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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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The core point here is that the psychologists declared about something that had happened earlier. So the act of declaration requires a simple past such as declared and the earlier event failing requires a past perfect such as had filed.

A. psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,----- lacks a working verb for the subject psychologists. So a fragment


B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and ….same problem as in A; in addition the use of like to denote example is incorrect.

C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, ---- The subordinate clause introduced by since lacks a verb and hence a fragment

D. psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size, ------- shift of tense using a present tense verb fail is wrong; as also, use of like is wrong.

E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size, ------- correct choice with proper sequence of tense and use of such as to mark examples.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,---- Declaring does not represent the correct verb tense
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and---- Declaring does not represent the correct verb tense
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, -having failed is again wrong
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,----declared is simple past which is not incorrect but a past perfect is just what we need
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,---bingo
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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

POE:
1. Subject psychologists needs a main verb and gerund (declaring)cannot be a main verb.so use of verb declared is correct.
so A & B is out.
2.In choice C: having failed is a participial form and as such cannot be the main verb in the clause.also it looks very awkward.so choice is also out.
3.In choice D: English has a rule of sequence of tenses:
once a verb form is marked for past tense,the following verb forms that describe the same object or event have to be in the past tense as well. Thus,fail is the wrong verb form. The expression such X like Y is incorrect in English; the correct usage is such X as Y.
by this reason D is also out.

so we are left with correct choice E.
however one can argue why past perfect is used in choice E?where are the sequence of event? and this may confuse some one whether this is the correct choice!!
here is explanation for past perfect "had failed" is correctly used
:

All the events in the statement:

1. Psychologists declared
2. Studies failed
3. Could not be taken seriously

Are all of these three events independent?

The answer is No.

The first event i.e. declaration is independent because the act of declaring is not dependent on what was declared.

However, the failure of studies and taking them seriously are dependent. The failure of studies to control for variables must precede the event - they cannot be taken seriously. Isn’t it?

Can we say that both the second and the third events take place simultaneously? It means saying that studies failed to control for variables and at the same time, they could not be taken seriously.

No. The second event must precede third event. Why? The reason is that the second event explains the third event. First, the studies failed. And because it failed, it could not be taken seriously.


So to express this sequence that first the studies failed and then they could be taken seriously, past perfect tense is used for the event that took place earlier.

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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date [#permalink]

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A] psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,-->NO main verb
B] psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C] psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D] psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E] psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,-->verb and modifier are correct

Quote:
I am applying e-gmat verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers concept here and able to negate option B C D. but confused in option A and E
in option A - declaring correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" and
in option E also - declared correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" then how we can eliminate the wrong option

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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2013, 13:08
Already discussed in the following thread. Search before posting a new question:
in-a-review-of-2000-studies-of-human-behavior-that-date-back-132413.html

And underline the part of the sentence that needs to be corrected.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date [#permalink]

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solanki2803 wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A] psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B] psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C] psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D] psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E] psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

I am applying e-gmat verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers concept here and able to negate option B C D. but confused in option A and E
in option A - declaring correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" and
in option E also - declared correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" then how we can eliminate the wrong option


Image


Hi Solanki,

Wish you and you family a very Happy and Prosperous Diwali.
Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

Let's analyze Choice A first: psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size: In this answer choice, "declaring", the verb-ing modifier modifies "two Swiss psychologists. However, the main subject of the sentence, "two Swiss psychologists" does not have a main verb. Note that the subject of the verb "had failed" is "most of the studies" and the subject for "could be taken" is "none". So we have fragment error here.

Now let's take a look at Choice E: psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,: The first thing that you need to see here is that "declared" is NOT a verb-ed modifier. It is the VERB for the subject "two Swiss psychologists". It is so because the psychologists themselves are the doer of the action of declaring. The error of missing verb has been rectified in this choice.

For more on whether a verb-ed word is a past tense verb or a verb-ed modifier, please read the following article:
ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2014, 01:21
macjas wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...


Right off the bat, they're talking about a past event, so we cannot have present participle. A and B gone.

Because we're modifying studies, we need had/have + past participle, thus we cannot use D (which is using present tense "fail") and C (which is using present participle "having"). E is the only one that uses "had failed" correctly, so we go with E
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2014, 11:45
We have posted a video solution to this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... p?id=ogsc1

Notice this question partially tests "such as" vs "like"

When you are listing out examples, you should use "such as"...
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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macjas wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...


Meaning

After reviewing 2000 studies on human behavior swiss psychologists declared something.
This declaration stated that most of the studies didn't take into account variables such as class and family size.
Due to this discrepancy in studies, none of the studies could be taken seriously

Error Analysis

In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

The original statement has 2 major errors.

Modifier Error: The modifier declaring is placed after swiss psychologists and before the close. It is ambiguous what is "declaring" modifying in the statement. The correct answer choice should change this modifier to verb-ed modifier or remove ambiguity

Usage of As: "Such Variables" are compared to social class and family size. When as is used for comparison it is used along with a clause. " Variable were biased as they were inconclusive" . In this sentence the correct usage of as would be to present examples, hence we need to use such as.

POE

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
For the original errors mentioned in error analysis
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
In this case Modifier error still stands. Also as is replaced by like. Like can be used for comparison between 2 entities, hence usage of like is wrong here
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
Although the sentence corrects the original modifier error it introduces the modifier having failed to control which creates ambiguity in the sentence. Modifier placed after a clause modifier the entire clause. Hence, in this cases the declaration of psychologist is modified by having. As error still stands
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Correct the modifier error but introduces like which is incorrect form of comparison
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
This statement is correct as it corrects the modifier error and also introduces social class and family size as example

This is the e-gmat way :). Do weigh in experts.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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farhanc85 wrote:
The original statement has 2 major errors.

Modifier Error: The modifier declaring is placed after swiss psychologists and before the close. It is ambiguous what is "declaring" modifying in the statement. The correct answer choice should change this modifier to verb-ed modifier or remove ambiguity

I don't believe there is any ambiguity. declaring is modifying two Swiss psychologists.

Quote:
Usage of As: "Such Variables" are compared to social class and family size. When as is used for comparison it is used along with a clause. " Variable were biased as they were inconclusive" . In this sentence the correct usage of as would be to present examples, hence we need to use such as.

The sentence does use such variables as. This construct is also valid, when the intent is to give examples. There are quite a few examples of this nature in the OG. For example: #64, OG-13: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption ....

Quote:
A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
For the original errors mentioned in error analysis

A major issue with this option is that with this option, the original sentence is not a sentence at all. It is just a fragment, because there is no main verb. Please note that declaring should be changed to declared. However, this declared is not (what you have called) a verb-ed modifier. It is actually a verb (a simple past tense verb).

Quote:
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
In this case Modifier error still stands.

Again, there is no ambiguity with respect to modifier. The issue is same as it is in option A: It is just a fragment.

Quote:
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
[b]Although the sentence corrects the original modifier error it introduces the modifier having failed to control which creates ambiguity in the sentence. Modifier placed
after a clause modifier the entire clause. Hence, in this cases the declaration of psychologist is modified by having. As error still stands

The major issue is that since is used as a subordinating conjunction here, and so, must be followed by a clause. But, most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size is not a clause.

Quote:
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Correct the modifier error but introduces like which is incorrect form of comparison

This option is better than the above options, in the sense that this is at least a sentence. An issue is with tense, since this uses simple present tense (fail) to depict an event that happened in past. Also, as you have rightly pointed out, like is incorrect.

Quote:
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Hope it helped. Please note that before we start applying the myriad micro rules (modifier error, pronoun ambiguity, subject verb agreement etc. etc.), please make sure that you apply the macro rule: Is the option resulting in a sentence at all!

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses "Clauses", their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 23:19
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

Verb Sequencing.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2014, 04:02
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Very good question to know about some general errors found on GMAT. I'll try to highlight all
1 non-underline part is talking about past but 'declaring' is in present-continuous
2 preposition 'Fail in controlling' is redundant 'fail to control' is correct
3 In Gmat words like (such like,just like) never exists so eliminate the choice when you see these words in the sentence.
4 like is used for comparing nouns not for giving examples.

So,lets try to eliminate choices in the question

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, -- Eliminate
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies missing verb failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and -- Eliminate
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, -- Eliminate
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,-- Eliminate
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size
correct choice


These are the major errors in this question. hope it helps

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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2015, 06:34
"Context: A study is showing something. It is showing that 2 psy are declaring something….
ISSUES
1) SRTUCTURE: ADVERBIAL MODIFIER+COMMA+NO MAIN CLAUSE (beoz thr is no verb in the sentence..so its acutally not a proper sentence) So sentence must need a verb. Here declared is verb. The suject+verb is proper structure not sub+comma+verb (bt here this is not an issue but remember this). SO A and B are WRONG as they don't have verb in it.
2) SVA=> sub is pys (plural) verb is declared (plural) no issue.
3) some verbs such as DECLARED need THAT after them.(not an issue here)
4)LIKE VS SUCH AS=> use suchas to present examples. (like is used to compare nouns). SO B (suck like) and D (such like) is wrong.
5) TENSE ISSUE: meaning suggest that something happened (failure) before other action (could be taken seriuosly) and later one is in PAST TENSE so PAST PERFECT is required for verb FAIL. correct tense is HAD FAILED. so B,C,D are wrong.
6) pronuns error: no pronoun
7)parallelism: ""social class and family size"" are parallel ideas and properly structured.
8) IDIOM: ""failed to control"" is correct idiom here. so B,D are wrong
9) DOUBLE NEGATIVES: IN B failed in not controlling means passed in controlling whcih is not the intented meaning of the sentence. So B is out again.
10) IN B ""social class and family, and none"" is the structure again ILLOGICAL TRY of parallelism."
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2015, 01:30
Ptting wrote:
I got the correct answer,but I am confused with "comma+and" in choice B
is it right? I think there is no need to use an "and", but I haven't found anyone said it is wrong.
PLS help, thx~

By the way,I always find "comma+and" confusing, is it wrong to use "comma+and" in front of a clause?

Option B actually does not have any main verb; in other words, there is no independent clause in B; so, B is not a sentence at all.

By the way, comma + and should be used when and joins a list and when and joins two Independent clauses. However, I would not base my selection/rejection of any option based upon this criterion alone.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2015, 07:13
Meaning=>two psychologist did the study in past (1940s) on human behavior. After studying/analysis, they declared that most of the studies had failed to control some variables such as social class and family size. So none of the studies could be taken seriously.

Main error in original sentence=> the sentence don't have main verb.
A=> no main verb
B=> no main verb
c=> again "since most of the studies" doesn't have main verb.
only D and E are contender
other errors
B=>1. failed in controlling is not idiomatic. 2.failed is not correct tense (we need past perfect as this action happened before "declared" and declared is simple past). 3 such like is incorrect such as is correct. 4. last "and" is ungrammatical
D=> 1. fail (present simple ) is not a correct verb; we need past perfect. 2. like is never used to introduce examples.
E=> correct

PS: option C has "having failed...."someone please explain its meaning here
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2015, 11:32
My Attempt :

Meaning Analysis :
Two Swiss psychologists did review of 2000 studies of human behavior.
Based on the review they declared something.
They declared that since these studies failed to control some variables e.g. social class and family size, none of them could be taken seriously.

Error Analysis :
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that
date back to the 1940s,
two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to
control for such variables as social class and family size,
none could be taken seriously.

There are two errors
1) S-V : There is no verb for "two Swiss psychologists"
2) User of Past Participle when there are no two related events in sequence.



POE:
A) Same As above
B) Still no verb for "two Swiss psychologists" and like used to give examples
C) No verb for "most of the studies"
D) Verb for "most of the studies" is in simple present tense instead of simple past and like used to give examples
E) Except for the verb "had failed" for "most of the studies" everything else looks good.


My Question :
Are studies failing and not to take them seriously related events? If not then how the use of "had failed" justified in correct option E
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2015, 05:19
Hi E Gmat Team

In the correct answer choice "had is used" now from my knowledge i can say that had is used only when there are two related past events. However in this question ""declared and ""had failed" are completely unrelated.
so isnt the usage of had here is incorrect and both the verbs should be in simple past?
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Re: In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2016, 07:11
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arirux92 wrote:
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,


Hi,
the Q tests on following aspect:-
1) Verb +ing modifier--
by converting the portion after psychologists in verb+ing modifier, we have the noun psycho without a verb/action
eliminate A and B...
2) use of Such as--
we use such as to show examples..
D can be eliminated
3) In C having clause does not make sense..
4) Use of Past perfect--
Since we are talking of studies of an earlier period, past perfect is correctly used in E..
ans E

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In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 02:17
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
Verb+ing (declaring) does not act as a verb. Hence this statement lacks a main verb
(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
Verb+ing (declaring) does not act as a verb. Hence this statement lacks a main verb
(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
Having does not makes sense. Since the study happened in the past, hence perfect tense is needed.
(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Such as is used to state examples, not like
(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
Correct. Since the study happened in the past, hence perfect tense is needed.
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