaration of psychologist is modified by having. As error still stands

The major issue is that since is used as a subordinating conjunction here, and so, must be followed by a clause. But, most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size is not a clause.

Quote:
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Correct the modifier error but introduces like which is incorrect form of comparison

This option is better than the above options, in the sense that this is at least a sentence. An issue is with tense, since this uses simple present tense (fail) to depict an event that happened in past. Also, as you have rightly pointed out, like is incorrect.

yes rightly mentioned had failed is required here :)
Quote:
Do weigh in experts.

Hope it helped. Please note that before we start applying the myriad micro rules (modifier error, pronoun ambiguity, subject verb agreement etc. etc.), please make sure that you apply the macro rule: Is the option resulting in a sentence at all!

rightly said
p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses "Clauses", their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.


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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 10:15
macjas wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...


my thoughts..
A & B has no verb for psychologists
C - no verb for second clause
D- use of wrong idiom.. like for examples..
E - winner :twisted:
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 22:19
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

Verb Sequencing.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2014, 23:58
macjas wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...

Split - pick declared.
C,D,E
C- having faliled - awkward
B- Like or examples
E- such as for examples - correct
Sill waiting for my first kudos:)
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back   [#permalink] 14 Nov 2014, 23:58

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