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# Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra

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Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 12:48
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Question Stats:

78% (01:38) correct 22% (01:48) wrong based on 2540 sessions

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Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.

(B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.

(C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.

(D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

(E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

OG 2017 New Question
ID - CR04935

Replacing Cement

Step 1: Identify the Question

The word strengthens in the question stem indicates that this is a Strengthen the Argument question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

Plan: replace cem with eco-cem

Eco-cem absorbs CO2

© Eco-cem in build à reduce CO2

Note that CO2 is an abbreviation for carbon dioxide (the chemical formula is CO2).

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Strengthen questions the correct answer is something that makes the conclusion more likely to be true. In this case, you are looking for information that supports the idea that the plan to use eco-cement in new building projects will reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) Although cost is often an important consideration in real-world situations, the costs associated with switching to eco-cement are irrelevant to the argument. The goal of the plan is to reduce carbon dioxide; the argument does not consider cost.

(B) This provides another reason why using eco-cement could work well in building projects (it actually gets stronger as it absorbs carbon dioxide) but it does not provide any additional information to support the intended effect of the plan—whether using eco-cement will reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

(C) This answer is not relevant. The plan is to adopt eco-cement so concerns about other forms of magnesium-based cement are not relevant.

(D) CORRECT. According to the first sentence of the argument, carbon dioxide is released by the burning of fossil fuels. If fossil fuels are used in the production of cement, then carbon dioxide pollution occurs just by making cement in the first place. But if it takes less fossil fuels to make eco-cement than conventional cement, then the plan to use eco-cement is even better. Not only will it absorb carbon dioxide once the buildings are built, but it will produce less carbon dioxide when it’s made in the first place.

(E) If anything, this weakens the argument. This information suggests it may be difficult to get builders to use eco-cement, at least initially, because they are not aware of it.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 14:29
Conclusion - ' using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide '
Correct Answer - D as it adds new information and also strengthens the conclusion
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 14:54
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
-->Out of scope since it is dealing with costs.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
-->Out of scope since we are talking about the strength of the cement
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
-->Weakener
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
-->Irrelevant since it is talking about the manufacturing of eco-cement , but not how it is used in the construction .
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.
--> Correct one since many of the builders are unaware of this type of cement, they are not using it now.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 19:09
hari1985 wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
-->Out of scope since it is dealing with costs.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
-->Out of scope since we are talking about the strength of the cement
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
-->Weakener
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
-->Irrelevant since it is talking about the manufacturing of eco-cement , but not how it is used in the construction .
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.
--> Correct one since many of the builders are unaware of this type of cement, they are not using it now.

IMO
Option D says manufacture of eco cement uses less fossil fuel per unit cement. Burning of fossil fuel emits more carbon dioxide and so if we're limiting the amount of fossil fuel being burnt, we're actually decreasing the amount of CO2 in atmopshere and that in fact strenghtens the conclusion.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 19:44
1
2
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Conclusion: Using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Premise/Evidence: Eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.

Pre-thinking: We are given that it absorbs more carbon dioxide therefore eco-cement will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. A strengthener should support the conclusion and therefore should show that in no other way eco-cement contributes carbon dioxide or overall eco-cement contributes less or absorbs more.

POE

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.

Out of scope. We are not concerned about costs. Focus on conclusion.

B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.

We are concerned with how it works as long as it is a cement.

C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.

Again out of scope. We are interested in whether eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement.

D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Good. Less fossil fuel consumption means less CO2 released in the environment. Therefore, eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement. This goes with our pre-thinking.

E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

Again out of scope. We are not concerned about it awareness in the industry.

Ans. D
Hope it helps.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 19:44
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Conclusion: Using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Premise/Evidence: Eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.

Pre-thinking: We are given that it absorbs more carbon dioxide therefore eco-cement will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. A strengthener should support the conclusion and therefore should show that in no other way eco-cement contributes carbon dioxide or overall eco-cement contributes less or absorbs more.

POE

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.

Out of scope. We are not concerned about costs. Focus on conclusion.

B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.

We are concerned with how it works as long as it is a cement.

C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.

Again out of scope. We are interested in whether eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement.

D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Good. Less fossil fuel consumption means less CO2 released in the environment. Therefore, eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement. This goes with our pre-thinking.

E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

Again out of scope. We are not concerned about it awareness in the industry.

Ans. D
Hope it helps.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2016, 02:44
eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.
Conclusion - using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Pre- thinking - manufacture of eco-cement does not emit significantly more carbon dioxide than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Strengthener

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture. Irrelevant
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement. Out of scope - the cement might stay the same or become a little weak
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use. - irrelevant
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does. Correct answer
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement. irrelevant

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2016, 16:29
Why option B is wrong?
IMO Both B & D strengthen the argument.

AbdurRakib wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

OG 2017 New Question

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2016, 00:56
1
1
Conclusion : Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Pre -Think - What if even after absorbing carbon dioxide initially,eco cement would release its co2 after some time may be because of deterioration.Therefore in order to support the claim that eco cement will significantly reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2, we have to show that this eco system will overall help in doing so.

Looking at option B:Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
It does say that eco cement is a good cement but no-where it supports the conclusion that it will help decreasing concentration of Co2

Whereas option D : The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
it actually provides additional information which supports the fact that usage eco-cement help in reducing overall CO2 content of the atmosphere.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2016, 15:49
AT first it seems to provide support as in a strong cement provides robustness in structures when used. This could inturn improve sales and more usage of this Co2 absorbing cement. However by considering the above reasoning we are neglecting the negatives of eco-cement being strong, one such example is what if it cant be used in first place as in it becomes strong even before the bag is opened for usage!

so without knowing if its helpful to have a strong cement this option falls apart.. definitely a trap answer!
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2016, 20:49
I was also trapped in B for quite some time and could not get the point: Since the reaction between the new cement and the absorbed carbon dioxide could strengthen the cement, which could logically help the cement to absorb more carbon dioxide.
However,when I went back to context, I realized that the premise only told us the eco-cement absorbs a large amount of CO2, but it did not tell us the eco-cement absorbs LARGER amount than conventional one. So it is possible that even the strengthened cement absorbs less CO2 than conventional one. Then it can not strengthen the argument.

It is really an alluring trap.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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25 May 2017, 17:41
Trapped by B. Selected the wrong answer. B lists an advantage of eco-cement - Eco-cement is strengthened by absorbing CO2 but B does not strengthen the conclusion. Conclusion - Eco-cement reduces CO2.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2017, 12:10
1
AbdurRakib wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

OG 2017 New Question

No, this is NOT a Not-Weakner kind of Strengthen Question.

To make B as a not-weakner kind, the prompt should have been that Eco-cement is strengthened not weakened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.

These 2 words make sure that the eco-cement is either as strong as the normal one or stronger than the other type of cement.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2017, 09:46
this is a common pattern in gmat, test takers should learn this. That is, something must use less of something.

B has nothing to do with amount of carbon dioxide and green environment.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 00:09
AbdurRakib wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

OG 2017 New Question

A is out of scope as does not give us any information regarding the usage of magnesium carbonate to reduce CO2.
B is also irrelevant to the argument as we are not concerned about the strength of the eco cement
C This option is also out of scope .
D Correct answer this helps to strengthen the argument
E out of scope
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2018, 08:31
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

This is a strengthen the argument question.
Like weaken, strengthen questions also require us to isolate the conclusion. As we will be looking for the answer that makes our belief stronger on the premise-conclusion relationship such as analogies, survey, reports, statistical data etc.
Protect the missing information
a) by keeping any option that fills the gap
b) by eliminating the answer that attacks the missing information

Conclusion: replace conventional cement, by a new “eco-cement” -- reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
How do we know that this plan will work? It is assumed.

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement. Irrelevant.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use. Irrelevant
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does. Yes that's the answer.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement. Irrelevant
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2018, 19:45
don't you think, we need to make sure that the cement is strong enough to be used for building?
Option B ) Support this the cement gets strengthen by aborbingCarbon dioxide.
Say, it if weakens by absorbing Carbon dioxide then it cant be used for building as it would be dangerous.

Moreover Option D) Even if Magnesium cement takes slightly more fossil fuel , but if it absorbs the Carbon dioxide efficiently, It will be helpful in reducing the Carbon dioxide.

Skywalker18 wrote:
eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.
Conclusion - using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Pre- thinking - manufacture of eco-cement does not emit significantly more carbon dioxide than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Strengthener

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture. Irrelevant
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement. Out of scope - the cement might stay the same or become a little weak
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use. - irrelevant
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does. Correct answer
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement. irrelevant

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2018, 08:08
Conclusion- Therefore, using eco-cement for new building will significantly help reduce atmospheric CO2.

It is a causal conclusion based on the premise 'Magnisium carbonate absorbs large amount of CO2'.

Prethinking - Eco-cement itself does not produce atmospheric CO2.

A. Probably fall is out of scope. Even Cost is also out of scope.
B. This is effect and is out of scope.
C. This talks about before development of eco-cement. Now we have eco-cement. So what about it? Out of scope.
D. This is what we prethinked. Eco-cement manufacturing itself does not produce CO2.
E. Weakens somewhat.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2018, 07:12
1
gmatbusters wrote:
don't you think, we need to make sure that the cement is strong enough to be used for building?
Option B ) Support this the cement gets strengthen by aborbingCarbon dioxide.
Say, it if weakens by absorbing Carbon dioxide then it cant be used for building as it would be dangerous.

Moreover Option D) Even if Magnesium cement takes slightly more fossil fuel , but if it absorbs the Carbon dioxide efficiently, It will be helpful in reducing the Carbon dioxide.

Skywalker18 wrote:
eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.
Conclusion - using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Pre- thinking - manufacture of eco-cement does not emit significantly more carbon dioxide than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Strengthener

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture. Irrelevant
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement. Out of scope - the cement might stay the same or become a little weak
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use. - irrelevant
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does. Correct answer
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement. irrelevant

Hello Dear gmatbusters,

Though I am not an expert or a moderator, I think I can help you in here.
IMO, you are mistaken for the main purpose here. We don't need to make sure that the cement is strong enough for the usage in the building, but all we need to make sure is there is less Carbon Dioxide omission in the atmosphere and that is correctly written in option D - the eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuels as compared to the normal cement and thus less omission of carbon dioxide when the fossil fuels burn.

Surely, the eco cement is strengthened when it absorbs CO2, but it's strengthening is of less importance here and moreover, it is irrelevant as a strengthener.

I hope this helps.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2018, 07:18
Yes, you are right.
I got it. Thank you aalekhoza...
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra   [#permalink] 20 Sep 2018, 07:18
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