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# Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no

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Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2014, 06:23
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Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

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Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2014, 07:32
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a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmfulAntecedent Error

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by themAntecedent Error

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful Antecedent Error

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

Change of intended meaning.

Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm.

The original answer choice states that even a trace of these three metals are harmful. E changes this by saying the three metals have a trace amount. A trace amount of what?
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Re: Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2014, 07:39
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BassanioGratiano wrote:
a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmfulAntecedent Error

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by themAntecedent Error

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful Antecedent Error

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

Change of intended meaning.

Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm.

The original answer choice states that even a trace of these three metals are harmful. E changes this by saying the three metals have a trace amount. A trace amount of what?

Can you share what them is referring to ?
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Re: Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2014, 08:31
aashu4uiit wrote:
BassanioGratiano wrote:
a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmfulAntecedent Error

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by themAntecedent Error

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful Antecedent Error

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

Change of intended meaning.

Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm.

The original answer choice states that even a trace of these three metals are harmful. E changes this by saying the three metals have a trace amount. A trace amount of what?

Can you share what them is referring to ?

I can honestly say that I can't, but that's why "them" is incorrect. "Them" can refer to the three metals or it can refer to the organs.
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Re: Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2014, 11:19
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I agree that the pronoun is very ambiguous on this question. Be aware, however, that the GMAT tolerates a lot of pronoun ambiguity. The real tested issues around pronouns are number agreement and ensuring that pronouns refer to the same antecedent throughout the sentence.

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Re: Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2014, 01:17
Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions - Correct. Parallelism is maintained.

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful - non-underlined portion clearly suggests that next sentence shall begin with metals and not trace amount. Change in meaning due to replacement of words. Them is ambiguous - Which it refers to 'cadmium, lead, and mercury' or 'metabolic functions' ?

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them - Passive construction. Wordy. Them is ambiguous.

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful - non-underlined portion clearly suggests that next sentence shall begin with metals and not trace amount. ''lungs, kidneys, or liver'' are further specification to Body and not in parallel with it. They is ambiguous. Replacement of words changes the meaning.

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm - 'impeding' and 'causing' are not effect of main verb 'have a trace amount that can.......'

However more explanation is desired....
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Re: Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2014, 07:44
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aashu4uiit wrote:
Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

My take on this:

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful
...making them...*WHO?* Incorrect.
c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them
...to be impeded... is incorrect
d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful
...body, lungs, kidneys, or liver... seems like body is different from other 3. Incorrect.
e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm
...have a trace amount... changing the meaning. Incorrect.
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Re: Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2015, 09:45
Although option A is best of the lot, i feel that option itself has some ambiguity. May i know the source?
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Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2015, 16:10
aashu4uiit wrote:
Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful.

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

I'm not a big fan of using pronoun ambiguity to eliminate answers, so I will try to avoid it. It seems though that we are not required to only use pronoun ambiguity to eliminate wrong answers.

(A): seems correct. My only gripe here is I would much prefer to see "a trace amount OF...." It's very strange to see a trace amount can. A trace amount.....of what? This is used in every other answer though so I kept it.

(B) There seems to be a bit of a parallelism issue here. The structure of the first part of the thought is things such as X, Y, and Z cause blah blah; .... You would expect the clause after the semicolon to start with A, B, and C (or similar).

(C) Passive voice issue here. Normally not enough to eliminate by itself, but A is the exact same, but in active voice. Prefer A.

(D) Incorrect use of listing. In A, you have body - specifically X, Y, Z. In D, Body, X, Y, and Z are all parallel. X, Y, and Z should be a subset of "body". Also, same parallelism issue as B.

(E) X, Y, and Z have a trace amount? That just is nonsensical.
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Sentence Correction Question(Many Heavy Metals..)  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 04:27
Many heavy metals such as iron,gold,and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium ,lead,and mecury,however,are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body - specifically the lungs,kidneys, or liver - and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful

c)cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them

d)however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful

e)however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm
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Re: Sentence Correction Question(Many Heavy Metals..)  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 05:53
prateekgmat16 wrote:
Many heavy metals such as iron,gold,and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium ,lead,and mecury,however,are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body - specifically the lungs,kidneys, or liver - and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful

c)cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them

d)however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful

e)however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

A) Meaning wise correct : Calcium, lead and mercury that impedes metabolic functions. After semicolon beginning with clause...
B) We are not sure THEM correctly to
C) We are not sure THEM correctly to
D) We are not sure THEM correctly to
E) Calcium, lead and mercury that impedes metabolic functions not metals..
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Re: Sentence Correction Question(Many Heavy Metals..)  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 07:22
Is the use of 'them' ambiguous here ? If we replace 'them' with 'the lungs,kidneys, or liver' ,the sentence does not make any sense.So 'them' here would refer to 'cadmium ,lead,and mercury'.
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Re: Sentence Correction Question(Many Heavy Metals..)  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 07:56
prateekgmat16 wrote:
Many heavy metals such as iron,gold,and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium ,lead,and mecury,however,are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body - specifically the lungs,kidneys, or liver - and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful

c)cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them

d)however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful

e)however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

Many heavy metals such as iron,gold,and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells ; cadmium, lead, and mercury, howeverare extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions.

 Dashes are super-comma or set of super-commas to set off parenthetical elements Further Semi Colon is used to separate two Independent Sentence.

The same has been correctly used only in (A) , hence (A) is the correct answer !!
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Re: Sentence Correction Question(Many Heavy Metals..)  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2016, 18:41
Thanks abhishek. Can anybody help to explain why do we reject option 'B' in this question ?
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Re: Sentence Correction Question(Many Heavy Metals..)  [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2016, 06:54
prateekgmat16 wrote:
Thanks abhishek. Can anybody help to explain why do we reject option 'B' in this question ?

B implies metabolic functions make these metal extremely harmful. Meaning Error.
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Re: Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2017, 17:28
aashu4uiit wrote:
Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm

OFFICIAL SOLUTION

The correct response is (A). Choices B, C, and D all include pronoun errors with "they" or "them" and either unclear or illogical antecedents. Choices D and E each have logical errors. In D, the lungs, kidneys and liver are inside the body, so including "the body" as a parallel item in that list that includes other body parts creates an awkward, illogical meaning. And choice E is similarly illogical – the trace amount that "cadmium, lead and mercury have is unspecified...a trace amount of what? And can these three elements all have one, shared trace amount?
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Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2017, 09:08
Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no deleterious effect on human cells; cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions.

a) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, or liver – and impede metabolic functions

b) however, even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and impede metabolic functions making them extremely harmful
Change meaning

c) cadmium, lead, and mercury, however, are extremely harmful because even a trace amount can bioaccumulate in the body – specifically the lungs, kidneys, and liver – and cause metabolic functions to be impeded by them
'Them' is ambigous, beacause it is unclear weather teh metals directly impede the metabolism or the they boiaccumulate in organs link lungs,kidneys and liver and make them to impede the metabolism.

d) however, because even a trace amount of cadmium, lead, and mercury can bioaccumulate in the body, lungs, kidneys, or liver, and impede metabolic functions, they are extremely harmful
the usage of comma is incorrect after body.

e) however, cadmium, lead, and mercury have a trace amount that can bioaccumulate in the body, specifically in the lungs, kidneys, or liver, impeding metabolic functions and causing extreme harm
change in meaning, the metals do not have trace amount.
Many heavy metals such as iron, gold, and silver have essentially no &nbs [#permalink] 22 Mar 2017, 09:08
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