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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2016, 00:58
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EBITDA wrote:
soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?: Why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C, D (as per explanation in OG 12)


Can anyone please answer this question?

If "experts" are not able to answer it, I am very sorry to say that they are not experts at all.

This said, however, I must thank everyone in this forum for their sometimes useful contributions.


In case you have any query that is unanswered (or you are not satisfied with the answer), please feel free to send a PM with the link to that post to any of the forum moderators /experts, who, I can assure you, will try his / her best to help.

Now to the query......

There is no ambiguity with the pronoun "them". If this pronoun were to refer to "tourists", then the pronoun would be "themselves".

Following is an excerpt from Manhattan SC guide:

After the agreement surfaced, the commission dissolved IT.

It must refer to the agreement, because it cannot refer to the commission. If you wish to refer to the commission, you must use itself.

Does the above explanation explain your query?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2016, 03:57
soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)


Hi sayantanc2k,

Thank you so much for your response.

However, one of the objections that the official guide makes about answers C and D is that "the pronoun them seems to refer to tourists".

Therefore, I do not rely very much on your advice since what you are saying contradicts the answer explanation in the official guide.

Can anyone else give their view on the apparent contradiction outlined above?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2016, 14:01
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EBITDA wrote:
soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)


Hi sayantanc2k,

Thank you so much for your response.

However, one of the objections that the official guide makes about answers C and D is that "the pronoun them seems to refer to tourists".

Therefore, I do not rely very much on your advice since what you are saying contradicts the answer explanation in the official guide.

Can anyone else give their view on the apparent contradiction outlined above?


What I unterstand from your post is that the reason why you do not rely on my reasoning is not that you were able to identify a flaw in it, but that it seemed to you that a statement given in the official explanation does not match with my aforesaid explanation. Therefore let me try to explain further:

From my previous post you could probably have understood why "them" in option E is not ambiguous. (I assumed that explaining why E is correct would also make it clear why use of "them" in C and D is not correct): The structures in C and D are not same as the structure in E - in E the clause that contains the pronoun "them" also contains the noun "tourists" as a part of the subject .... " moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them "..... In this structure "them" cannot refer to "tourists" for the reason mentioned in my previous post (reflexive pronoun would otherwise be used - not using a reflexive pronoun makes it clear that "them" does not refer to "tourists"). However in C and D, the noun "tourists" is outside the clause (option C) or the present participle modifier (option D) containing the pronoun "them", and hence "them" may refer to the noun "tourists" in these cases (here use of reflexive pronoun is not required). Therefore in C and D the pronoun "them" is ambiguous, but not in option E.

Is the explanation understandable now?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2017, 23:30
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

For option E - can anyone explain -- how can HAD RAISED be correct here when there are no two past events occurring? My understanding was past perfect can be used when two events are in the past and the earlier event takes the past perfect form.

Can anyone please explain this?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2017, 19:43
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cuhmoon

Here is sentence structure with correct option:

In late 1997, the chambers (Independent clause - 1 starts)
inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza (modifier)
were closed
to visitors for cleaning and repair because (Independent clause - 1 ends and new IC 2 starts with because)
moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing (IC2 ends)
Exhaled is a verb-ed modifier here and that is a noun modifier referring to levels

As you can now see we clearly have later action - were closed - in simple past and had raised in past perfect to describe former of two events.

Hope this helps!
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Mar 2019, 10:17
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, to narrow the options down to find the correct choice! First, let's take a close look at the options, and highlight any major differences in orange:

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

After a quick glance over the options, a few major differences appear:

1. due to / because
2. raised / raising / had raised
3. was crystallizing / crystallize


The easiest way to tackle this would be to focus on #3 on our list: was crystallizing vs. crystallize. This is an issue of parallelism, which is fairly easy to deal with! There are two actions we're dealing with here:

1. salt from the stones crystallizing
2. fungus growing on the walls

The correct choice will use parallel wording and structure for BOTH actions, so let's see how each option breaks down:

(A) ...salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.
(B) ...salt from the stone would crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.
(C) ...salt from the stone would crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.
(D) ...salt from the stone crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.
(E) ...salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

We can eliminate options B, C, and D because they don't use the parallel "was crystallizing/was growing" wording.

Now that we only have this narrowed down to 2 options, let's see if we can figure out which one is the better choice:

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

This option is INCORRECT because it uses the wrong verb tense. It uses past tense for the phrase "raised its humidity," which actually happened BEFORE the chambers were closed. When we talk about two past tense events, the one that occurred first requires past perfect tense!

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

This is CORRECT! It uses proper parallel structure with "was crystallizing." It also uses the correct past perfect tense to show that the humidity had risen BEFORE the chambers were shut down.

There you go - option E is the best choice!


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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 16 Oct 2018, 17:17.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 11 Mar 2019, 10:17, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2018, 07:14
sudeep wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 698
Page: 687


As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.
[/spoiler]


GMATNinja Could you explain if "them" is actually an issue in C&D, because logically it can not refer to tourists and hence there is no ambiguity. Could you please elaborate on this?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2018, 15:26
MG1105 wrote:
sudeep wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 698
Page: 687


As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.
[/spoiler]


GMATNinja Could you explain if "them" is actually an issue in C&D, because logically it can not refer to tourists and hence there is no ambiguity. Could you please elaborate on this?

The point the OG explanation makes is that although "tourists" is the closest plural noun to "them," it's clearly illogical to claim that by exhaling moisture, tourists are increasing humidity within themselves and thereby causing salt from the stone - also within them (?!) - to crystalize. The only other plural noun in the sentence is "chambers," and it makes sense that the humidity in the chambers would be increasing. If there's only one possible logical antecedent for a pronoun, the OG basically argues that the ambiguity isn't necessarily a dealbreaker.

The broader takeaway is that pronoun ambiguity, generally speaking, is not a foolproof reason for eliminating an answer choice, so look for more concrete errors when paring down your options. (More on pronoun ambiguity in this video.)

I hope that helps!
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2019, 05:42
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sudeep wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.


(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing


The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 698
Page: 687


As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.


here we go.

First Glance
The relatively long underline begins with a split between due to and because of. Watch out forMeaning, Modifier, and Idiom issues.

Issues

(1) Meaning / Modifier

Idiom: because of moisture raising

The answers contain a split between due to and because of.

Due to X modifies a noun. Consider this example:
His success was due to hard work. In this sentence, “due to hard work” modifies “success,” meaning that his hard work resulted in success.
In the original sentence, the moisture resulted in cleaning and repair. This is true indirectly, but really the moisture caused a
series of events: The humidity increased, causing the salt to crystallize, and as a result of that, the chambers were closed for
cleaning and repair. The moisture didn't result directly in cleaning and repair. Look for a choice that offers a more clear
causal sequence. Eliminate answers (A) and (B) for faulty meaning.

Answers (C), (D), and (E) all use because—one step in the right direction. Answer (C) still maintains a muddled meaning,
though: The chambers were closed because tourists were exhaling moisture. Again, this is true only indirectly. Eliminate
answer (C).
In answer (D), because of moisture raising is not a preferred idiomatic construction. A better idiomatic structure would be
because moisture raised.

(2) Pronoun: its

Two answers use the singular its; three answers use the plural them.

The sentence indicates that the chambers inside the pyramid were closed because of problems; this doesn't necessarily mean
that the entire pyramid was closed or affected by the humidity issues
. The pronoun, then, should refer to the plural chambers,
not the singular pyramid. Eliminate answers (A) and (B).

(3) Idiom: such X so that Y

The original sentence contains the construction raised its humidity to such levels so that salt was crystallizing.
Such X so that Y is not a correct idiom. One correct idiom is such X that Y. Eliminate answer (A).

(4) Parallelism: X and Y

The word and appears immediately after the underline ends, signaling an X and Y parallel structure. The Y portion is fungus
was growing
. Which X structures are parallel?
(A) the stone was crystallizing
(B) the stone would crystallize
(C) the stone would crystallize
(D) to make the salt crystallize
(E) the stone was crystallizing
Answers (A) and (E) are both parallel. In answers (B) and (C), the would structure doesn't make sense; the salt must already
have crystallized, just as the fungus already grew, because the chambers were closed as a result. Answer (D) uses a
completely different structure for the X portion; it is not parallel to the Y portion. Eliminate answers (B), (C), and (D).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (E) conveys a clear causal sequence: The chambers were closed because moisture had raised the humidity to
such levels that two bad effects occurred.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2019, 02:30
"due to" vs. "because of split" - eliminate A, D
Rule: on the gmat due to means "caused by" therefore substitute "caused by" where "due to" is in a sentence and see if that sentence makes sense, if not, then eliminate.

Tense issue - Eliminate C
Present continuous tense used to describe action already undertaken in the past changes the meaning of the sentence here.
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize

Gerund "raising" incorrectly modifies tourists and there is a verb missing after moisture (run-on sentence)/ Incorrect idiom: So X as to. Corrected idiom should be: so X that Y/ Incorrect Tense breaks parallelism: "crystallize" is simple present but the conjunction "and" links crystalise with "and fungas was growing", which is continuous.

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

E Corrects tense, uses the correct idiom and maintains parallelism
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2019, 20:28
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PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
1: Modifier Error - which refers to tourists
2: Pronoun Number - "its" should refer to "chambers" - thus number error.
3: Meaning - Use of "due to" implies that the closure of chambers was caused by moisture. This is not correct because closure was caused by the effect of the moisture as explained in choice E.

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
1: Verb tense - had exhaled is incorrect verb tense.
2: Parallelism - "salt would crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".
3: Meaning - Use of "due to" implies that the closure of chambers was caused by moisture. This is not correct because closure was caused by the effect of the moisture as explained in choice E.

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
1: Verb Tense - " were exhaling" is incorrect verb tense; "had raised" is incorrect verb tense.
2: Parallelism - "salt would crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
1: Modifier Error - "raising humidity" appears to modify "tourists" - incorrect
2: Parallelism - "salt crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing
Correct.


due to noun, cannot modify a clause here in the reason you gave due to cannot modify the closure of chambers, due to can modify only chambers, hence wrong not as the reason you have stated ? am i right in this analysis or i am wrong, correct me if i am wrong.
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2019, 21:56
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I don't think it is a matter of such hair-splitting worries about the reference of the pronoun 'them" in this case. The only criterion is to judge it by means of a rationale that the humidity cannot be raised in human beings such as visitors or tourists. Humidity can be raised within a building, in an atmosphere, in air, or in a coastal bet, etc. By this token, it will be prudent to take the plural pronoun to refer to the chambers. Please note that there is no other inanimate plural noun to compete with the chambers in this case. That makes the case that much simpler.

However, one of the objections that the official guide makes about answers C and D is that "the pronoun them seems to refer to tourists"

I think we should understand the full import of what the above explanation means. The OG only says that in C and D, the pronoun them seems to refer to tourists". OG does not say that in C and D, the pronoun refers to the tourists. This makes a critical difference that in sum, C and D are wrong for the seemingness of the pronoun reference due to its proximity rather than the reality of the context.

Beyond that, one can solve this question amicably through other worldly-wise means as has been explained by participants such as Chetan and Sayantan and Rashed. Kudos to them.
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New post 18 Apr 2019, 22:47
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Due to vs. because of:

'Due to' can only modify nouns such as 'closure' or 'chambers'. Please note that 'closure' is also a noun. However 'due to' cannot modify a verb such as 'was closed' or 'were closed'.

Correct; the school's closure was due to elections.
Incorrect: The school was closed due to elections

Correct: The school re-opening was due to the end of the elections.
Incorrect: The school re-opened due to the end of elections

Reversely, 'because of' cannot modify nouns such as 'closure' or 'chambers'. It can only modify verbs such as 'closed, 'was closed' or 'were closed'.

Correct: The school was closed because of the elections.
Incorrect: The school was closed due to the elections.


Quote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.


(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize


Since 'due to' is modifying the verb 'were closed', both A and B are wrong.
D is ok on that count but falters on other areas such as idiom and parallelism


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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure   [#permalink] 18 Apr 2019, 22:47

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