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# In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev

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In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2013, 11:35
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In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.

a.which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 16 Jul 2016, 08:25, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2013, 12:14
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I choose E as the ans. My reasoning:

A) which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moon like craters and was dry and apparently dead. -

The relative pronoun 'which' modifies the noun 'photographs' which is correct but the problem comes when the clause after 'and' (and was dry and apparently dead) tries to modifies the noun photographs
- Incorrect

B) which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, andit was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has. - the highlighted clause tries to modifies the noun photographs which is wrong. Mars's surface is pockmarked not the photographs. - Incorrect

c) which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s - Here, second which tries to modify 'dead one' which is incorrect. Mars's surface is pockmarked not the dead ones. - Incorrect

D) photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters - It seems that martian surface is not dry and dead rather the photos try to make the planet to look so. - Incorrect

E) photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon - Correct. no errors.
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2013, 12:24
swati007 wrote:
I choose E as the ans. My reasoning:

A) which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moon like craters and was dry and apparently dead. -

The relative pronoun 'which' modifies the noun 'photographs' which is correct but the problem comes when the clause after 'and' (and was dry and apparently dead) tries to modifies the noun photographs
- Incorrect

B) which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, andit was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has. - the highlighted clause tries to modifies the noun photographs which is wrong. Mars's surface is pockmarked not the photographs. - Incorrect

c) which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s - Here, second which tries to modify 'dead one' which is incorrect. Mars's surface is pockmarked not the dead ones. - Incorrect

D) photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters - It seems that martian surface is not dry and dead rather the photos try to make the planet to look so. - Incorrect

E) photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon - Correct. no errors.

nice explanation.

just wanted to share:

MARS'S===>this is double possesive and is wrong in GMAT===>Correct version MARS'
similarly MOON'S===>here also double possesive....hence wrong==>correct version MOONS

hope it helps
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2013, 18:36
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shaileshmishra wrote:
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.

A.which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
B. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
C. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s
D. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
E. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon
[Reveal] Spoiler:
oa to follow

Split: "which" vs "photos"
If you're aware of the comma which rule, you'll notice that "planet, which showed" doesn't make sense. The author's intentional meaning of this sentence is the PHOTOS showed the martian surface etc... A, B, C are out.

D
1 reason - Ask yourself what is "it" referring to - the Martian surface or the Moon's surface? This is ambiguous so I would mark C wrong.
Tip: If you are pressed for time and you need to make a quick decision, memorize MGMAT's deadly 5 pronouns It, Its, They, Them, Their. Choose the answer choice that doesn't have one of these pronouns in it.
2 reason - Answer D also has the word "showing", which makes the sentence a run-on sentence. Read the whole sentence again including the non-underlined portion and you will see the sentence is not complete.

E
1 reason - They added "that showed" which actually makes a whole new clause so the whole sentence sounds complete.
2 reason - Also E shows correct parallel structure: craters like (parallel marker) those on the Moon

A. which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
B. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
C. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s
D. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
E. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 02:24
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I chose E and I would appreciate a confirmation whether it is correct.

B and D were rejected for "it was pockmarked"
C for having which after "one,"

Left with A and E, preferred E for conciseness.
The meaning of both looks the same
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2014, 05:12
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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04 May 2015, 04:45
blueseas wrote:
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.

a.which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon

[Reveal] Spoiler:
oa to follow

According to the official explanation 'showed it as' is wrong in option (C). Instead, it should be 'showed it to be'.
Can anyone elaborate (perhaps with examples) how to use both idioms correctly?

Also, this is an official explanation which I can't comprehend.
(D) Introducing a new clause to add an adjective after a series of adjectives describing the subject of the new clause is unnecessarily wordy
Which clause is new? It was pockmarked by moonlike craters?
what is the subject of the new clause? Martian surface?
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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04 May 2015, 07:54
blueseas wrote:
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars
and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet,
which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
and was dry and apparently dead.

the sentence tells us about Mariner IV
it passed by Mars in 1965.
Mariner IV took first-ever close-up photos of another planet
These photos showed that....

a.which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
which refers to the planet, and not to the photos
comparison error.

b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
same error as in A - "which"
the comparison is not clear.

c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s
same error as in A and B - which
"as" followed by noun or noun phrase - is used to show the function of smth - here it is not the case
"such as" - we need LIKE for comparison, and not such as (to give examples)
after showed i believe "that" is needed.
this sentence is a mess.

d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
the moonlike crates of the martian surface are similar to the crates on the moon

e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon
noun+noun modifier..
but this changes the meaning..
in the original sentence - the moon surface is similar to that of moon's.
but this one, states that crates are like those on the moon.

Picked E, but still have doubts.
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2015, 07:14
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In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.

a.which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon

Meaning Analysis :
1. M IV took photographs.
2. Photographs showed the details of Martian Surface.
3. Martian Surface is compared to Moon surface with multiple points.

Error in original Sentence.
1. Which - Modifier - As per original sentence photos showed something, but placement of which presents an idea that planet showed us something.
2. Redundancy - Comparison error " Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s" - Martian surface is compared to Moon's surface. But "that of the Moon’s" = Surface of Moon surface - redundant and Hence Incorrect.
3. Comparison Error - " it was pockmarked by moonlike craters" MoonLike craters - Unidiomatic it says Carters are like Moon it should say "Carter similar to carters on moon" (or something similar)

POE.

Option A - Explained Above.

Option B :which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has - Incorrect
1. Which Modifier Error - Explained Above
2. Pronoun Reference - "it was pockmarked by craters" - Pronoun "It" has potential to refer to planet or MIV satellite.

Option C :which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s - Incorrect

1. Which Modifier Error - Explained Above

2. Use of "AS" ( incorrect )because
As is used to do below tasks
Comparison - Needs clause - "As dry" is not clause
Simultaneous Actions - Not a intended meaning So ruled out
Role - "the Martian surface as a dry" Does not seems to present an role

3. Modifier error (the Martian surface as a dry) - "which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s"
Which is referring to dry one - "Surface" Noun - Should touch noun. So wrong (not sure about my reason)

4. Use of As (with craters such as the Moon’s) - incorrect (can be explained in lines of point 2

Option D :photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters

1. " like that of the Moon’s "
Redundancy - Comparison error " Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s" - Martian surface is compared to Moon's surface. But "that of the Moon’s" = Surface of Moon surface - redundant and Hence Incorrect.

2. Pronoun Reference "it was pockmarked " - What is antecedent for "it", it can be planet or MIV

Option E :
photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon

1. Photos (Noun) + that showed blah blah (Noun Modifier) - Modifies entire clause of MIV taking photographs ---- Correct
2. "with craters like those on the Moon" - Proper comparison carters on martian surface are compared to those on moon , those correct refers to Plural carters.

Option E correct.

p.s : Bumping -- it may help someone
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2015, 14:06
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.

a. which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has.
c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s.
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters
e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon.

Doesn't "which" correctly refer to "photographs"?
"Photographs of another planet" = "another planet's photographs"
It's redundant to use which, but it's grammatically correct.
(There was another example on the SC sub-forum recently where "which" correctly follows and modifies "reduction" in "reduction of perks"... so noun modifiers can follow the possessed noun... same idea, right? Here's the link to that question: the-previous-director-has-had-a-very-difficult-time-during-201489.html

In that example, how does one account for the reduction of perks? You don't actively check to see that perks are reduced... the reduction of perks is a consequence of accounting for the perks themselves...I think it makes more sense for "which" to refer to "perks" but others state to the contrary, which is making this question confusing as far as the "which" rule is concerned)

e.g. The car of George, who parked next to the fire hydrant, was towed.
e.g. The car of George, which was parked next to a fire hydrant, was towed.

From the examples above, the correct one depends on what the actual rule is, and we can't allow for both, unless there are exceptions (if so, then what are they?), means that it's ambiguous, thereby "which" must modify the closest noun.

So, there seems to be contradictory rules... I bet I'm just missing something.

(A) is wrong because "those of the Moon's" is redundant ("of" and possessive Moon).
(D) is wrong for the same reason as (A)

(B) is wrong because "it" refers to surface but "it" is structurally referring to photographs

That leaves us with (C) and (E).

(C) "One" refers to surface, followed by "which" (wants to refer to surface). One example of a pockmarked surface (relatively general category) is the moon's surface (specific example of that category).

However, the first "which" modifies "photographs" (assuming it's not ambiguously modifying two nouns...) followed by the second "which" that wants to continue the original thought, referring back to "photographs".

"such as" wants to refer to "surface" and not "crater" to justify its use (general to specific = such as; specific to specific = like = similar in category), but it can refer to either due to its placement. And, "one" is redundant (e.g. a basketball that is a round one), unless its sole purpose is there for the noun modifier "which" to make sense. Then, why not just use "and" to simplify it instead of making it unnecessarily wordy?

(E) The use of "like" is correct because the craters are similar to that of the Moon, as opposed to being an example of a more general pockmarked surface.

However, (E) seems to be two complete thoughts without a connector... as opposed to an absolute clause following a complete thought because "showed" is a finite verb. If this sentence began with "photos showing..." I'd pick this in a heartbeat.

(E) would get my vote - someone please address the two bold points above. Thanks in advance.
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2016, 04:39
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Re: In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2017, 21:16
can someone explain why comma before "photos that showed" is a correct construction. What type of construction would you call this type of sentence?
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In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2017, 15:37
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.

a.which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon’s in that it was pockmarked by moonlike craters and was dry and apparently dead.
b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon’s

Which refers to the planet and the planet cannot show anything.

d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon’s, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moonlike craters incorrect tense.

e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon Correct choice.
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ev   [#permalink] 21 Mar 2017, 15:37
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