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Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the

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Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


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Originally posted by vaivish1723 on 08 Jun 2009, 08:19.
Last edited by Bunuel on 22 Sep 2019, 03:44, edited 5 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2014, 09:04
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goodyear2013 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by
equipment. such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by
unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.
(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


Lots of good stuff in this question. You can see Subject Verb agreement issues in A & B (equipment are is). There is a nice split between "equipment that is visible" and "visible equipment" - "visible equipment" is more concise and is parallel with the comparison element, "unobtrusive equipment", so C can be eliminated.

That leaves us with D & E and this is where is gets interesting. This is a case where the correct answer "sounds wrong". It sounds good to say "underestimate it when" and sounds wrong to say "underestimate that". Grammatically, however, we can use "that" to refer back to "the amount of energy" but "it" doesn't refer clearly back to that phrase/concept. Additionally, using the word "when" is not parallel. We need to say "overestimate the amount of energy used...and underestimate that [the amount of energy] used". The correct answer is D.

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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2017, 11:26
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Hm, lots of "that" going on here, plus some bonus pronoun and meaning stuff. If you're not sure what to do with the word "that", check out this crusty old article or this YouTube video.

Quote:
A. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

The first "that" isn't quite right: it seems to be modifying "equipment," since "such as lights" is a self-contained little modifying phrase (an appositive, if you like grammar jargon), and the last chunk of the sentence is clearly discussing equipment in general, not just the lights. But there's a problem: "equipment... that are visible." Subject-verb fail.

What about the second "that"? It's a singular pronoun in this case, and I'd argue that it unambiguously refers back to "the amount of energy", since there's a super-clear parallel structure: "people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment [that is visible]... and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment..." And that seems completely fine: "people tend to... underestimate the amount of energy used by unobtrusive equipment" makes perfect sense.

But the first "that" is still a mess. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

Same subject-verb error as in (A).

I'm also really not crazy about the use of "when" here: literally, they're saying that people underestimate the amount of energy used at the moment when the energy is used by unobtrusive equipment. And that's not quite right: the underestimate is something that happens in general, and not at a specific moment in time. Either way, (B) is out.

Quote:
C. equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

"...equipment... that IS visible" is right, but we have the same "when" problem as in (B). Now that I think about it, I'm also not crazy about the "it" -- the pronoun is a long way from its antecedent, "the amount of energy." The pronoun "that" is much clearer in (A) or (D), because of the parallel structure.

If you wanted to be conservative and hang onto (C) at first, that's great -- I would do the same. But as we'll see in a moment, there's a much better option.


Quote:
D. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

Ooh, this looks great. No subject-verb issue, plus it's pleasantly succinct: "visible equipment... that must be turned on and off" is way better than "equipment that is visible and must be turned on and off." And as discussed above, "that" is a nice, clear pronoun. Keep (D).

Quote:
E. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

The first part of the underlined portion is nice, but the last chunk "and underestimate it when" is a little bit shaky, both in terms of the pronoun agreement and the meaning of the word "when", as discussed above. (D) is clearly a better choice.
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2009, 10:52
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vaivish1723 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heater.
A. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that
B. equipment, such as light, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
C. equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
D. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that
E. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


Oa is d



I chose D for this answer choice.

First of all, "visible equipment" is more concise than saying "equipment that is visible." Now suppose that you couldn't tell which way is more concise: "equipment" is singular, so you can't say "that ARE" to refer to equipment. That would eliminate answer choices A and B.
Now, option C does say "that is", which is correct. However, the last part of this answer choice says "it when", which is wrong, so option C is out. "it" refers only to a noun. What this sentence wants to refer to is "the amount of energy", to which you can refer using "that." Looking at options D and E, only D does this job perfecty well.

It's parallel to say, "the amount of energy used" and "that used."

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New post 29 Jun 2010, 16:47
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visible equipment and unobtrusive equipment - parallel. that D and E.

Between D and E....D is parallel

overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment.......and underestimate that [amount of energy] used by unobtrusive equipment.............

Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that - correct
(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2016, 03:49
I have following doubt in option D.

In option D - first "that" refers to "visible equipment" and second "that" refers to "the amount of energy".
How can the same "that" refer to two different entities in a sentence?
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New post 07 Mar 2017, 23:09
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RMD007 wrote:
I have following doubt in option D.

In option D - first "that" refers to "visible equipment" and second "that" refers to "the amount of energy".
How can the same "that" refer to two different entities in a sentence?

Hi RMD007, you ask a very good question.

The thing is that here, the first "that" is a completely different usage from the second "that".

The first "that" is used as a relative pronoun, while the second "that" is used as a demonstrative pronoun.

By the way, apart from these two usages, that also has a third usage: as a conjunction. All the three usages of "that" are quite frequently tested on GMAT.

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Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

A. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that -- 'equipment, such as lights, 'that are visible' is not parallel to 'unobtrusive' equipment.

B. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when -- same as in A

C. equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when--- same as in A and B; 2. lights that is visible -- is an SV mistake.

D. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that ---- 1. 'visible' and 'unobtrusive' - are parallel. 2. the relative pronoun 'that' correctly refers to the amount of energy -- correct choice.

E. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when -- 1. the antecedence of 'It' is un clear. It could refer to ' either equipment' (as a single equipment), or to the energy. 2. The adverb 'when' gives a wrong twist as if the under estimation occurs only when used by the equipment and not when they are idle. However, the idea here is a generalization about the equipment and not a comparison
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

A. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that - SV error

B. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when -SV error

C. equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when -1. it can refer to equipment. 2. Incorrect usage of when

D. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that-CORRECT.Second that correctly refers to amount of energy

E. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when -1. it can refer to equipment. 2. Incorrect usage of when
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New post 28 Jul 2017, 01:55
If C did not had pronoun ambiguity "it"
would it be still correct?
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New post 28 Jul 2017, 09:25
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haardiksharma wrote:
If C did not had pronoun ambiguity "it"
would it be still correct?



Hello haardiksharma,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

Even if the issue of pronoun it is resolved, Choice C will still remain incorrect for the usage of when.

See, the word when is used quite literally on GMAT SC. With the usage of this word, Choice C suggests that people underestimate the amount of energy when used by unobtrusive equipment. Otherwise they do not. Hence, usage of when makes Choice B, C, and E incorrect.


Hope this helps. :-)
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New post 14 Feb 2019, 10:25
"that" can only refer to a subject without any modifier.
In this question, "that" can only refer to "amount" and NOT "amount of energy."
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New post 10 Apr 2019, 02:22
Hi Folks,
Two errors in the given sentence: SV agreement, equipment....are
Modifier,visible, for equipment must be parallel to unobtrusive equipment.
Use of that as a pronoun for the amount of energy is correct.
Option D fixes these issues.

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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2019, 22:53
vaivish1723 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


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First I felt how to deal with it. After practicing and watching GMATNinja's videos on parallelism I feel it like a piece of cake.

In non-underlined part, we see unobtrusive equipment. so answer should have Visible equipment. A,B,C are eliminated. In D and E. 'It' in E points to the amount of electricity used by visible equipment. 'That' should be there to indicate as a copy.
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New post 16 Sep 2019, 19:20
daagh wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.

A. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that -- 'equipment, such as lights, 'that are visible' is not parallel to 'unobtrusive' equipment.

B. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when -- same as in A

C. equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when--- same as in A and B; 2. lights that is visible -- is an SV mistake.

D. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that ---- 1. 'visible' and 'unobtrusive' - are parallel. 2. the relative pronoun 'that' correctly refers to the amount of energy -- correct choice.

E. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when -- 1. the antecedence of 'It' is un clear. It could refer to ' either equipment' (as a single equipment), or to the energy. 2. The adverb 'when' gives a wrong twist as if the under estimation occurs only when used by the equipment and not when they are idle. However, the idea here is a generalization about the equipment and not a comparison


I don't think, the usage of "it" in E is wrong. "underestimate equipment" is just not right, therefore it here is definitely referring to "amount of energy used". or am i missing something here ? Please guide.

In that scenario, I suppose the only culprit here is the subtle change in meaning with the usage of "when". I read the full thread but found no other argument as convincing as yours.
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vaivish1723 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


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Official Explanation

Rhetorical construction; Agreement

This sentence, as worded, has a subject-verb agreement problem: the noun equipment, not lights, serves as the subject of the verb are; because equipment is singular, is should be used. Furthermore, the sentence would read more clearly if visible equipment were used rather than equipment . . . that [is] visible. This would create a less wordy sentence that has a more parallel structure, in which visible equipment is contrasted with unobtrusive equipment.

A. This version is flawed for the reasons given above.

B. This version has the same subject-verb agreement problem as in A. Furthermore, it is unclear what the referent of the pronoun it is here. Finally, this version, like A, is wordy, and its structure is not parallel.

C. This version correctly uses the singular verb is. However, as in choice B, the pronoun it has no clear referent. Finally, this version, like A and B, is wordy, and its structure is not parallel.

D. Correct. This version is free of subject-verb agreement errors and its structure is parallel.

E. Although this version is free of subject-verb agreement errors and appropriately uses a parallel structure, it retains the problem from choices B and C: the pronoun it has no clear referent.

The correct answer is D.
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New post 10 Dec 2019, 05:23
EducationAisle wrote:
RMD007 wrote:
I have following doubt in option D.

In option D - first "that" refers to "visible equipment" and second "that" refers to "the amount of energy".
How can the same "that" refer to two different entities in a sentence?

Hi RMD007, you ask a very good question.

The thing is that here, the first "that" is a completely different usage from the second "that".

The first "that" is used as a relative pronoun, while the second "that" is used as a demonstrative pronoun.

By the way, apart from these two usages, that also has a third usage: as a conjunction. All the three usages of "that" are quite frequently tested on GMAT.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the avatars of "that", their application and examples in significant detail. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.





Hello Ashish EducationAisle

I have a related question, I understand in parallelism the sentence have to logical as well as grammatical.

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

In the correct option the first "that" is acting as a modifier - modifying "visible equipment" and second "that" is acting as a pronoun.
Can be this be called parallel grammatically ?

I am finding it hard to explain my difficulty, but hope you can understand the question

AjiteshArun can you help too ?
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Re: Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2019, 06:48
vaivish1723 wrote:
Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.


(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that

(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when


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If you try to get a hang of what the author wants to convey you will know that it's all about parallel structure and pronoun reference. Between A and D the former is the best fit as it is concise and clearly conveys what the author wants to.
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New post 10 Dec 2019, 07:21
hero_with_1000_faces wrote:
In the correct option the first "that" is acting as a modifier - modifying "visible equipment" and second "that" is acting as a pronoun.

Hi! Actually in both instances, that is used as a pronoun: relative pronoun in the first case and demonstrative pronoun in the second case.

Quote:
Can be this be called parallel grammatically?

There is no parallelism of that being tested in this question. The parallelism here is between overestimate and underestimate, both verbs (used as infinitives here).
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New post 10 Dec 2019, 07:24
gauravtewary72 wrote:
Between A and D the former is the best fit as it is concise and clearly conveys what the author wants to.

Hi Gaurav, the answer is the latter by the way.
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Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the   [#permalink] 10 Dec 2019, 07:24

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Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the

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