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Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the

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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2019, 14:07
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

After a quick glance over the options, we have a few key differences to focus on to help narrow down our choices:

1. equipment vs. visible equipment
2. that / that are visible / that is visible
3. that vs. it when


Let's start with #1 & #2 on our list because they both deal with the same grammar issue: concision/wordiness. The GMAT prefers concise, clear language whenever possible, so we need to determine which phrasing option is the clearest and most concise. The easiest way to do this is to take out the phrase "such as lights," since it's only there to trip us up:

equipment...that are visible = WRONG = This is both overly wordy AND a subject-verb agreement problem. Equipment is a singular word, so we can't use a plural verb "are."
equipment...that is visible = WRONG = While this option fixes the subject-verb agreement problem, it's still not the most concise option.
visible equipment = CORRECT = This conveys the same meaning as "equipment that is visible" in half as many words! This is our choice!

We can eliminate options A, B, & C because they are not concise and/or have subject-verb agreement problems.

Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's tackle #3 on our list - that vs. it when - which is an issue of both pronouns & parallelism! To make potential problems easier to spot, let's add back in the non-underlined portions of the sentence.

(D) Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

This is the CORRECT option because the pronoun "that" is clearly referring back to "the amount of energy." If you were to replace the word "that" with "the amount of energy," this would still make perfect sense!

Also, if we replace the pronoun with the phrase it's referring back to, the 2 actions are parallel:

overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment
underestimate the amount of energy used by unobtrusive equipment

(E) Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, the pronoun "it" isn't clearly referring back to "the amount of energy" as clearly as in option D. Even if we replace the pronoun "it" with "the amount of energy," we also have a parallelism problem! There are 2 actions people are doing in this sentence:

overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment
underestimate the amount of energy used when by unobtrusive equipment

Since these two actions aren't written using parallel construction, we have to toss this one out!

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! By finding the splits among our 5 options, we were able to eliminate several incorrect choices quickly, leaving us more time to focus on the more nuanced grammar problems at hand!


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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2019, 21:09
EducationAisle wrote:
hero_with_1000_faces wrote:
In the correct option the first "that" is acting as a modifier - modifying "visible equipment" and second "that" is acting as a pronoun.

Hi! Actually in both instances, that is used as a pronoun: relative pronoun in the first case and demonstrative pronoun in the second case.

Quote:
Can be this be called parallel grammatically?

There is no parallelism of that being tested in this question. The parallelism here is between overestimate and underestimate, both verbs (used as infinitives here).



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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2019, 05:58
vaivish1723 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

SC83811.01



Marker - "AND" - Indicates parallelism.

What elements are paralleled?

The amount of energy used by equipment that is visible and has to be turned on and off, and amount of energy used by unobtrusive equipment.

Now, as we see that instead of saying 'equipment that is visible' it is better to say 'visible equipment' so that rules option A,B, C

Option E - 'It' does not have an antecedent and hence the noun it is referring to cant be traced.

So the correct option is D.
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2019, 05:49
That are visible is intended to modify equipment not light, because such as lights are enclosed between commas and is non essential.
Visible equipment is more concise than Equipment, that are visible.

A B C OUT

Use of When is incorrect. Do I need it to convey the meaning properly? I don’t think so. What is it doing in option E?
E out
D Correct answer
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2020, 06:14
vaivish1723 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


SC83811.01

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 64: Sentence Correction


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Original sentence:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

POE

1. SV Agreement Error: "... equipment that are visible..." - Similar error found in 'B' as well. --> Eliminate A & B
2. Pronoun Error: In options B, C & E, "it" has no clear antecedent.
3. Parallelism Structure
People tend to overestimate X and underestimate Y : Option B, C & E have unclear parallel structures
For instance in B
people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off
and underestimate it when used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


OA <-- D
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2020, 04:36
gauravtewary72 wrote:
vaivish1723 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


SC83811.01

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 64: Sentence Correction


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If you try to get a hang of what the author wants to convey you will know that it's all about parallel structure and pronoun reference. Between A and D the former is the best fit as it is concise and clearly conveys what the author wants to.



There is a clear contrast between visible equipment and unobtrusive equipment

Therefore, D is a better choice than A
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2020, 23:07
As to D option,can the first 'that' jump over the appositive and modify the 'equipment'? I wonder if it is grammatically correct.
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2020, 01:41
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

After a quick glance over the options, we have a few key differences to focus on to help narrow down our choices:

1. equipment vs. visible equipment
2. that / that are visible / that is visible
3. that vs. it when


Let's start with #1 & #2 on our list because they both deal with the same grammar issue: concision/wordiness. The GMAT prefers concise, clear language whenever possible, so we need to determine which phrasing option is the clearest and most concise. The easiest way to do this is to take out the phrase "such as lights," since it's only there to trip us up:

equipment...that are visible = WRONG = This is both overly wordy AND a subject-verb agreement problem. Equipment is a singular word, so we can't use a plural verb "are."
equipment...that is visible = WRONG = While this option fixes the subject-verb agreement problem, it's still not the most concise option.
visible equipment = CORRECT = This conveys the same meaning as "equipment that is visible" in half as many words! This is our choice!

We can eliminate options A, B, & C because they are not concise and/or have subject-verb agreement problems.

Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's tackle #3 on our list - that vs. it when - which is an issue of both pronouns & parallelism! To make potential problems easier to spot, let's add back in the non-underlined portions of the sentence.

(D) Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

This is the CORRECT option because the pronoun "that" is clearly referring back to "the amount of energy." If you were to replace the word "that" with "the amount of energy," this would still make perfect sense!

Also, if we replace the pronoun with the phrase it's referring back to, the 2 actions are parallel:

overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment
underestimate the amount of energy used by unobtrusive equipment

(E) Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, the pronoun "it" isn't clearly referring back to "the amount of energy" as clearly as in option D. Even if we replace the pronoun "it" with "the amount of energy," we also have a parallelism problem! There are 2 actions people are doing in this sentence:

overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment
underestimate the amount of energy used when by unobtrusive equipment

Since these two actions aren't written using parallel construction, we have to toss this one out!

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! By finding the splits among our 5 options, we were able to eliminate several incorrect choices quickly, leaving us more time to focus on the more nuanced grammar problems at hand!


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.


" First, the pronoun "it" isn't clearly referring back to "the amount of energy" as clearly as in option D"

Why do you say so? Why can't "it" refer back as clearly to "amount of energy" as "that" does ?


Thanks
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the   [#permalink] 06 Jun 2020, 01:41

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