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Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra

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Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 14:29
Conclusion - ' using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide '
Correct Answer - D as it adds new information and also strengthens the conclusion

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 14:54
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
-->Out of scope since it is dealing with costs.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
-->Out of scope since we are talking about the strength of the cement
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
-->Weakener
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
-->Irrelevant since it is talking about the manufacturing of eco-cement , but not how it is used in the construction .
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.
--> Correct one since many of the builders are unaware of this type of cement, they are not using it now.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 19:09
hari1985 wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
-->Out of scope since it is dealing with costs.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
-->Out of scope since we are talking about the strength of the cement
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
-->Weakener
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
-->Irrelevant since it is talking about the manufacturing of eco-cement , but not how it is used in the construction .
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.
--> Correct one since many of the builders are unaware of this type of cement, they are not using it now.



IMO
Option D says manufacture of eco cement uses less fossil fuel per unit cement. Burning of fossil fuel emits more carbon dioxide and so if we're limiting the amount of fossil fuel being burnt, we're actually decreasing the amount of CO2 in atmopshere and that in fact strenghtens the conclusion.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 19:44
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Conclusion: Using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Premise/Evidence: Eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.

Pre-thinking: We are given that it absorbs more carbon dioxide therefore eco-cement will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. A strengthener should support the conclusion and therefore should show that in no other way eco-cement contributes carbon dioxide or overall eco-cement contributes less or absorbs more.

POE

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.

Out of scope. We are not concerned about costs. Focus on conclusion.

B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.

We are concerned with how it works as long as it is a cement.

C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.

Again out of scope. We are interested in whether eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement.

D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Good. Less fossil fuel consumption means less CO2 released in the environment. Therefore, eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement. This goes with our pre-thinking.

E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

Again out of scope. We are not concerned about it awareness in the industry.

Ans. D
Hope it helps.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 19:44
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Conclusion: Using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Premise/Evidence: Eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.

Pre-thinking: We are given that it absorbs more carbon dioxide therefore eco-cement will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. A strengthener should support the conclusion and therefore should show that in no other way eco-cement contributes carbon dioxide or overall eco-cement contributes less or absorbs more.

POE

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.

Out of scope. We are not concerned about costs. Focus on conclusion.

B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.

We are concerned with how it works as long as it is a cement.

C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.

Again out of scope. We are interested in whether eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement.

D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Good. Less fossil fuel consumption means less CO2 released in the environment. Therefore, eco-cement will absorb more CO2 than normal cement. This goes with our pre-thinking.

E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

Again out of scope. We are not concerned about it awareness in the industry.

Ans. D
Hope it helps.
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2016, 02:44
eco-cement absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere.
Conclusion - using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Pre- thinking - manufacture of eco-cement does not emit significantly more carbon dioxide than the manufacture of conventional cement does.

Strengthener

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture. Irrelevant
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement. Out of scope - the cement might stay the same or become a little weak
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use. - irrelevant
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does. Correct answer
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement. irrelevant

Answer D
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2016, 16:29
Why option B is wrong?
IMO Both B & D strengthen the argument.

AbdurRakib wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 00:56
Conclusion : Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Pre -Think - What if even after absorbing carbon dioxide initially,eco cement would release its co2 after some time may be because of deterioration.Therefore in order to support the claim that eco cement will significantly reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2, we have to show that this eco system will overall help in doing so.

Looking at option B:Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
It does say that eco cement is a good cement but no-where it supports the conclusion that it will help decreasing concentration of Co2

Whereas option D : The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
it actually provides additional information which supports the fact that usage eco-cement help in reducing overall CO2 content of the atmosphere.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2016, 15:49
Answer B is a stretch.
AT first it seems to provide support as in a strong cement provides robustness in structures when used. This could inturn improve sales and more usage of this Co2 absorbing cement. However by considering the above reasoning we are neglecting the negatives of eco-cement being strong, one such example is what if it cant be used in first place as in it becomes strong even before the bag is opened for usage!

so without knowing if its helpful to have a strong cement this option falls apart.. definitely a trap answer!

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2016, 20:49
I was also trapped in B for quite some time and could not get the point: Since the reaction between the new cement and the absorbed carbon dioxide could strengthen the cement, which could logically help the cement to absorb more carbon dioxide.
However,when I went back to context, I realized that the premise only told us the eco-cement absorbs a large amount of CO2, but it did not tell us the eco-cement absorbs LARGER amount than conventional one. So it is possible that even the strengthened cement absorbs less CO2 than conventional one. Then it can not strengthen the argument.

It is really an alluring trap.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2017, 17:41
Trapped by B. Selected the wrong answer. B lists an advantage of eco-cement - Eco-cement is strengthened by absorbing CO2 but B does not strengthen the conclusion. Conclusion - Eco-cement reduces CO2.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 12:10
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

OG 2017 New Question

No, this is NOT a Not-Weakner kind of Strengthen Question. :)

To make B as a not-weakner kind, the prompt should have been that :arrow: Eco-cement is strengthened not weakened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.

These 2 words make sure that the eco-cement is either as strong as the normal one or stronger than the other type of cement.
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Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2017, 09:46
this is a common pattern in gmat, test takers should learn this. That is, something must use less of something.

B has nothing to do with amount of carbon dioxide and green environment.

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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2017, 00:09
AbdurRakib wrote:
Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, a gas released by the burning of fossil fuels. One proposal is to replace conventional cement, which is made with calcium carbonate, by a new “eco-cement.” This new cement, made with magnesium carbonate, absorbs large amount of carbon dioxide when exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, using eco-cement for new concrete building projects will significantly help reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The cost of magnesium carbonate, currently greater than the cost of calcium carbonate, probably will fall as more magnesium carbonate is used in cement manufacture.
B) Eco-cement is strengthened when absorbed carbon dioxide reacts with the cement.
C) Before the development of eco-cement, magnesium-based cement was considered too susceptible to water erosion to be of practical use.
D) The manufacture of eco-cement uses considerably less fossil fuel per unit of cement than the manufacture of conventional cement does.
E) Most building-industry groups are unaware of the development or availability of eco-cement.

OG 2017 New Question


The answer is D
A is out of scope as does not give us any information regarding the usage of magnesium carbonate to reduce CO2.
B is also irrelevant to the argument as we are not concerned about the strength of the eco cement
C This option is also out of scope .
D Correct answer this helps to strengthen the argument
E out of scope
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Re: Many industrialized nations are trying to reduce atmospheric concentra   [#permalink] 17 Sep 2017, 00:09
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