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Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri

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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2018, 07:50
HRE passage -
topic - HRE : significance and beneficiaries
tone : Positive .. appreciative
para 1- introduction of HRE
para 2- significance of HRE with examples and beneficiaries
para 3- expectations from HRE and positive views on HRE

Purpose - to discuss the significance of a program in particular scopes with examples

please evaluate.. thankyou...

great initiative btw... if only it were all days and atleast 2 articles per day.. if it isnt handful to you.. appreciate your effort
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2018, 22:47
Exercise for 03 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the below paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
At the time of the discovery of gold in California the mineral industry of the United States was in its very infancy, as may be judged from the fact that the annual output of coal, which in 1895 reached the enormous total of 196,442,451 tons, in 1848 amounted only to 5, 000,000 tons, and that the total output of pig iron was but a quarter of a million tons, as against nine and a half million tons in 1895. Lead was mined to the modest extent of 10,000 tons, and it was but two years previous to the discovery of gold, or in 1846, that copper mining had its small beginning with a total output of 150 tons.

The effect of the Sutter's Mill discovery was simply magical. Its announcement was received with unbounded enthusiasm, and it drew a vast and motley army of adventurers to the Pacific coast in search of the precious metal. When we consider how crude were the methods of recovery, the yield of gold was truly phenomenal. In the first year about $10,000, 000 worth was taken out ; this rose to $40, 000, 000 in 1849 ; $50, 000,000 in 1850 ; $55, 000,000 in 1851 ; $60,000, 000 in 1852 ; and it reached its highest point in 1853, when a total value of $65, 000, 000 was recovered.

During these first six years, the methods of extracting the gold were very crude, and therefore very wasteful. The mining was carried on in what were known as placer deposits and the favorite apparatus of the " forty-niner " consisted of the pan, the rocker, the Long Tom and the sluice box.

In the course of time, as the rich alluvial deposits became worked out, the miner turned his attention to the gold-bearing rock, and the recovery of the gold became a more difficult and costly matter. There was a call for science, skill, and capital, and the gold mining industry passed into the hands of the engineer and the capitalist. The pan, the rocker, and the sluice gave place to the highly organized stamp mill, with its costly plant consisting of stamp batteries, amalgamating pans and concentrating tables. Chemistry was called in to determine the composition of the various ores, and the expert metallurgist became an indispensable member of the staff of the mine. In due time the rebellious ores came to be treated by roasting, and last, and most brilliant feat of all was the introduction of the various leaching processes, by which in some cases practically the last trace of the gold has been recovered from the tailings.

Mention should also be made of the remarkable development of hydraulic mining, whereby enormous deposits of gravel, which contain only a few cents' worth of gold to the cubic yard, can be worked at a profit. As its name indicates, the mining is done by the action of water, which is discharged under enormous pressure against the wall of gravel and bowlders, tearing it down and thoroughly segregating the material which is then carried through sluices, where the gold is deposited.

Spoiler: :: Article's Link
The extract was taken from page #96 in "Scientific American" journal dated at 25 July 1896

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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2018, 23:28
AdityaHongunti wrote:
HRE passage -
topic - HRE : significance and beneficiaries
tone : Positive .. appreciative
para 1- introduction of HRE
para 2- significance of HRE with examples and beneficiaries
para 3- expectations from HRE and positive views on HRE

Purpose - to discuss the significance of a program in particular scopes with examples

please evaluate.. thankyou...

great initiative btw... if only it were all days and atleast 2 articles per day.. if it isnt handful to you.. appreciate your effort


Hi,
Summary for para 1 is fine.
Summary for para 2 looks good.
Summary for para 3 could be better. The passage doesn't talk about the "expectations" from HRE. It's merely talking about the "importance". These subtle deviations in the understandings can catch you off-guard while solving a question when you might end up marking a wrong answer.

I would also change 1 important piece in your title: beneficiary. Here, the passage talks specifically about "young leaders", so you musn't say "beneficiaries". Try to be as specific as possible.
For instance, if there were two options in a question and both talked about the importance of HRE but one focused on a general beneficiary and the other on young leaders, then one might have ended up choosing the choice talking about a general beneficiary.

I hope that helps.

Besides, thank you for your interest in this new initiative! All the best.

Best Regards.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2018, 10:43
Exercise for 07 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Animal models such as the baboon allow investigation of a range of aspects of endometriosis pathogenesis, including the role of the lymphatic system. Nonhuman primates are the best animal models for studying the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as they undergo menstruation, develop spontaneous endometriosis, and have reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, and physiology very similar to those of humans. In fact, there are case reports in baboons describing the occurrence of spontaneous endometriosis in para-aortic and ileocecal junction lymph nodes, resembling case reports in women. A recent novel study in baboons with induced endometriosis identified increased presence of CD10+ endometrial stromal cells in femoral lymph nodes (draining the uterus, abdominal wall, and peritoneal cavity) compared to animals without endometriosis. The significant increase in CD10+ cells may be attributed to the lymphatic transit of these cells from the uterus and/or endometriotic lesions. Immune cell populations, including T cells, B cells, and mature and immature dendritic cells, were also increased in numbers in the femoral nodes of baboons with induced endometriosis. This increase may be a result of the initial immune response to endometriosis in these animals, which is difficult to study in women, attempting to clear introduced endometrial tissues. A role for the lymphatic system in endometriosis, including the possibility of lymphatic spread and changes immune response, is further supported by the baboon model of induced endometriosis.

In addition to nonhuman primate models, endometriosis can be experimentally induced in rats and mice. In terms of the role of the lymphatic system in the disease, these models may be useful in studying growth factor and receptor expression in lesions and trialing different treatment approaches; however, there is no evidence of lymph node involvement in the rat model of induced endometriosis. There are increased levels of lymphangiogenic and related growth factors and receptors in lesions in rat and mouse models (for example, VEGF-A and VEGFR-2;). These models have also been used to study the effect of growth factor inhibition treatments on endometriotic lesions, in particular anti-VEGF-A and statin treatments, related to the role of the lymphatic system via their possible effects on lymphangiogenesis. Treatment with statins has shown promising results in reducing lesion size in animal models and in vitro by reducing VEGF-A levels and angiogenesis, but it is also known that statins are inhibitors of in vivo lymphangiogenesis. Although rat and mouse models may have some application in improving aspects of our understanding of the role of the lymphatic system in endometriosis, these particular models are not well suited for studying the phenomenon of lymphatic spread of the disease because of the lack of menstruation and therefore lymphatic system dissemination of endometrial tissue.

Spoiler: :: Article's Link
The extract was taken from "Studies in Animal Models of Endometriosis" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/art ... 10/2434026

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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2018, 10:47
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 07 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Animal models such as the baboon allow investigation of a range of aspects of endometriosis pathogenesis, including the role of the lymphatic system. Nonhuman primates are the best animal models for studying the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as they undergo menstruation, develop spontaneous endometriosis, and have reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, and physiology very similar to those of humans. In fact, there are case reports in baboons describing the occurrence of spontaneous endometriosis in para-aortic and ileocecal junction lymph nodes, resembling case reports in women. A recent novel study in baboons with induced endometriosis identified increased presence of CD10+ endometrial stromal cells in femoral lymph nodes (draining the uterus, abdominal wall, and peritoneal cavity) compared to animals without endometriosis. The significant increase in CD10+ cells may be attributed to the lymphatic transit of these cells from the uterus and/or endometriotic lesions. Immune cell populations, including T cells, B cells, and mature and immature dendritic cells, were also increased in numbers in the femoral nodes of baboons with induced endometriosis. This increase may be a result of the initial immune response to endometriosis in these animals, which is difficult to study in women, attempting to clear introduced endometrial tissues. A role for the lymphatic system in endometriosis, including the possibility of lymphatic spread and changes immune response, is further supported by the baboon model of induced endometriosis.

In addition to nonhuman primate models, endometriosis can be experimentally induced in rats and mice. In terms of the role of the lymphatic system in the disease, these models may be useful in studying growth factor and receptor expression in lesions and trialing different treatment approaches; however, there is no evidence of lymph node involvement in the rat model of induced endometriosis. There are increased levels of lymphangiogenic and related growth factors and receptors in lesions in rat and mouse models (for example, VEGF-A and VEGFR-2;). These models have also been used to study the effect of growth factor inhibition treatments on endometriotic lesions, in particular anti-VEGF-A and statin treatments, related to the role of the lymphatic system via their possible effects on lymphangiogenesis. Treatment with statins has shown promising results in reducing lesion size in animal models and in vitro by reducing VEGF-A levels and angiogenesis, but it is also known that statins are inhibitors of in vivo lymphangiogenesis. Although rat and mouse models may have some application in improving aspects of our understanding of the role of the lymphatic system in endometriosis, these particular models are not well suited for studying the phenomenon of lymphatic spread of the disease because of the lack of menstruation and therefore lymphatic system dissemination of endometrial tissue.

Spoiler: :: Article's Link
The extract was taken from "Studies in Animal Models of Endometriosis" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/art ... 10/2434026


My Thoughts:
Para 1: Using nonhuman primates for endometriosis study
Para 2: Rats for endometriosis study
Study of endometriosis using various animals

This was a pretty easy passage! Let me see how many of you can easily finish this within 2.5 minutes!
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2018, 13:31
gmatexam439 wrote:
adkikani wrote:
Para 1: HRE: its definition and scope
Para 2: HRE particularly useful for younger age groups
Para 2: Awareness extended to knowing scope

Main Point: HRE: Its definition and benefits, particularly to younger age groups.

workout u1983 aragonn gmatexam439
Can you grade my understanding from 0 to 5?


Hi bro,

I would correct just one thing in your summary above: the paragraphs are talking about the impact on young leaders NOT younger age groups. Always be very specific about details that you map in GMAT. Missing even a small word could let you down.

Your individual summaries are very good, though!

Best Regards.


where did the "young leader" come into play?
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New post 08 Nov 2018, 08:58
faltan wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
adkikani wrote:
Para 1: HRE: its definition and scope
Para 2: HRE particularly useful for younger age groups
Para 2: Awareness extended to knowing scope

Main Point: HRE: Its definition and benefits, particularly to younger age groups.

workout u1983 aragonn gmatexam439
Can you grade my understanding from 0 to 5?


Hi bro,

I would correct just one thing in your summary above: the paragraphs are talking about the impact on young leaders NOT younger age groups. Always be very specific about details that you map in GMAT. Missing even a small word could let you down.

Your individual summaries are very good, though!

Best Regards.


where did the "young leader" come into play?


Hi,

Thank you for pointing that out. I, actually, had the entire article in mind and I was reading 'young learners' as 'young leaders'. The brain can sometimes be tricky!
Best Regards.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 09:27
Exercise for 08 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Mission-oriented policies can be defined as systemic public policies that draw on frontier knowledge to attain specific goals, or “big science deployed to meet big problems”. While the archetypical historical mission is NASA putting a man on the moon, contemporary missions aim to address broader challenges that require long-term commitment to the development of challenges that are as much social as technological. The active role being taken by governments and transnational organizations to develop strategies for a greener economy can be seen through a mission-oriented lens—as can those being developed to create more wellbeing for an ageing population, and better jobs for modern youth. In fact, these challenges—which can be environmental, demographic, economic, or social—have entered innovation policy agendas as key justifications for action, providing strategic direction for funding policies and innovation efforts.

However, societal missions are much more complex because they are less clearly defined and indeed must be co-defined by many stakeholders (how to frame the challenge around inequality is more difficult than those around the space race). One could add that these challenges also require big regulatory and behavioral changes at the societal/national systems level. Nelson’s work on 'The Moon and the Ghetto' asked the demanding question of why innovation has resulted in such difficult feats as landing a man on the moon, and yet continues to be so terribly disorganized and technologically unsavvy in dealing with the more earthly problems of poverty, illiteracy, and the emergence of ghettos and slums. He argued that while politics was partly the culprit, the real problem was that a purely scientific and technological solution could not solve such problems. Even at the disciplinary level there is a greater need to combine understandings of sociology, politics, economics, and technology to solve these problems, as well as to make the conscious decision to point innovation toward them. This is exactly what a well-designed mission can achieve.

The so-called Maastricht Memorandum provides a detailed analysis of the differences between old and new mission-oriented projects. Although the memorandum specifically focuses on mission-oriented programs that tackle environmental challenges, its analysis applies to other contemporary challenges (water and food supply, energy efficiency and security, disease, demographic change, etc). This is because these challenges all present similar characteristics, particularly that new technological solutions to address them will require long-term commitment from both public and private agents, and increasingly those in the nonprofit sector. They will in most cases also require changes in regulation and tax policies. And the diffusion of solutions to a broad base of users requires as much attention to demand-side policies as to supply side.

Spoiler: :: Article's Link
The extract was taken from "From technological feats to wicked problems" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/icc/article/27 ... chresult=1

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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 09:32
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 08 November 2018

Sample:
Mission-oriented policies can be defined as systemic public policies that draw on frontier knowledge to attain specific goals, or “big science deployed to meet big problems”. While the archetypical historical mission is NASA putting a man on the moon, contemporary missions aim to address broader challenges that require long-term commitment to the development of challenges that are as much social as technological. The active role being taken by governments and transnational organizations to develop strategies for a greener economy can be seen through a mission-oriented lens—as can those being developed to create more wellbeing for an ageing population, and better jobs for modern youth. In fact, these challenges—which can be environmental, demographic, economic, or social—have entered innovation policy agendas as key justifications for action, providing strategic direction for funding policies and innovation efforts.


So, this is a difficult one. I will post my summary here tomorrow and anyone with a good summary will receive kudos before I post mine!
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New post 08 Nov 2018, 09:39
Exercise for 03 November 2018 passage

para 1: Mineral industry's state during gold discovery in Cali
para 2: The effect of Sutner mill on gold mining
para 3(small one): The old technologies wasted a lot of gold
para 4: Tech and science came in to extract gold efficiently from gold rocks
para 5: Hydraulic mining also does a great job in mining plus some detail about it

The purpose of the paragraph: The evolution of gold mining
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 10:12
1
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 07 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Animal models such as the baboon allow investigation of a range of aspects of endometriosis pathogenesis, including the role of the lymphatic system. Nonhuman primates are the best animal models for studying the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as they undergo menstruation, develop spontaneous endometriosis, and have reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, and physiology very similar to those of humans. In fact, there are case reports in baboons describing the occurrence of spontaneous endometriosis in para-aortic and ileocecal junction lymph nodes, resembling case reports in women. A recent novel study in baboons with induced endometriosis identified increased presence of CD10+ endometrial stromal cells in femoral lymph nodes (draining the uterus, abdominal wall, and peritoneal cavity) compared to animals without endometriosis. The significant increase in CD10+ cells may be attributed to the lymphatic transit of these cells from the uterus and/or endometriotic lesions. Immune cell populations, including T cells, B cells, and mature and immature dendritic cells, were also increased in numbers in the femoral nodes of baboons with induced endometriosis. This increase may be a result of the initial immune response to endometriosis in these animals, which is difficult to study in women, attempting to clear introduced endometrial tissues. A role for the lymphatic system in endometriosis, including the possibility of lymphatic spread and changes immune response, is further supported by the baboon model of induced endometriosis.

In addition to nonhuman primate models, endometriosis can be experimentally induced in rats and mice. In terms of the role of the lymphatic system in the disease, these models may be useful in studying growth factor and receptor expression in lesions and trialing different treatment approaches; however, there is no evidence of lymph node involvement in the rat model of induced endometriosis. There are increased levels of lymphangiogenic and related growth factors and receptors in lesions in rat and mouse models (for example, VEGF-A and VEGFR-2;). These models have also been used to study the effect of growth factor inhibition treatments on endometriotic lesions, in particular anti-VEGF-A and statin treatments, related to the role of the lymphatic system via their possible effects on lymphangiogenesis. Treatment with statins has shown promising results in reducing lesion size in animal models and in vitro by reducing VEGF-A levels and angiogenesis, but it is also known that statins are inhibitors of in vivo lymphangiogenesis. Although rat and mouse models may have some application in improving aspects of our understanding of the role of the lymphatic system in endometriosis, these particular models are not well suited for studying the phenomenon of lymphatic spread of the disease because of the lack of menstruation and therefore lymphatic system dissemination of endometrial tissue.

Spoiler: :: Article's Link
The extract was taken from "Studies in Animal Models of Endometriosis" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/art ... 10/2434026



para 1: baboon model usage in investigating EP,gives close resemblance to that of woman
para 2:rats and mice model in EP, but not much effective due to some lackness in lymph

summary: Comparison between various models used in investigating EP
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 10:59
1
Exercise for 08 November 2018

Para 1—Big problems can be resolved by good strategies. Be it environmental, demographic, economic, or social
Para 2 – Author talks about societal missions—which are difficult to resolve. Gives example of the book The Moon and the Ghetto --- that states man can use Science to land on the moon but can’t solve social problems like poverty etc.
Para 3- Author introduces a new approach to solve social problems Maastricht Memorandum—that addresses some of the social challenges
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New post 10 Nov 2018, 22:05
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 08 November 2018

Sample:
Mission-oriented policies can be defined as systemic public policies that draw on frontier knowledge to attain specific goals, or “big science deployed to meet big problems”. While the archetypical historical mission is NASA putting a man on the moon, contemporary missions aim to address broader challenges that require long-term commitment to the development of challenges that are as much social as technological. The active role being taken by governments and transnational organizations to develop strategies for a greener economy can be seen through a mission-oriented lens—as can those being developed to create more wellbeing for an ageing population, and better jobs for modern youth. In fact, these challenges—which can be environmental, demographic, economic, or social—have entered innovation policy agendas as key justifications for action, providing strategic direction for funding policies and innovation efforts.


Para 1: Introduction to mission oriented policies and contemporary challenges

Para 2: Societel missions and challenges

Para 3: Environmental challenges' analysis applies to contemporary challenges as well

Overall: Mission-oriented policies and contemporary challenges
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2018, 22:36
Turkish wrote:
Exercise for 08 November 2018

Para 1—Big problems can be resolved by good strategies. Be it environmental, demographic, economic, or social
Para 2 – Author talks about societal missions—which are difficult to resolve. Gives example of the book The Moon and the Ghetto --- that states man can use Science to land on the moon but can’t solve social problems like poverty etc.
Para 3- Author introduces a new approach to solve social problems Maastricht Memorandum—that addresses some of the social challenges


Hi Turkish,

Para 1 doesn't state that big problems CAN BE resolved with good strategies; it states that mission-oriented policies take into account big problems.

Para 2 - ok

Para 3 Maastricht Memorandum isn't a new approach. It merely compares old and new projects.

Try to understand the meaning in given passages. I believe, once you start comprehending the passages, RC would become easier for you.
Best of luck!
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2018, 22:43
guhancr7 wrote:

para 1: baboon model usage in investigating EP,gives close resemblance to that of woman
para 2:rats and mice model in EP, but not much effective due to some lackness in lymph

summary: Comparison between various models used in investigating EP


Hi guhancr7,

You individual summaries are to the point and very good. However, the overall summary is a bit off.
The author isn't comparing various models used in investigating EP; the author is merely presenting us with the information of different models.

Please note that there is a huge difference between "comparison of models" and "presentation of information of models".
I hope that helps!
All the best.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2018, 00:31
Exercise for 11 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Like all great religions, Islam has always had the capacity to shape and be shaped by its host societies. Professor John Bowen notes that the nature of British Islam has been moulded by several factors including the geographical concentration of Muslims in specific localities; their maintenance of strong ties to their ancestral homelands and reproduction of the various religious and political divisions found there; the need of religious leaders to adapt their services and practices to meet local needs and law; and state policy. The Muslim population of Britain now stands at over 3 million—around 5 percent of the total—and is growing ten times faster than the rest. The vast majority (68 percent) are Sunnis of South East Asian origin and only 47 percent are UK-born. Muslims have bucked the trend of typical migration patterns as they have concentrated in particular areas to marry within their transcontinental kin group rather than disperse over time. As such, their allegiance to their homeland and ethnic identity have remained strong. This can be seen reflected in the campaign led by the Union of Muslim Organisations throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s to obtain recognition for a separate system of Islamic family law applicable to all Muslims in Britain. Muslims in Britain have essentially created ‘a home away from home’ by bringing sharia law with them into the country. As Machteld Zee has observed, ‘it must be recognized that there are, in fact, two separate legal systems now functioning, one of which currently operates in the shadow of the law’. Many Muslims relate to British society on their own terms so Islamic norms, not those of the lex loci, are the ones that are considered binding.

Perhaps the most visible expression of this legal culture, and hence the issue which receives the most attention, is the estimated 85 sharia councils operating across the UK. Accurate information about these bodies remains scarce, one of the reasons why the Government established an ongoing inquiry to ascertain more. However, numerous reports have been able to shed some light on their provision of advice in Muslim family disputes and the common themes are concerning: discrimination against women, reactionary rulings prolonging marital captivity, lax approaches to domestic violence and informing victims of their rights, the absence of child safeguarding mechanisms, wilful blindness to English law and the steady corrosion of social cohesion. Although most of this is simply a religiously aggravated form of the dangers that can materialize even in state-sponsored mediation programmes, such injustices generate considerable amounts of publicity and outrage when exposed. Consequently, sharia councils now serve both as a catalyst for and a front within the much broader dispute over Islam’s compatibility with western society. Yet this is an extremely unhelpful way to approach them, for culture wars make poor midwives to effective strategy and concrete solutions. Knop, Michaels, and Riles have shown that translating amorphous, big-picture issues into sets of technical legal problems yields a ‘promising style of capturing, revealing, and ultimately taking a stand’ on the crucial aspects of intractable cultural controversies. On this point, the UK Government has enjoyed considerable success in using limited tax reforms to transform Islamic finance from an underground cottage industry into a regulated multi-billion-pound commercial sector. This suggests that juridification can deliver impressive results in terms of integrating specific elements of British Islam into a general framework of liberal law.

In 2015 David Cameron commissioned The Casey Review to examine opportunity and integration in isolated and deprived communities. Published in December 2016, Dame Louise Casey’s report contains a distinct chapter on religion which includes sections on ‘Regressive Attitudes’ among Muslims as well as ‘Religious Codes’ and concluded that sharia councils were undermining the rule of English law by ‘operating in ways that are discriminatory, causing harm and subverting individuals’ legal rights’. More specifically, Casey flagged up unregistered sharia marriages and polygamy amongst the Muslim community as being ‘particularly concerning in a group that includes those known to have lower levels of female employment, lower levels of English language and, anecdotally at least, a lack of awareness of other civil rights’. Although she categorizes such practices as falling into the ‘realm of cultural sensitivity’ to be resolved by frank public debate and grass-roots community reformists, Casey does note that a clear legal framework is absent and that there is a strong case for reforming the law of marriage to tackle unregistered marriages. Minister Dominic Raab recently confirmed that, in light of the Casey Report, ‘The Government acknowledges concerns raised about marriage ceremonies that do not give rise to legal rights, and is committed to careful consideration of the issue’. Furthermore, Russell Sandberg and Sharon Thompson reached a similar conclusion about marriage formalities, which they regard as a ‘truly pressing’ but understudied facet of the ‘missing family law context’ surrounding the wider sharia law debate. In sum, then, the Government has begun to converge with leading academics on marriage law reform as a key part of the solution to unregistered marriages, sharia councils, and Muslim integration more generally.

Spoiler: :: Article's Link
The extract was taken from "1. Juridifying A Way Out Of The Culture Wars" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/ojlr/article/6 ... chresult=1

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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 12 Nov 2018, 11:40
My takeaways:

1. despite Islam had the chance to transform as per the host society, local Muslim societies are operating under their own laws.
2. Issues with these groups and the broad solutions to bring them under local laws. a successful example was mentioned
3. A report by govt. made it clear that the local laws were detrimental as a whole especially to UK muslim women. need some reforms

Main point: Islam in UK & issues with their adherence to homeland laws and need for reforms

Originally posted by Raj319 on 12 Nov 2018, 04:44.
Last edited by Raj319 on 12 Nov 2018, 11:40, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2018, 10:27
gmatexam439 wrote:
guhancr7 wrote:

para 1: baboon model usage in investigating EP,gives close resemblance to that of woman
para 2:rats and mice model in EP, but not much effective due to some lackness in lymph

summary: Comparison between various models used in investigating EP


Hi guhancr7,

You individual summaries are to the point and very good. However, the overall summary is a bit off.
The author isn't comparing various models used in investigating EP; the author is merely presenting us with the information of different models.

Please note that there is a huge difference between "comparison of models" and "presentation of information of models".
I hope that helps!
All the best.


thanks a lot bro! Will be more careful from now
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2018, 10:42
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 11 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Like all great religions, Islam has always had the capacity to shape and be shaped by its host societies. Professor John Bowen notes that the nature of British Islam has been moulded by several factors including the geographical concentration of Muslims in specific localities; their maintenance of strong ties to their ancestral homelands and reproduction of the various religious and political divisions found there; the need of religious leaders to adapt their services and practices to meet local needs and law; and state policy. The Muslim population of Britain now stands at over 3 million—around 5 percent of the total—and is growing ten times faster than the rest. The vast majority (68 percent) are Sunnis of South East Asian origin and only 47 percent are UK-born. Muslims have bucked the trend of typical migration patterns as they have concentrated in particular areas to marry within their transcontinental kin group rather than disperse over time. As such, their allegiance to their homeland and ethnic identity have remained strong. This can be seen reflected in the campaign led by the Union of Muslim Organisations throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s to obtain recognition for a separate system of Islamic family law applicable to all Muslims in Britain. Muslims in Britain have essentially created ‘a home away from home’ by bringing sharia law with them into the country. As Machteld Zee has observed, ‘it must be recognized that there are, in fact, two separate legal systems now functioning, one of which currently operates in the shadow of the law’. Many Muslims relate to British society on their own terms so Islamic norms, not those of the lex loci, are the ones that are considered binding.

Perhaps the most visible expression of this legal culture, and hence the issue which receives the most attention, is the estimated 85 sharia councils operating across the UK. Accurate information about these bodies remains scarce, one of the reasons why the Government established an ongoing inquiry to ascertain more. However, numerous reports have been able to shed some light on their provision of advice in Muslim family disputes and the common themes are concerning: discrimination against women, reactionary rulings prolonging marital captivity, lax approaches to domestic violence and informing victims of their rights, the absence of child safeguarding mechanisms, wilful blindness to English law and the steady corrosion of social cohesion. Although most of this is simply a religiously aggravated form of the dangers that can materialize even in state-sponsored mediation programmes, such injustices generate considerable amounts of publicity and outrage when exposed. Consequently, sharia councils now serve both as a catalyst for and a front within the much broader dispute over Islam’s compatibility with western society. Yet this is an extremely unhelpful way to approach them, for culture wars make poor midwives to effective strategy and concrete solutions. Knop, Michaels, and Riles have shown that translating amorphous, big-picture issues into sets of technical legal problems yields a ‘promising style of capturing, revealing, and ultimately taking a stand’ on the crucial aspects of intractable cultural controversies. On this point, the UK Government has enjoyed considerable success in using limited tax reforms to transform Islamic finance from an underground cottage industry into a regulated multi-billion-pound commercial sector. This suggests that juridification can deliver impressive results in terms of integrating specific elements of British Islam into a general framework of liberal law.

In 2015 David Cameron commissioned The Casey Review to examine opportunity and integration in isolated and deprived communities. Published in December 2016, Dame Louise Casey’s report contains a distinct chapter on religion which includes sections on ‘Regressive Attitudes’ among Muslims as well as ‘Religious Codes’ and concluded that sharia councils were undermining the rule of English law by ‘operating in ways that are discriminatory, causing harm and subverting individuals’ legal rights’. More specifically, Casey flagged up unregistered sharia marriages and polygamy amongst the Muslim community as being ‘particularly concerning in a group that includes those known to have lower levels of female employment, lower levels of English language and, anecdotally at least, a lack of awareness of other civil rights’. Although she categorizes such practices as falling into the ‘realm of cultural sensitivity’ to be resolved by frank public debate and grass-roots community reformists, Casey does note that a clear legal framework is absent and that there is a strong case for reforming the law of marriage to tackle unregistered marriages. Minister Dominic Raab recently confirmed that, in light of the Casey Report, ‘The Government acknowledges concerns raised about marriage ceremonies that do not give rise to legal rights, and is committed to careful consideration of the issue’. Furthermore, Russell Sandberg and Sharon Thompson reached a similar conclusion about marriage formalities, which they regard as a ‘truly pressing’ but understudied facet of the ‘missing family law context’ surrounding the wider sharia law debate. In sum, then, the Government has begun to converge with leading academics on marriage law reform as a key part of the solution to unregistered marriages, sharia councils, and Muslim integration more generally.

Spoiler: :: Article's Link
The extract was taken from "1. Juridifying A Way Out Of The Culture Wars" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/ojlr/article/6 ... chresult=1



para 1: Islam's history in britain and the sharia law in britain
para 2: sharia law informations in britain and investigation of sharia law by Govt
Para 3: Sharia law further investigation and reform of unregistered marriages

SUMMARY: Sharia law in british and govt investigation and reform of the law(sharia)
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2018, 01:20
Hi!
To those who already took the gmat through the new format, can you tell me how many reading comprehension passage you had and also if you remember how many questions on each passage you had please??
Thank you!


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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri &nbs [#permalink] 13 Nov 2018, 01:20

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