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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back

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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 13th Edition, 2012

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 1

In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,

(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and

(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,

(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,

(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

Originally posted by macjas on 11 May 2012, 23:29.
Last edited by hazelnut on 03 Mar 2018, 01:52, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2012, 09:25
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The core point here is that the psychologists declared about something that had happened earlier. So the act of declaration requires a simple past such as declared and the earlier event failing requires a past perfect such as had filed.

A. psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,----- lacks a working verb for the subject psychologists. So a fragment


B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and ….same problem as in A; in addition the use of like to denote example is incorrect.

C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, ---- The subordinate clause introduced by since lacks a verb and hence a fragment

D. psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size, ------- shift of tense using a present tense verb fail is wrong; as also, use of like is wrong.

E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size, ------- correct choice with proper sequence of tense and use of such as to mark examples.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Jul 2014, 04:20
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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

POE:
1. Subject psychologists needs a main verb and gerund (declaring)cannot be a main verb.so use of verb declared is correct.
so A & B is out.
2.In choice C: having failed is a participial form and as such cannot be the main verb in the clause.also it looks very awkward.so choice is also out.
3.In choice D: English has a rule of sequence of tenses:
once a verb form is marked for past tense,the following verb forms that describe the same object or event have to be in the past tense as well. Thus,fail is the wrong verb form. The expression such X like Y is incorrect in English; the correct usage is such X as Y.
by this reason D is also out.

so we are left with correct choice E.
however one can argue why past perfect is used in choice E?where are the sequence of event? and this may confuse some one whether this is the correct choice!!
here is explanation for past perfect "had failed" is correctly used
:

All the events in the statement:

1. Psychologists declared
2. Studies failed
3. Could not be taken seriously

Are all of these three events independent?

The answer is No.

The first event i.e. declaration is independent because the act of declaring is not dependent on what was declared.

However, the failure of studies and taking them seriously are dependent. The failure of studies to control for variables must precede the event - they cannot be taken seriously. Isn’t it?

Can we say that both the second and the third events take place simultaneously? It means saying that studies failed to control for variables and at the same time, they could not be taken seriously.

No. The second event must precede third event. Why? The reason is that the second event explains the third event. First, the studies failed. And because it failed, it could not be taken seriously.


So to express this sequence that first the studies failed and then they could be taken seriously, past perfect tense is used for the event that took place earlier.

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Originally posted by USADream on 19 Jul 2013, 20:35.
Last edited by USADream on 07 Jul 2014, 04:20, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 21:41
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A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,---- Declaring does not represent the correct verb tense
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and---- Declaring does not represent the correct verb tense
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, -having failed is again wrong
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,----declared is simple past which is not incorrect but a past perfect is just what we need
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,---bingo
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2013, 13:06
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In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A] psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,-->NO main verb
B] psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C] psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D] psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E] psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,-->verb and modifier are correct

Quote:
I am applying e-gmat verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers concept here and able to negate option B C D. but confused in option A and E
in option A - declaring correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" and
in option E also - declared correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" then how we can eliminate the wrong option

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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2013, 07:37
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solanki2803 wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A] psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B] psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C] psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D] psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E] psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

I am applying e-gmat verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers concept here and able to negate option B C D. but confused in option A and E
in option A - declaring correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" and
in option E also - declared correctly modify noun "two Swiss psychologists" then how we can eliminate the wrong option


Image


Hi Solanki,

Wish you and you family a very Happy and Prosperous Diwali.
Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

Let's analyze Choice A first: psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size: In this answer choice, "declaring", the verb-ing modifier modifies "two Swiss psychologists. However, the main subject of the sentence, "two Swiss psychologists" does not have a main verb. Note that the subject of the verb "had failed" is "most of the studies" and the subject for "could be taken" is "none". So we have fragment error here.

Now let's take a look at Choice E: psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,: The first thing that you need to see here is that "declared" is NOT a verb-ed modifier. It is the VERB for the subject "two Swiss psychologists". It is so because the psychologists themselves are the doer of the action of declaring. The error of missing verb has been rectified in this choice.

For more on whether a verb-ed word is a past tense verb or a verb-ed modifier, please read the following article:
ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2014, 11:45
We have posted a video solution to this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... p?id=ogsc1

Notice this question partially tests "such as" vs "like"

When you are listing out examples, you should use "such as"...
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2014, 07:34
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macjas wrote:
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

From OG 13...


Meaning

After reviewing 2000 studies on human behavior swiss psychologists declared something.
This declaration stated that most of the studies didn't take into account variables such as class and family size.
Due to this discrepancy in studies, none of the studies could be taken seriously

Error Analysis

In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

The original statement has 2 major errors.

Modifier Error: The modifier declaring is placed after swiss psychologists and before the close. It is ambiguous what is "declaring" modifying in the statement. The correct answer choice should change this modifier to verb-ed modifier or remove ambiguity

Usage of As: "Such Variables" are compared to social class and family size. When as is used for comparison it is used along with a clause. " Variable were biased as they were inconclusive" . In this sentence the correct usage of as would be to present examples, hence we need to use such as.

POE

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
For the original errors mentioned in error analysis
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
In this case Modifier error still stands. Also as is replaced by like. Like can be used for comparison between 2 entities, hence usage of like is wrong here
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
Although the sentence corrects the original modifier error it introduces the modifier having failed to control which creates ambiguity in the sentence. Modifier placed after a clause modifier the entire clause. Hence, in this cases the declaration of psychologist is modified by having. As error still stands
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Correct the modifier error but introduces like which is incorrect form of comparison
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
This statement is correct as it corrects the modifier error and also introduces social class and family size as example

This is the e-gmat way :). Do weigh in experts.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2014, 10:39
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farhanc85 wrote:
The original statement has 2 major errors.

Modifier Error: The modifier declaring is placed after swiss psychologists and before the close. It is ambiguous what is "declaring" modifying in the statement. The correct answer choice should change this modifier to verb-ed modifier or remove ambiguity

I don't believe there is any ambiguity. declaring is modifying two Swiss psychologists.

Quote:
Usage of As: "Such Variables" are compared to social class and family size. When as is used for comparison it is used along with a clause. " Variable were biased as they were inconclusive" . In this sentence the correct usage of as would be to present examples, hence we need to use such as.

The sentence does use such variables as. This construct is also valid, when the intent is to give examples. There are quite a few examples of this nature in the OG. For example: #64, OG-13: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption ....

Quote:
A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
For the original errors mentioned in error analysis

A major issue with this option is that with this option, the original sentence is not a sentence at all. It is just a fragment, because there is no main verb. Please note that declaring should be changed to declared. However, this declared is not (what you have called) a verb-ed modifier. It is actually a verb (a simple past tense verb).

Quote:
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
In this case Modifier error still stands.

Again, there is no ambiguity with respect to modifier. The issue is same as it is in option A: It is just a fragment.

Quote:
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
[b]Although the sentence corrects the original modifier error it introduces the modifier having failed to control which creates ambiguity in the sentence. Modifier placed
after a clause modifier the entire clause. Hence, in this cases the declaration of psychologist is modified by having. As error still stands

The major issue is that since is used as a subordinating conjunction here, and so, must be followed by a clause. But, most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size is not a clause.

Quote:
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Correct the modifier error but introduces like which is incorrect form of comparison

This option is better than the above options, in the sense that this is at least a sentence. An issue is with tense, since this uses simple present tense (fail) to depict an event that happened in past. Also, as you have rightly pointed out, like is incorrect.

Quote:
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Hope it helped. Please note that before we start applying the myriad micro rules (modifier error, pronoun ambiguity, subject verb agreement etc. etc.), please make sure that you apply the macro rule: Is the option resulting in a sentence at all!

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses "Clauses", their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 23:19
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

Verb Sequencing.
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New post 23 Feb 2016, 07:11
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arirux92 wrote:
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,


Hi,
the Q tests on following aspect:-
1) Verb +ing modifier--
by converting the portion after psychologists in verb+ing modifier, we have the noun psycho without a verb/action
eliminate A and B...
2) use of Such as--
we use such as to show examples..
D can be eliminated
3) In C having clause does not make sense..
4) Use of Past perfect--
Since we are talking of studies of an earlier period, past perfect is correctly used in E..
ans E

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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 02:17
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
Verb+ing (declaring) does not act as a verb. Hence this statement lacks a main verb
(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
Verb+ing (declaring) does not act as a verb. Hence this statement lacks a main verb
(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
Having does not makes sense. Since the study happened in the past, hence perfect tense is needed.
(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
Such as is used to state examples, not like
(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
Correct. Since the study happened in the past, hence perfect tense is needed.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2016, 22:49
sidoknowia wrote:
Can you please explain why option C is incorrect. I did not get your explanation. Can you please provide an example ?

Since (used in the sense of because here) is used as a subordinating conjunction in this sentence.

Subordinating conjunctions mark the start of a Dependent clause. In other words, a clause (portion of sentence with a verb) must follow since. Here, the portion of sentence that follows since is:

most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size

This does not have a verb. Hence, this portion is not a clause.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Subordinating Conjunction, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2017, 05:00
There are two actions in this sentence - 'declaring something' and 'failed to control'. Whenever you see more than 1 action, try to get them straight in time.
what happened first? The studies failed to control.....
So, this part takes "had" and the other part "declaring" must be in the past tense.
The only answer choice that corrects both the errors is E.

A) 'declaring' should be 'declared'
B) 'declaring' should be 'declared'
C) 'having failed' should be 'had failed'
D) 'fail' should be 'had failed'
E) correct

Highlighted only the decision points for a faster understanding.
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 02:02
If we scan first few words we can see a split between ‘psychologists, declaring…’ and ‘psychologist declared….’
Here ‘psychologist’ is the subject. In A and B, we should have verb after second comma. In A, we have ‘none could..’ after second comma. Verb is missing. Eliminate.
Similarly in B, ‘and’ is present after second comma. Verb is missing. Eliminate B
If we compare last words of C, D and E, we have split between ‘such as’ and such like’. In D, ‘such like’ is wrong in GMAT. Eliminate D.

In C, ‘declare that..’ must followed with a clause. Subject is ‘most of the …’, after that we have two commas, verb must be present after second comma. We have ‘none..’ after second comma. Verb is missing after second comma. Eliminate C.

Hence E is the correct answer.
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New post 19 Jul 2017, 15:09
We can easily find the answer using a timeline
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2017, 15:14
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

A psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
B psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
C psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
D psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
E psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

Hence, Answer is E

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New post 15 May 2018, 10:46
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,

"Declaring" is a gerund and not the verb of the sentence hence it is a fragment and goes out.

(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and

"Declaring" is a gerund and not the verb of the sentence hence it is a fragment.
Such...like is used to compare things hence not the right usage here. Like is the right usage.

(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
having failed is the participle form and not the main verb of the sentence, hence it goes out.

(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
FAIL is not the right verb for the past tense reporting verb "declared".
like is not the appropriate usage.

(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
Right usage of the tense, verb
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New post 01 Jul 2018, 23:36
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Re: In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2018, 15:24
Hello Everyone!

Let's take a closer look at this question to find the correct answer! Before we dive in, here is the original question, with any major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,


After a quick scan over the options, it's clear that two major issues need to be addressed:

1. declaring vs. declared
2. had failed / failed / having failed / fail


Let's start with #1 on our list: declaring vs. declared. No matter which one we choose, it will knock out 2-3 options quickly.

We know that we have a past tense verb (declared) and a present participle (declaring).

We can also see that the answers that use "declaring" also have a comma before them, creating a non-essential clause. That means whatever we put between commas is not important, and can be removed without changing the meaning or grammatical correctness of what's left over. Non-essential clauses are a popular problem with GMAT SC questions, so we'll check to make sure they're being used correctly while also checking for verb tense issues.

To make this a little easier to see, I've added the non-underlined portions of the sentence:

(A) In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously. --> WRONG

If we remove the non-essential clause that begins with "declaring," we see that the remainder of the sentence doesn't make sense because it's missing a verb (What did the psychologists do?). It also doesn't make sense to use the present participle here. The psychologists are not still declaring the studies are screwed up - it all happened in the past. Therefore, this cannot be the correct option.

(B) In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and none could be taken seriously. --> WRONG

Again, if we remove the non-essential clause that begins with "declaring," we see that the remainder of the sentence doesn't make sense because it's missing a verb (What did the psychologists do?). It also doesn't make sense to use the present participle here. The psychologists are not still declaring the studies are screwed up - it all happened in the past. Therefore, this cannot be the correct option.

(C) In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously. --> WRONG

Okay, so while this sentence uses the correct past tense verb tense "declared," there is still a problem with non-essential clauses. If we cross out the phrase, "having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size," what we're left with doesn't make sense. Therefore this also cannot be a correct option.

(D) In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size, none could be taken seriously. --> GOOD

There is no issue with how the verb "declared" is handled here, so let's save it for later!

(E) In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously. --> GOOD

There is no issue with how the verb "declared" is handled here, so let's save it for later!

You can eliminate options A, B, and C because they either use the wrong verb tense or the commas around the non-essential clauses are misplaced!

Now that we've narrowed it down to only 2 options, let's tackle #2 on our list: fail vs. had failed.

We know that the psychologists declared in the past that the studies shouldn't be taken seriously. We also know that before they made that declaration, the studies had failed in some way. This means we have two past tense events to deal with! We also know that we should use different verbs to indicate what order these events happened in:

Past Perfect --> Past Tense --> Present --> Future

Let's see how each answer stacks up!

(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,

This is INCORRECT because it uses the present tense "fail," which conveys the wrong meaning. These studies aren't still failing - they failed in the past, causing two Swiss psychologists to declare them bad studies.

(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

This is CORRECT! It uses the past perfect "had failed" to show that the studies had failed before the psychologists declared them bad studies.


There you have it - option E is the correct choice! It uses the correct verb forms, and doesn't have any problems with punctuation or non-essential clauses!


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