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# Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri

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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2018, 03:17
Almost around around 13-14 RC questions distributed in 4RC passages. 9-10CR question. Rest 11-13 SC questions. Most test prep companies have updated to this format. you can give Veritas prep free test and get a feel of it.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2018, 03:30
aragonn wrote:
Almost around around 13-14 RC questions distributed in 4RC passages. 9-10CR question. Rest 11-13 SC questions. Most test prep companies have updated to this format. you can give Veritas prep free test and get a feel of it.

Thank you very much for your response!
I thought that with the new format there would be fewer passages...

Sent from my iPhone using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2018, 11:48
1
Raj319 wrote:
My takeaways:

1. despite Islam had the chance to transform as per the host society, local Muslim societies are operating under their own laws.
2. Issues with these groups and the broad solutions to bring them under local laws. a successful example was mentioned
3. A report by govt. made it clear that the local laws were detrimental as a whole especially to UK muslim women. need some reforms

Main point: Islam in UK & issues with their adherence to homeland laws and need for reforms

Hi Raj319,

I would suggest you be a little more specific in your summaries so that you come up with a better and shorter summary. That would help you in retaining more information in your mind; not to forget, you will also understand the main point of the entire RC.

In your point 1 "despite Islam had the chance to transform as per the host society" is nothing but the restatement of the very first line of the 1st para. Think, does this contribute to the overall understanding? In my opinion, it doesn't. 1st para is about presenting a few facts and then revealing that there are 2 laws in UK: UK's law and Sharia. So, your summary should be somewhat on "local Muslim societies are operating under their own laws" line. Don't be in a hurry to write something just for the sake of summarizing. Read then summarize!

in point #2, is any "broad" solution mentioned in the para? In fact, it's the opposite. Following point is quoted from the RC:
Quote:
Knop, Michaels, and Riles have shown that translating amorphous, big-picture issues into sets of technical legal problems yields a ‘promising style of capturing, revealing, and ultimately taking a stand’ on the crucial aspects of intractable cultural controversies

It is stating that a big issue should be broken down. They aren't looking for a "broad" solution, right?

point #3 and main point are good!

I hope that helps!
All the best.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2018, 12:03
guhancr7 wrote:
para 1: Islam's history in britain and the sharia law in britain
para 2: sharia law informations in britain and investigation of sharia law by Govt
Para 3: Sharia law further investigation and reform of unregistered marriages

SUMMARY: Sharia law in british and govt investigation and reform of the law(sharia)

1 looks good
2 could have been better. It's not summarizing the entire para. Besides, "investigation of sharia law by Govt" is just a line mentioned in the para. para 2 talks about the sharia councils in order to show that 2 legal systems are there in UK. Raj319, summarized it in a very good manner. The entire para talks about councils and how steps have been taken to 'control' the sharia law.
In your 3rd point "reform of unregistered marriages" seems to be stating that the related laws have already been reformed. This is not correct. "marriage" is just used as an example.

you are thinking in the correct direction but remember these small points while summarizing!

All the best.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2018, 12:20
Exercise for 13 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Most of the competition and rules in Europe were regulated by the academic profession and bureaucratic rules set by the state, with higher education institutions playing a secondary role. The more extreme case was probably France: until 1968, the main pillars of the French university system were discipline-based faculties. Disciplines were the relevant level of regulation of the academic profession, and a discipline-based national body (the CNU, National council of universities), not universities, managed academic careers. As shown by Terry N. Clark, by the beginning of the 20th century, in social sciences the (naturally) male and Parisian ‘patron’ was central to the career and provision of resources for his ‘circle of disciples’, i.e. the numerous fellows waiting for the patron to grant them a position or promotion. In a recent paper, Jérôme Aust and Emmanuelle Picard also described the very active and prominent role that French ‘mandarins’ played at the end of the ‘50s, when project-based funding first developed. France’s extreme case of professor-based regulation of scientific competition—and the related absence of universities—also occurred in other parts of continental Europe, until recently. As stressed by Jürgen Enders and Ulrich Teichler, in the mid-1990s Germany saw strong competition among professors while universities were all considered as equivalent. This was also true for many other European countries, with the exception of the UK, where the higher education landscape has long been stratified.

The European situation is therefore quite different from the trajectory experienced by US higher education institutions. As shown by Burton Clark, US higher education institutions were often created through private individual initiatives, and developed strong institutional identities relying on what Burton Clark described as organizational sagas (1972). Unsurprisingly, the first institutional rankings emerged in the USA by the end of the 19th century with the Commission of the US bureau of education. This was repeated at the beginning of the 20th century by the psychologist James Catell and by the Chicago Tribune in 1957, until US News and World report was published in 1983. At that time the editors of US News, ‘decided to invest in educational rankings, as a way to distinguish themselves from their rivals by offering “news you can use”’. They have published rankings every year since.

This phenomenon has slowly spread to Europe over the last two decades. A first factor is the reforms implemented by most European countries to transform universities into organizations, and to increase universities’ managerial autonomy and institutional autonomy. The development of evaluation and accreditation agencies across Europe further reinforced the idea that training and research were not only individual-based but also institution-based. In the UK, the 1980s saw the introduction of the Research Assessment Exercise to evaluate university departments, allowing for a classification of institutions according to the grades they received. By the late 1990s, Germany’s CHE (center for higher education), a higher education think tank funded by the Bertelsmann foundation, had published the first rankings of German departments and universities, giving lie to the idea that all German institutions were alike. This trend intensified when the Shanghai ranking and other international rankings further emphasized the institutional level in their assessment of institutions. In other words, competition is no longer limited to individuals and nations; it has become multilevel. Competition cannot solely be approached at the individual level but rather must simultaneously be addressed at the individual, national and institutional levels, yielding a complex interplay between these different levels.

As competition between research universities intensified, the locus of this competition shifted from the national to the supranational level. Regions and nations are still competitive spaces for most universities, but the most successful institutions are no longer engaged in a national contest: they compete globally. Their teaching no longer aims to solely train nationals, but also ‘citizens of the world’. Their student body and faculty are less and less national, their research addresses international issues rather than purely domestic matters, and they are less dependent on national funding and authorities as they have managed to secure other sources of funding (often from the tuition paid by their international students). Thus, global, national and regional competitive arenas are intertwined. Global institutions do not primarily compete for their country but for themselves and against similar institutions. They expand to foreign countries where they develop branches, they recruit staff and students from around the world and they don’t depend on the resources of their national stakeholders as much as other institutions. Just like premier league soccer teams, their main competitors are outside national borders: although the nationality of the most renowned research universities is linked to the territorial location of their headquarters, the nationality of their students and staff depends on the competitive arena in which they operate as institutions, i.e. either the regional, national or global arena.

The extract was taken from "2.1 Competition is simultaneously individual, institutional, national and international" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/ser/article/16 ... chresult=1

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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2018, 22:41
gmatexam439 wrote:
Raj319 wrote:
My takeaways:

I would suggest you be a little more specific in your summaries so that you come up with a better and shorter summary. That would help you in retaining more information in your mind; not to forget, you will also understand the main point of the entire RC.

In your point 1 "despite Islam had the chance to transform as per the host society" is nothing but the restatement of the very first line of the 1st para. Think, does this contribute to the overall understanding? In my opinion, it doesn't. 1st para is about presenting a few facts and then revealing that there are 2 laws in UK: UK's law and Sharia. So, your summary should be somewhat on "local Muslim societies are operating under their own laws" line. Don't be in a hurry to write something just for the sake of summarizing. Read then summarize!

in point #2, is any "broad" solution mentioned in the para? In fact, it's the opposite. Following point is quoted from the RC:
Quote:
Knop, Michaels, and Riles have shown that translating amorphous, big-picture issues into sets of technical legal problems yields a ‘promising style of capturing, revealing, and ultimately taking a stand’ on the crucial aspects of intractable cultural controversies

It is stating that a big issue should be broken down. They aren't looking for a "broad" solution, right?

point #3 and main point are good!

I hope that helps!
All the best.

Thanks gmatexam439 this is really helpful
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13 Nov 2018, 23:38
Quote:
Most of the competition and rules in Europe were regulated by the academic profession and bureaucratic rules set by the state, with higher education institutions playing a secondary role. The more extreme case was probably France: until 1968, the main pillars of the French university system were discipline-based faculties. Disciplines were the relevant level of regulation of the academic profession, and a discipline-based national body (the CNU, National council of universities), not universities, managed academic careers. As shown by Terry N. Clark, by the beginning of the 20th century, in social sciences the (naturally) male and Parisian ‘patron’ was central to the career and provision of resources for his ‘circle of disciples’, i.e. the numerous fellows waiting for the patron to grant them a position or promotion. In a recent paper, Jérôme Aust and Emmanuelle Picard also described the very active and prominent role that French ‘mandarins’ played at the end of the ‘50s, when project-based funding first developed. France’s extreme case of professor-based regulation of scientific competition—and the related absence of universities—also occurred in other parts of continental Europe, until recently. As stressed by Jürgen Enders and Ulrich Teichler, in the mid-1990s Germany saw strong competition among professors while universities were all considered as equivalent. This was also true for many other European countries, with the exception of the UK, where the higher education landscape has long been stratified.

Pls. review.

1. Europe- Individual based competition (especially male)
2. US- Institute based competition & Rankings introduction
3. Europe transformed from Individual --> Inst. level & Rankings
4. Inst. competition evolved from local to global level

Into of inst. rankings and their evolution to global scale
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14 Nov 2018, 01:49
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 29 October 2018

Note: Try to summarize the 3 paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
In the cluster analysis of the 327 psilocybin sessions performed by Studerus et al (2010), the two factors from the ASC questionnaire that receive the highest scores both related to visual imagery. The first was ‘Elementary Imagery’ (including items such as ‘I saw colours before me in total darkness or with closed eyes’) and the second was ‘Complex Imagery’ (with items like ‘I could see pictures from my past or fantasy extremely clearly’). Scores for these same factors were also increased after LSD consumption (Kraehenmann et al. 2017). In respect to qualitative self-report data, one study found that autobiographical memories were judged to be both ‘more visual’ and ‘more vivid’ after taking psilocybin (Carhart-Harris et al. 2012). LSD was also found to enhance dream-like imagery in a lab-based setting (Kraehenmann et al. 2017), and self-reports of hallucinogen experiences showed high semantic similarity with dream reports across large community-based self-report repositories (Sanz and Tagliazucchi 2018).

The factor ‘Changed Meaning of Percepts’ captures reports of objects in an individual’s environment as appearing more salient and personally significant than they ordinarily do. Here, participants who have taken psychedelics are more likely to endorse items such as ‘Objects around me engaged me emotionally much more than usual’ (Studerus et al. 2010). Psilocybin and LSD have also been found to enhance the subjective experience of colour (Hartman and Hollister 1963). For example, after-images are described as containing more colours, and the flicker-based generation of colour experience is said to be enhanced. These reports mirror those that are commonly found in popular writing, such as those found in Aldous Huxley's book ‘Heaven and Hell: First and most important is the experience of light. Everything seen by those who visit the mind’s antipodes is brilliantly illuminated and seems to shine from within. All colours are intensified to a pitch far beyond anything seen in the normal state, and at the same time the mind’s capacity for recognizing fine distinctions of tone and hue is notably heightened’. (1956, 89).

However, it is unclear to what extent these reports reflect objective improvements in colour perception, for laboratory-based studies have failed to find any evidence of visual improvements as the result of ingesting psychedelics. In one study, both psilocybin and LSD were found to impair objective measures of hue discrimination despite the participants’ subjective reports of enhanced colour perception (Hartman and Hollister 1963). Another study found no evidence that psilocybin was associated with increased sensitivity to stimulus contrast or brightness (Carter et al. 2004). It is an open question how the subjective increase in the richness and vividness of colour experience might be reconciled with the fact that psychedelics are not associated with any objective improvements in colour or brightness perception.

The extract was taken from "Visual imagery and perceptual meaning" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/nc/article/201 ... 08/5103991

Para1 - Studies suggest the enhancing visual imagery effects of LSD and psilocybin consumption.
Para2 - Further reports and evidences that suggest subjective experience of color and light with the objects in one's surrounding as an effect of Psilocybin and LSD consumption are mentioned.
Para3 - The objectivity of visual improvement experiences, increase in the richness and vividness of colour experienceare put into a grayish area, referring the studies that show reverse unparallel results.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2018, 10:59
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 13 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Most of the competition and rules in Europe were regulated by the academic profession and bureaucratic rules set by the state, with higher education institutions playing a secondary role. The more extreme case was probably France: until 1968, the main pillars of the French university system were discipline-based faculties. Disciplines were the relevant level of regulation of the academic profession, and a discipline-based national body (the CNU, National council of universities), not universities, managed academic careers. As shown by Terry N. Clark, by the beginning of the 20th century, in social sciences the (naturally) male and Parisian ‘patron’ was central to the career and provision of resources for his ‘circle of disciples’, i.e. the numerous fellows waiting for the patron to grant them a position or promotion. In a recent paper, Jérôme Aust and Emmanuelle Picard also described the very active and prominent role that French ‘mandarins’ played at the end of the ‘50s, when project-based funding first developed. France’s extreme case of professor-based regulation of scientific competition—and the related absence of universities—also occurred in other parts of continental Europe, until recently. As stressed by Jürgen Enders and Ulrich Teichler, in the mid-1990s Germany saw strong competition among professors while universities were all considered as equivalent. This was also true for many other European countries, with the exception of the UK, where the higher education landscape has long been stratified.

The European situation is therefore quite different from the trajectory experienced by US higher education institutions. As shown by Burton Clark, US higher education institutions were often created through private individual initiatives, and developed strong institutional identities relying on what Burton Clark described as organizational sagas (1972). Unsurprisingly, the first institutional rankings emerged in the USA by the end of the 19th century with the Commission of the US bureau of education. This was repeated at the beginning of the 20th century by the psychologist James Catell and by the Chicago Tribune in 1957, until US News and World report was published in 1983. At that time the editors of US News, ‘decided to invest in educational rankings, as a way to distinguish themselves from their rivals by offering “news you can use”’. They have published rankings every year since.

This phenomenon has slowly spread to Europe over the last two decades. A first factor is the reforms implemented by most European countries to transform universities into organizations, and to increase universities’ managerial autonomy and institutional autonomy. The development of evaluation and accreditation agencies across Europe further reinforced the idea that training and research were not only individual-based but also institution-based. In the UK, the 1980s saw the introduction of the Research Assessment Exercise to evaluate university departments, allowing for a classification of institutions according to the grades they received. By the late 1990s, Germany’s CHE (center for higher education), a higher education think tank funded by the Bertelsmann foundation, had published the first rankings of German departments and universities, giving lie to the idea that all German institutions were alike. This trend intensified when the Shanghai ranking and other international rankings further emphasized the institutional level in their assessment of institutions. In other words, competition is no longer limited to individuals and nations; it has become multilevel. Competition cannot solely be approached at the individual level but rather must simultaneously be addressed at the individual, national and institutional levels, yielding a complex interplay between these different levels.

As competition between research universities intensified, the locus of this competition shifted from the national to the supranational level. Regions and nations are still competitive spaces for most universities, but the most successful institutions are no longer engaged in a national contest: they compete globally. Their teaching no longer aims to solely train nationals, but also ‘citizens of the world’. Their student body and faculty are less and less national, their research addresses international issues rather than purely domestic matters, and they are less dependent on national funding and authorities as they have managed to secure other sources of funding (often from the tuition paid by their international students). Thus, global, national and regional competitive arenas are intertwined. Global institutions do not primarily compete for their country but for themselves and against similar institutions. They expand to foreign countries where they develop branches, they recruit staff and students from around the world and they don’t depend on the resources of their national stakeholders as much as other institutions. Just like premier league soccer teams, their main competitors are outside national borders: although the nationality of the most renowned research universities is linked to the territorial location of their headquarters, the nationality of their students and staff depends on the competitive arena in which they operate as institutions, i.e. either the regional, national or global arena.

The extract was taken from "2.1 Competition is simultaneously individual, institutional, national and international" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/ser/article/16 ... chresult=1

para 1: educational universities in europe competed domestically,were male dominant and considered equal in some countries
Para 2: educational universities in US were diffrent to europe. They were ranked .
Para: europe,china starts to follow us Model and begin to rank Instituitions
para 4: Universities compete in the international level and students and teachers are from all over the world instead of from the same nation.

Summary: the evolution of competitions between universities
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2018, 01:57
Exercise for 26 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
The eighteenth century saw some of the most significant changes to childbirth care in Britain before the twentieth century, and included the emergent popularity of the man-midwife, formal training in obstetrics for surgeons, and the establishment of lying-in hospitals in urban areas, particularly in London. Despite these changes, the vast majority of women of the lower orders of society were attended by female midwives during labour and delivery throughout the century. Skilled midwives were thus undoubtedly ubiquitous in early modern British society. Their presence can be found in a range of archival sources, and social, cultural and medical historians of early modern England have utilised these for diverse histories of childbirth. Welsh sources have not been considered in any of these studies, and therefore the nature of childbirth in early modern Wales remains largely unknown.

Evidence of midwives in Wales can be found in a wide range of documents, including applications for licences to practice midwifery, Court of Great Sessions and quarter sessions records, parish overseer, churchwarden and vestry accounts, as well as burial records and wills. Only ten applications for licences to practise midwifery have survived in the Welsh ecclesiastical records held by the National Library of Wales, and found in the collections for the diocese of Bangor and Llandaff. Many more were likely produced, however the survival rate for such documents in Wales is poor. Court of Great Sessions records have a much greater rate of survival, and midwives appear frequently as witnesses in the approximately 140 infanticide cases included in the Crime and Punishment database between 1730 and 1800. Twelve of these cases have been examined here. Quarter sessions records from across Wales have also survived to varying degrees and are held in county archives offices. The session rolls of the Montgomery quarter sessions from the 1750s to 1790s have been examined for this study. Finally, parish overseers of the poor, churchwarden and vestry accounts survive with varying quality for parishes across all Welsh counties, and contain hundreds, if not thousands, of references of payments made to midwives for the delivery of pauper women. For this study, the accounts of 23 parishes across four Welsh counties have been analysed.

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28 Nov 2018, 06:33
1
Exercise for 28 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
OLDER people are often perceived as lonely, hopeless, and sad. Even older adults who report high levels of satisfaction frequently express beliefs that most other older people are not faring well. In the last decade, however, research has shown that such negative views are unwarranted. Although many people are, indeed, facing mounting physical ailments, psychological stress, social losses, and increased dependency at the very end of life, most older people are well adjusted emotionally for the bulk of their later years (e.g., Carstensen, Pasupathi, Mayr, & Nesselroade, 2000). Naturally, individual differences are apparent: Improvements to well-being are general trends, not guarantees. Dispositional tendencies, life events, and individuals’ management of such events can all influence whether well-being improves or deteriorates with age. Nevertheless, research suggests that reasonably high levels of affective well-being and emotional stability are the norm rather than the exception at least until after adults reach 70 or 80 years of age (e.g., Carstensen et al., 2000, 2009; Charles, Reynolds, & Gatz, 2001; Kessler & Staudinger, 2009; Kunzmann, Little, & Smith, 2000; Mroczek & Kolarz, 1998; Teachman, 2006). Only when people are essentially dying does “terminal” drop in affective well-being appear consistently and is largely independent of age.

At first sight, the trajectory of emotional aging may appear surprising. Given that older adults are confronted with bodily deterioration, increasingly frequent health problems and memory failures, and losses in mobility and in the social worlds, how do people maintain high levels of affective well-being? One possible explanation, which has recently received much attention, is an increasing motivation to regulate emotional states and increasing competence to do so (Blanchard-Fields, 2007; Carstensen, 2006). Subsequently, we review recent frontiers in the quest for understanding emotional processing and emotional regulation as determinants of positive affective change with age. We start by outlining theoretical predictions about emotional aging. We then review recent evidence on age-related differences in the processing and remembering of emotional stimuli and in emotional reactivity and regulation. We next focus on the cognitive requirements and costs of emotional regulation. Finally, we delineate fruitful new directions in research on emotional aging. Specifically, we propose more systematic efforts to link levels of emotional functioning with long-term outcomes, consideration of emotional goals, combining behavioral with neuroscience studies, and interventions to counteract the costs of an emotion–regulatory focus and improve emotional aging outcomes for those not showing positive affect trajectories.

The extract was taken from "Emotional Aging: Recent Findings and Future Trends" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgeront ... 135/642926

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Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2018, 22:31
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 13 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Most of the competition and rules in Europe were regulated by the academic profession and bureaucratic rules set by the state, with higher education institutions playing a secondary role. The more extreme case was probably France: until 1968, the main pillars of the French university system were discipline-based faculties. Disciplines were the relevant level of regulation of the academic profession, and a discipline-based national body (the CNU, National council of universities), not universities, managed academic careers. As shown by Terry N. Clark, by the beginning of the 20th century, in social sciences the (naturally) male and Parisian ‘patron’ was central to the career and provision of resources for his ‘circle of disciples’, i.e. the numerous fellows waiting for the patron to grant them a position or promotion. In a recent paper, Jérôme Aust and Emmanuelle Picard also described the very active and prominent role that French ‘mandarins’ played at the end of the ‘50s, when project-based funding first developed. France’s extreme case of professor-based regulation of scientific competition—and the related absence of universities—also occurred in other parts of continental Europe, until recently. As stressed by Jürgen Enders and Ulrich Teichler, in the mid-1990s Germany saw strong competition among professors while universities were all considered as equivalent. This was also true for many other European countries, with the exception of the UK, where the higher education landscape has long been stratified.

The European situation is therefore quite different from the trajectory experienced by US higher education institutions. As shown by Burton Clark, US higher education institutions were often created through private individual initiatives, and developed strong institutional identities relying on what Burton Clark described as organizational sagas (1972). Unsurprisingly, the first institutional rankings emerged in the USA by the end of the 19th century with the Commission of the US bureau of education. This was repeated at the beginning of the 20th century by the psychologist James Catell and by the Chicago Tribune in 1957, until US News and World report was published in 1983. At that time the editors of US News, ‘decided to invest in educational rankings, as a way to distinguish themselves from their rivals by offering “news you can use”’. They have published rankings every year since.

This phenomenon has slowly spread to Europe over the last two decades. A first factor is the reforms implemented by most European countries to transform universities into organizations, and to increase universities’ managerial autonomy and institutional autonomy. The development of evaluation and accreditation agencies across Europe further reinforced the idea that training and research were not only individual-based but also institution-based. In the UK, the 1980s saw the introduction of the Research Assessment Exercise to evaluate university departments, allowing for a classification of institutions according to the grades they received. By the late 1990s, Germany’s CHE (center for higher education), a higher education think tank funded by the Bertelsmann foundation, had published the first rankings of German departments and universities, giving lie to the idea that all German institutions were alike. This trend intensified when the Shanghai ranking and other international rankings further emphasized the institutional level in their assessment of institutions. In other words, competition is no longer limited to individuals and nations; it has become multilevel. Competition cannot solely be approached at the individual level but rather must simultaneously be addressed at the individual, national and institutional levels, yielding a complex interplay between these different levels.

As competition between research universities intensified, the locus of this competition shifted from the national to the supranational level. Regions and nations are still competitive spaces for most universities, but the most successful institutions are no longer engaged in a national contest: they compete globally. Their teaching no longer aims to solely train nationals, but also ‘citizens of the world’. Their student body and faculty are less and less national, their research addresses international issues rather than purely domestic matters, and they are less dependent on national funding and authorities as they have managed to secure other sources of funding (often from the tuition paid by their international students). Thus, global, national and regional competitive arenas are intertwined. Global institutions do not primarily compete for their country but for themselves and against similar institutions. They expand to foreign countries where they develop branches, they recruit staff and students from around the world and they don’t depend on the resources of their national stakeholders as much as other institutions. Just like premier league soccer teams, their main competitors are outside national borders: although the nationality of the most renowned research universities is linked to the territorial location of their headquarters, the nationality of their students and staff depends on the competitive arena in which they operate as institutions, i.e. either the regional, national or global arena.

The extract was taken from "2.1 Competition is simultaneously individual, institutional, national and international" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/ser/article/16 ... chresult=1

How the hell can you read, comprehend and summarise all this crap in under 3 mins? This took me more than 6 mins to read through and I was so focused on timing I started writing down random things I didn't comprehend.

I don't know that I agree with this method.

Perhaps as a training exercise this method may be effective, but I personally didn't benefit that much - It only confused me.
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2018, 22:36
Can you please explain how you would approach this? I simply can't understand how all that can be done in <3 mins. You must have the reading speed and comprehension of a god if you can go through all that in such a short time.
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05 Dec 2018, 02:14
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 26 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
The eighteenth century saw some of the most significant changes to childbirth care in Britain before the twentieth century, and included the emergent popularity of the man-midwife, formal training in obstetrics for surgeons, and the establishment of lying-in hospitals in urban areas, particularly in London. Despite these changes, the vast majority of women of the lower orders of society were attended by female midwives during labour and delivery throughout the century. Skilled midwives were thus undoubtedly ubiquitous in early modern British society. Their presence can be found in a range of archival sources, and social, cultural and medical historians of early modern England have utilised these for diverse histories of childbirth. Welsh sources have not been considered in any of these studies, and therefore the nature of childbirth in early modern Wales remains largely unknown.

Evidence of midwives in Wales can be found in a wide range of documents, including applications for licences to practice midwifery, Court of Great Sessions and quarter sessions records, parish overseer, churchwarden and vestry accounts, as well as burial records and wills. Only ten applications for licences to practise midwifery have survived in the Welsh ecclesiastical records held by the National Library of Wales, and found in the collections for the diocese of Bangor and Llandaff. Many more were likely produced, however the survival rate for such documents in Wales is poor. Court of Great Sessions records have a much greater rate of survival, and midwives appear frequently as witnesses in the approximately 140 infanticide cases included in the Crime and Punishment database between 1730 and 1800. Twelve of these cases have been examined here. Quarter sessions records from across Wales have also survived to varying degrees and are held in county archives offices. The session rolls of the Montgomery quarter sessions from the 1750s to 1790s have been examined for this study. Finally, parish overseers of the poor, churchwarden and vestry accounts survive with varying quality for parishes across all Welsh counties, and contain hundreds, if not thousands, of references of payments made to midwives for the delivery of pauper women. For this study, the accounts of 23 parishes across four Welsh counties have been analysed.

Para 1: Midwives involvement in chilbirth in british society in 18th century and the lack of evidence of nature of childbirth in Wales.
Para 2: Various articles that proves the involvement of midwives in child birth at Wales.

Summary/: Midwives involvement in british and welsh childbirth during the 18th century
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08 Dec 2018, 15:40
gmatexam439 Read 3 passages yet, thank you so much such posts in the forum it helps many people like us to find valuable contain at one place.
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I'd appreciate learning about the grammatical errors in my posts

Please let me know if I'm wrong somewhere and help me to learn
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26 Mar 2019, 00:18
gmatexam439 wrote:
Para 1: HRE: its definition and scope
Para 2: HRE particularly useful for younger age groups
Para 2: Awareness extended to knowing scope

Main Point: HRE: Its definition and benefits, particularly to younger age groups.

workout u1983 aragonn gmatexam439
Can you grade my understanding from 0 to 5?

Hi bro,

I would correct just one thing in your summary above: the paragraphs are talking about the impact on young leaders NOT younger age groups. Always be very specific about details that you map in GMAT. Missing even a small word could let you down.

Your individual summaries are very good, though!

Best Regards.

Is it Young learners or young leaders?
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Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri  [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2019, 07:30
gmatexam439 wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
Exercise for 07 November 2018

Note: Try to summarize the following paragraphs below individually and then try to come up with a single line summary/title for the extract. I strongly encourage you to do this exercise mentally - without writing the summaries anywhere. Once done, type your summary/title below and read the article and it's title and match the article's summary with yours. Both the summaries should be close enough. Try to time yourself - take no more than 3 minutes to complete this activity.

Sample:
Animal models such as the baboon allow investigation of a range of aspects of endometriosis pathogenesis, including the role of the lymphatic system. Nonhuman primates are the best animal models for studying the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as they undergo menstruation, develop spontaneous endometriosis, and have reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, and physiology very similar to those of humans. In fact, there are case reports in baboons describing the occurrence of spontaneous endometriosis in para-aortic and ileocecal junction lymph nodes, resembling case reports in women. A recent novel study in baboons with induced endometriosis identified increased presence of CD10+ endometrial stromal cells in femoral lymph nodes (draining the uterus, abdominal wall, and peritoneal cavity) compared to animals without endometriosis. The significant increase in CD10+ cells may be attributed to the lymphatic transit of these cells from the uterus and/or endometriotic lesions. Immune cell populations, including T cells, B cells, and mature and immature dendritic cells, were also increased in numbers in the femoral nodes of baboons with induced endometriosis. This increase may be a result of the initial immune response to endometriosis in these animals, which is difficult to study in women, attempting to clear introduced endometrial tissues. A role for the lymphatic system in endometriosis, including the possibility of lymphatic spread and changes immune response, is further supported by the baboon model of induced endometriosis.

In addition to nonhuman primate models, endometriosis can be experimentally induced in rats and mice. In terms of the role of the lymphatic system in the disease, these models may be useful in studying growth factor and receptor expression in lesions and trialing different treatment approaches; however, there is no evidence of lymph node involvement in the rat model of induced endometriosis. There are increased levels of lymphangiogenic and related growth factors and receptors in lesions in rat and mouse models (for example, VEGF-A and VEGFR-2;). These models have also been used to study the effect of growth factor inhibition treatments on endometriotic lesions, in particular anti-VEGF-A and statin treatments, related to the role of the lymphatic system via their possible effects on lymphangiogenesis. Treatment with statins has shown promising results in reducing lesion size in animal models and in vitro by reducing VEGF-A levels and angiogenesis, but it is also known that statins are inhibitors of in vivo lymphangiogenesis. Although rat and mouse models may have some application in improving aspects of our understanding of the role of the lymphatic system in endometriosis, these particular models are not well suited for studying the phenomenon of lymphatic spread of the disease because of the lack of menstruation and therefore lymphatic system dissemination of endometrial tissue.

The extract was taken from "Studies in Animal Models of Endometriosis" sub-section from the following link: https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/art ... 10/2434026

My Thoughts:
Para 1: Using nonhuman primates for endometriosis study
Para 2: Rats for endometriosis study
Study of endometriosis using various animals

This was a pretty easy passage! Let me see how many of you can easily finish this within 2.5 minutes!

I found the second para very difficult to understand I was comfortable with the first one
There were too many terms I wasn't comfortable with
Re: Most important step in RC - Practice questions Mon Wed Fri   [#permalink] 15 Apr 2019, 07:30

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