GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

 It is currently 20 Oct 2019, 04:38

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Status: 2 months to go
Joined: 11 Oct 2015
Posts: 105
GMAT 1: 730 Q49 V40
GPA: 3.8
Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Jul 2016, 14:49
3
19
00:00

Difficulty:

35% (medium)

Question Stats:

65% (01:27) correct 35% (01:43) wrong based on 767 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting extraction of deeper layers of coal.

(A) the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting

(B) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the

(C) steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production by permitting the drainage of mine water and permitting

(D) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and

(E) eighteenth-century use of steam engines increased English coal production by draining mines and

This is a pretty hard question, it was the first mistake after a consistent number of right answers.
In my reasoning, I supposed that the steam engine couldn't be the subject of the phrase, since "a steam engine increased" sounded wrong to me, I liked more the idea of "the use of the steam engine increased", if anyone could elaborate I'd appreciate it $$:)$$
Current Student
Joined: 25 Jul 2015
Posts: 110
Location: Thailand
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Marketing
GMAT 1: 550 Q37 V28
GMAT 2: 660 Q47 V34
GMAT 3: 650 Q44 V35
GMAT 4: 680 Q49 V32
GMAT 5: 740 Q49 V42
GPA: 3.33
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 Aug 2016, 11:25
16
3
(so I typed out the sentence just because I want to do a proper take on it.)

Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting extraction of deeper layers of coal.

a) the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting.
b) steam engines increased goal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the
c) steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production by permitting the drainage of mine water and permitting
d) steam engines increased cold production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and
e) eighteenth-century use of steam engines increased English coal production by draining mines and

From reading the first words of the sentence I immediately notice that it's a modifier and every time there is a modifier my brain goes off screaming 'MAKE SURE IT'S MODIFYING THE RIGHT SUBJECT!'. So since from the start we can identify several issues:
1. Modifier issue 'the use of the steam engine' - I am pretty sure the use is not located, instead the first half of the sentence should modify 'the steam engine'
2. Parallelism issue with 'allowing for mines TO BE DRAINED[...] and permitting EXTRACTION[...]'; first is a gerund + passive and second is gerund + noun phrase.

With these analysis in mind, I quickly eliminate A and E. We're left with B, C, and D.

B) looks good so far, it fixes the modifier issue and the parallelism issue so I move on to scan the remaining choices.

C) this answer choice changes the meaning of the original intention whereby it talks about how steam engines helped coal production in the 18th century and not 18th century steam engines helping coal production. Therefore I eliminate this answer choice. Additionally, two permitting sounds awkward and redundant.

D) Fixes the modifier issue but the parallelism issue still remains, therefore I eliminate this choice.

B) is the only one we have left and corrects all the errors
_________________
##### General Discussion
Intern
Joined: 10 Dec 2014
Posts: 38
Location: India
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Operations
Schools: ISB '17
GPA: 4
WE: Operations (Consulting)
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Jul 2016, 19:36
2
3
Hi,

This is a clear Modifier sentence.
Located at the coal mines...., (what is located should be here after comma) . steam engines are located at the coal mines. So A and E are out.

C. Distorted the meaning by changing to " allowed an increase " whereas intended meaning is allowed drainage of mines.
D. "allowing water to be drained out of mines" (passive construction) is not parallel to "extraction of deeper layers of coal" (a noun phrase)

B. is clear and concise. Initially i confused for the word water missing but i think its understood in the phrase drainage of mines.
Manager
Joined: 27 Jan 2013
Posts: 96
Location: India
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V35
GPA: 3.7
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Aug 2016, 10:58
1
What is wrong with option C ?

Is it just wordiness ? I don't think there's any meaning distortion.
Manager
Status: 2 months to go
Joined: 11 Oct 2015
Posts: 105
GMAT 1: 730 Q49 V40
GPA: 3.8
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Aug 2016, 12:16
4
RaghavSingla wrote:
What is wrong with option C ?

Is it just wordiness ? I don't think there's any meaning distortion.

There are two major things other than what babuvgmat pointed out.

1st repeating "permitting" is awkward.
2nd the lack of "the" after the second permitting is wrong, as "permitting extraction" doesn't mean anything.

Den
Manager
Joined: 20 Mar 2015
Posts: 56
Location: United States
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
WE: Design (Manufacturing)
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Aug 2016, 14:24
1
"Steam engines cannot allow the increase"
That is absurd

Sent from my iPhone using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
Current Student
Joined: 20 Jan 2015
Posts: 47
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Aug 2016, 08:24
Tough to eliminate D. The structure is not parallel here. 'water' is not parallel to 'extraction'
_________________
Please take a moment to hit Kudos if you like my post
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Sep 2014
Posts: 341
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Aug 2016, 08:53
3
I don't understand why it is B.

It seems like steam engines is permitting the drainage and extraction. I dont like C for the same reason. subject of "allow" is "steam engine"
Intern
Joined: 14 Jun 2016
Posts: 3
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Aug 2016, 11:42
A, C, and E are out.
D has passive form of speech "allowing water to be drained out of mines", and there is a lack of proper parallelism between "allowing water to be drained out of mine" and "permitting extraction of deep layer of coal"
B doesn't have passive construction, and also it has correct parallelism, even the elimination of need to use permitting twice.
Retired Moderator
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2861
Location: Germany
Schools: German MBA
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 Aug 2016, 07:22
2
DensetsuNo wrote:

Spoiler: :: Doubt
This is a pretty hard question, it was the first mistake after a consistent number of right answers.
In my reasoning, I supposed that the steam engine couldn't be the subject of the phrase, since "a steam engine increased" sounded wrong to me, I liked more the idea of "the use of the steam engine increased", if anyone could elaborate I'd appreciate it $$:)$$

" The use of steam engines" is wrong, because the pronoun "them" in the opening modifier requires "steam engines" to be the subject.
(Yet your reasoning that "the use of steam engines increased" is better than " steam engines increased", but then the sentence would be grammatically wrong because of wrong pronoun reference - it is not wrong to say that " steam engines increased").
Manager
Joined: 24 May 2014
Posts: 86
Location: India
GMAT 1: 590 Q39 V32
GRE 1: Q159 V151

GRE 2: Q159 V153
GPA: 2.9
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 Sep 2016, 03:39
I understand your explanation Mimster. Gerund has to be parallel with an action noun and not only with noun. But in option B the 'drainage of mines' sounds awkward. Whereas in option D, use of the term 'water' adds some meaning. Questions like these, it is tough to figure out whether to go by meaning or pure parallelism rules.!
Manager
Joined: 23 Jun 2009
Posts: 173
Location: Brazil
GMAT 1: 470 Q30 V20
GMAT 2: 620 Q42 V33
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

13 Dec 2016, 11:10
1
1
a) the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting.
b) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the
c) steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production by permitting the drainage of mine water and (by) permitting
d) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and
e) eighteenth-century use of steam engines increased English coal production by draining mines and

the drainage of mine water - mine water is not a coal mine

allowing water to be drained out of mines - you can allow an innanimate thing such as water to be drained out. ( water can't perform such task by itself )

steam engines in eighteenth-century England - remove the fluff and you will see a change in the meaning (it was never mentioned that steam engines were in England
Manager
Joined: 26 Mar 2017
Posts: 106
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Jun 2017, 04:03
1
Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting extraction of deeper layers of coal.

(A) the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting
(B) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the
(C) steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production by permitting the drainage of mine water and permitting
(D) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and does not fit to the rest of the sentence!
(E) eighteenth-century use of steam engines increased English coal production by draining mines and
_________________
I hate long and complicated explanations!
Intern
Joined: 24 May 2017
Posts: 30
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

23 Jun 2017, 03:40
1
Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting extraction of deeper layers of coal.

(A) the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting - "steam engines" needed after "fuel,"
(B) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the - CORRECT "the drainage" parallel to "the extraction"
(C) steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production by permitting the drainage of mine water and permitting - not parallel "by permitting the drainage.." with "permitting extraction"
(D) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and - "by allowing" not parallel to "extraction"
(E) eighteenth-century use of steam engines increased English coal production by draining mines and - "steam engines" needed after "fuel," - same as A
_________________
NOTE: I am not an expert, therefore my analysis answering the questions may be incorrect and may not be relied upon. However I will appreciate if you can correct the mistakes I may have made in my analysis.
Intern
Joined: 30 May 2013
Posts: 29
GMAT 1: 600 Q50 V21
GMAT 2: 640 Q49 V29
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

23 Jun 2017, 04:29
IMO (B)
(1 Located at the ..... with fuel --> this modifier should modify steam engines. Neither to 'the use' nor to 'the eighteenth century'
(2) subject and object should be placed closer whenever its possible
Steam engine (subject) + increased (verb)+ Coal production(Objects) --- correct form
(3) parallelism : permitting drainage of mine water and permitting extraction of deeer layers.

Sent from my GT-N7100 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
VP
Status: Learning
Joined: 20 Dec 2015
Posts: 1009
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Marketing
GMAT 1: 670 Q48 V36
GRE 1: Q157 V157
GPA: 3.4
WE: Engineering (Manufacturing)
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

23 Jun 2017, 07:16
Main issue in the sentence is parallelism and wordiness .
Option B corrects these two flaws .
Option is pretty close but fails miserably for parallelism and use passive voice.
_________________
Verbal Forum Moderator
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2401
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Jan 2018, 07:29
Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting extraction of deeper layers of coal.

(A) the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting -- opening modifier error
(B) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the
(C) steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production by permitting the drainage of mine water and permitting -- permitting is redundant here?
(D) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and
(E) eighteenth-century use of steam engines increased English coal production by draining mines and -- opening modifier error ; parallelism issue - by draining and extraction are not parallel

I chose D -- by allowing X and Y ; X = water to be drained out of mines, Y = extraction of deeper layers of coal . I believe both water and extraction here are nouns.

AjiteshArun ,mikemcgarry ,egmat ,GMATNinja , other experts - can you please help with eliminating options C and D ?
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
CEO
Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 3050
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V169
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Jan 2018, 20:31
2
Skywalker18 wrote:
I chose D -- by allowing X and Y ; X = water to be drained out of mines, Y = extraction of deeper layers of coal . I believe both water and extraction here are nouns.

AjiteshArun ,mikemcgarry ,egmat ,GMATNinja , other experts - can you please help with eliminating options C and D ?
Quick elimination: the placement of in eighteenth-century England is problematic in option C, and option D doesn't have a the.

Option C
steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production
vs.
steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England

This is a little like saying computers in offices have led to an increase in productivity. While this is not strictly incorrect, the intent of the sentence is to view computers as (let's say) a form of technology and to keep the focus on letting the reader know where the increase in productivity has occurred (as a result of the usage of computers).

Computers in offices have led to an increase in productivity.
vs.
Computers have led to an increase in productivity in offices.

Option D
In option D, while water is a noun, it is not a good fit for extraction. This option basically uses [an object (noun) and an infinitive] as the first element of the list (water to be drained) and only a [noun] (extraction of deeper layers) as the second. This is not very parallel. Drainage would have been a much better fit here (with extraction).

steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the extraction of deeper layers
vs.
steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and extraction of deeper layers

Also, we should look for a the in D. For example, the extraction of instead of extraction of.
_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4472
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Jan 2018, 15:58
2
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting extraction of deeper layers of coal.

(A) the use of steam engines in eighteenth-century England increased coal production by allowing for mines to be drained of water and permitting -- opening modifier error
(B) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by permitting the drainage of mines and the
(C) steam engines in eighteenth-century England allowed an increase in coal production by permitting the drainage of mine water and permitting -- permitting is redundant here?
(D) steam engines increased coal production in eighteenth-century England by allowing water to be drained out of mines and
(E) eighteenth-century use of steam engines increased English coal production by draining mines and -- opening modifier error ; parallelism issue - by draining and extraction are not parallel

I chose D -- by allowing X and Y ; X = water to be drained out of mines, Y = extraction of deeper layers of coal . I believe both water and extraction here are nouns.

AjiteshArun ,mikemcgarry ,egmat ,GMATNinja , other experts - can you please help with eliminating options C and D ?

Dear Skywalker18

I'm happy to respond. I see that my intelligent fellow expert AjiteshArun already responded, but I will add a few more thoughts.

Many students, both native English speaker and non-native speakers, have the mistaken notion that parallelism is a grammatical structure. It is not. Parallelism is a logical structure, and the matching grammar merely serves to elucidate the underlying logical correspondences. Just because two nouns are the same part of speech does not mean they would be appropriate for parallelism. Here's a disastrous sentence:
I cooked dinner with seven carrots, with my biggest pot, and with my friend Chris.
At the level of grammar, I have three prepositional phrase of the form "with" + [noun], so the grammar is all matching, but of course the logical relationships are 100% different. That sentence is so bad it's comical.

Much in the same way, "water" and "extraction" indeed are both nouns, but they do not have a logically parallel relationship. The word "extraction" is an action-noun, describing a human activity, and "water" is a concrete noun, a substances that is the concern or focus of a human activity. By contrast, the OA, choice (B) has the two nouns in parallel "the drainage" and "the extraction": these are action nouns describing two human activities that would done in tandem and combine to result in greater coal production. In (B), there is a profound coherence between the grammar and the logic, whereas in (D), there's a mismatch between grammar and logic.

In a well written GMAT SC sentence, grammar & logic & rhetoric are all coherent--all work together to support meaning.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
_________________
Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)
Non-Human User
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 5931
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Feb 2019, 06:20
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
_________________
Re: Located at the very coal mines that provided them with fuel, the use   [#permalink] 07 Feb 2019, 06:20
Display posts from previous: Sort by