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# Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans

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Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 13 Aug 2017, 02:51
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Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans arrived in Eurasia, and many scientists suspect the two events are closely linked. One popular theory is that modern humans contributed to the demise of their close cousins, either by outcompeting them for resources or through open conflict.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the popular theory described above?

A. A recent study of Shanidar 3, one of the Neanderthals campsite discovered, concluded that the Neanderthals likely died of a rib wound that could have been created by the kind of projectile weapons used by modern humans living at the time.

B. Scientists have recently discovered some bones and teeth belonging to modern humans that looked as though they had been killed by Neanderthals.

C. Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep up with modern humans.

D. Some Scientists argue that the Neanderthals may have had a harder time during childbirth due to the large head of Neanderthal babies.

E. Several volcanoes in Eurasia have erupted in quick succession about 40,000 years ago before modern humans arrived in Europe.

Originally posted by DHAR on 13 Aug 2017, 01:18.
Last edited by DHAR on 13 Aug 2017, 02:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 01:43
The answer should be D. Answer choice D implies that a factor related to problems during giving birth could have possibly led to Neanderthal's extinction in Eurasia. This answer choice weakens the author's conclusion by citing an alternate explanation than the one offered by the argument.
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Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 02:51
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I would go with C on this one. Will explain once the OA is revealed and if this is correct.

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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 04:01
Bounce1987 wrote:
The answer should be D. Answer choice D implies that a factor related to problems during giving birth could have possibly led to Neanderthal's extinction in Eurasia. This answer choice weakens the author's conclusion by citing an alternate explanation than the one offered by the argument.

Hi Bounce1987 ,

D cannot be the answer. It says mothers used to cry a lot when they used to give son to their babies as the head of the baby was too big. How does it tell us they got extinct? This option is completely OFS.

Quote:
Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans arrived in Eurasia, and many scientists suspect the two events are closely linked. One popular theory is that modern humans contributed to the demise of their close cousins, either by outcompeting them for resources or through open conflict.

Okay, so we need to weaken the theory that says Humans killed Neanderthals.

A. A recent study of Shanidar 3, one of the Neanderthals campsite discovered, concluded that the Neanderthals likely died of a rib wound that could have been created by the kind of projectile weapons used by modern humans living at the time. --> Strengthener

B. Scientists have recently discovered some bones and teeth belonging to modern humans that looked as though they had been killed by Neanderthals. --> Strengthener

C. Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep up with modern humans.

D. Some Scientists argue that the Neanderthals may have had a harder time during childbirth due to the large head of Neanderthal babies. --> As discussed above

E. Several volcanoes in Eurasia have erupted in quick succession about 40,000 years ago before modern humans arrived in Europe. --> Irrelevant
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 05:04
I was tied up between D and E. Chose E, but realized that the OA is C??

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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 05:12
rekhabishop wrote:
I was tied up between D and E. Chose E, but realized that the OA is C??

Hi rekhabishop ,

Please look here for why D is incorrect.

E is irrelevant because it says there were some volcano eruptions. Fine but how do you Neanderthals were present 40,000 years ago only? It may happen that Neanderthals were present just 10000 years ago. Hence, incorrect.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 06:05
abhimahna wrote:
rekhabishop wrote:
I was tied up between D and E. Chose E, but realized that the OA is C??

Hi rekhabishop ,

Please look here for why D is incorrect.

E is irrelevant because it says there were some volcano eruptions. Fine but how do you Neanderthals were present 40,000 years ago only? It may happen that Neanderthals were present just 10000 years ago. Hence, incorrect.

Does that make sense?

Isn't C supporting the argument?
Lower birth rate means that they were out competed (survival of the fittest), right?
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 06:21
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rekhabishop wrote:
Isn't C supporting the argument?
Lower birth rate means that they were out competed (survival of the fittest), right?

Hi rekhabishop ,

Here is the catch:

The theory is saying Humans led to the demise. We have to weaken it and say No, something else was the reason.

Option C says (as you mentioned )survival of the fittest is the reason.

hence, the theory is weakened.

Does that make sense?
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Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 06:22
abhimahna wrote:
Bounce1987 wrote:
The answer should be D. Answer choice D implies that a factor related to problems during giving birth could have possibly led to Neanderthal's extinction in Eurasia. This answer choice weakens the author's conclusion by citing an alternate explanation than the one offered by the argument.

Hi Bounce1987 ,

D cannot be the answer. It says mothers used to cry a lot when they used to give son to their babies as the head of the baby was too big. How does it tell us they got extinct? This option is completely OFS.

Quote:
Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans arrived in Eurasia, and many scientists suspect the two events are closely linked. One popular theory is that modern humans contributed to the demise of their close cousins, either by outcompeting them for resources or through open conflict.

Okay, so we need to weaken the theory that says Humans killed Neanderthals.

A. A recent study of Shanidar 3, one of the Neanderthals campsite discovered, concluded that the Neanderthals likely died of a rib wound that could have been created by the kind of projectile weapons used by modern humans living at the time. --> Strengthener

B. Scientists have recently discovered some bones and teeth belonging to modern humans that looked as though they had been killed by Neanderthals. --> Strengthener

C. Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep up with modern humans.

D. Some Scientists argue that the Neanderthals may have had a harder time during childbirth due to the large head of Neanderthal babies. --> As discussed above

E. Several volcanoes in Eurasia have erupted in quick succession about 40,000 years ago before modern humans arrived in Europe. --> Irrelevant

Thanks abhimahna

I forget to point that out.. D is not talking about extinction its only talking about the difficulty mothers had during child birth. C seems right.
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 08:00
I don't understand how can the OA be C. Statement says that Neanderthals died because they couldn't reproduce fast enough to keep up with Modern Human. Doesn't that prove that modern human out-competed Neanderthals?? Therefore C rather strengthens.

It would weaken the conclusion if the statement had the following structure: "Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep the population growth positive"

Experts, please, correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 08:25
Vardan95 wrote:
I don't understand how can the OA be C. Statement says that Neanderthals died because they couldn't reproduce fast enough to keep up with Modern Human. Doesn't that prove that modern human out-competed Neanderthals?? Therefore C rather strengthens.

It would weaken the conclusion if the statement had the following structure: "Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep the population growth positive"

Experts, please, correct me if I am wrong.

Hi Vardan95 ,

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Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 08:27
Vardan95 wrote:
I don't understand how can the OA be C. Statement says that Neanderthals died because they couldn't reproduce fast enough to keep up with Modern Human. Doesn't that prove that modern human out-competed Neanderthals?? Therefore C rather strengthens.

It would weaken the conclusion if the statement had the following structure: "Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep the population growth positive"

Experts, please, correct me if I am wrong.

Hi,
Let me try to explain this.
The arguement is Whether modern humans somehow CONTRIBUTED to the downfall of Neanderthals

The arguement states that they did. To weaken this argument, we would have to point out that the humans were not responsible for or contributed to the downfall, but it was something else.
Option C clearly states that it was in fact the Neanderthals themselves responsible for their own downfall since they were the ones who couldn't reproduce enough.
Now..were it the humans who somehow contributed to this lack of active reproduction? No. Therefore, C.
I hope this helps.

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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 08:39
abhimahna wrote:
Vardan95 wrote:
I don't understand how can the OA be C. Statement says that Neanderthals died because they couldn't reproduce fast enough to keep up with Modern Human. Doesn't that prove that modern human out-competed Neanderthals?? Therefore C rather strengthens.

It would weaken the conclusion if the statement had the following structure: "Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep the population growth positive"

Experts, please, correct me if I am wrong.

Hi Vardan95 ,

Hello
I've read it before posting. The thing is that I find your reasoning for C rather controversial. If C implies the survival of the fittest, it means that X out-competes Y. Therefore C strengthens.

Again, C would weaken only if the statement was not linked to Modern Human species.
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 08:44
ShashankDave wrote:
Vardan95 wrote:
I don't understand how can the OA be C. Statement says that Neanderthals died because they couldn't reproduce fast enough to keep up with Modern Human. Doesn't that prove that modern human out-competed Neanderthals?? Therefore C rather strengthens.

It would weaken the conclusion if the statement had the following structure: "Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep the population growth positive"

Experts, please, correct me if I am wrong.

Hi,
Let me try to explain this.
The arguement is Whether modern humans somehow CONTRIBUTED to the downfall of Neanderthals

The arguement states that they did. To weaken this argument, we would have to point out that the humans were not responsible for or contributed to the downfall, but it was something else.
Option C clearly states that it was in fact the Neanderthals themselves responsible for their own downfall since they were the ones who couldn't reproduce enough.
Now..were it the humans who somehow contributed to this lack of active reproduction? No. Therefore, C.
I hope this helps.

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Hello,

All I am saying is that C doesn't state that Neanderthals couldn't survive because of the low birth rate. It states that they couldn't survive because low birth rate didn't allow them to keep up with modern humans. This means that they couldn't compete with modern humans and that actually caused their extinction. So Modern Human out-competed them and that is perfect fits "popular theory".
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Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 08:53
Vardan95 wrote:
Hello
I've read it before posting. The thing is that I find your reasoning for C rather controversial. If C implies the survival of the fittest, it means that X out-competes Y. Therefore C strengthens.

Again, C would weaken only if the statement was not linked to Modern Human species.

Hi Vardan95 ,

Okay, so you are making some assumptions here.

If X is not growing as quickly as Y, then it doesn't mean X outcompetes Y.

Consider it like this:

Humans are 1000 and Neatheral are 100 at this time.

Now,Humans are growing way too faster than Neatherals.

I can say Humans grew to 100000000 in one year but neatheral grew only to 200. Wow, very negligible count of Neatherals!

Don't you think this weakens the conclusion saying that Humans are not actually competing rather it is Neatherals fault that they can't reproduce quickly? Poor Neatherals!!
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 09:18
abhimahna wrote:
Vardan95 wrote:
Hello
I've read it before posting. The thing is that I find your reasoning for C rather controversial. If C implies the survival of the fittest, it means that X out-competes Y. Therefore C strengthens.

Again, C would weaken only if the statement was not linked to Modern Human species.

Hi Vardan95 ,

Okay, so you are making some assumptions here.

If X is not growing as quickly as Y, then it doesn't mean X outcompetes Y.

Consider it like this:

Humans are 1000 and Neatheral are 100 at this time.

Now,Humans are growing way too faster than Neatherals.

I can say Humans grew to 100000000 in one year but neatheral grew only to 200. Wow, very negligible count of Neatherals!

Don't you think this weakens the conclusion saying that Humans are not actually competing rather it is Neatherals fault that they can't reproduce quickly? Poor Neatherals!!

Appreciate your efforts to explain me, but no, I don't this that this weakens. And all because of this part "the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep up with modern humans." They died out not because they couldn't reproduce fast enough, but they died out because they couldn't reproduce fast enoughto keep up with modern humans. You cannot omit the highlighted part.
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2017, 10:57
abhimahna wrote:
Bounce1987 wrote:
The answer should be D. Answer choice D implies that a factor related to problems during giving birth could have possibly led to Neanderthal's extinction in Eurasia. This answer choice weakens the author's conclusion by citing an alternate explanation than the one offered by the argument.

Hi Bounce1987 ,

D cannot be the answer. It says mothers used to cry a lot when they used to give son to their babies as the head of the baby was too big. How does it tell us they got extinct? This option is completely OFS.

Quote:
Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans arrived in Eurasia, and many scientists suspect the two events are closely linked. One popular theory is that modern humans contributed to the demise of their close cousins, either by outcompeting them for resources or through open conflict.

Okay, so we need to weaken the theory that says Humans killed Neanderthals.

A. A recent study of Shanidar 3, one of the Neanderthals campsite discovered, concluded that the Neanderthals likely died of a rib wound that could have been created by the kind of projectile weapons used by modern humans living at the time. --> Strengthener

B. Scientists have recently discovered some bones and teeth belonging to modern humans that looked as though they had been killed by Neanderthals. --> Strengthener

C. Recently excavated fossils provide sustainable evidence that the Neanderthals died out because they couldn’t reproduce fast enough to keep up with modern humans.

D. Some Scientists argue that the Neanderthals may have had a harder time during childbirth due to the large head of Neanderthal babies. --> As discussed above

E. Several volcanoes in Eurasia have erupted in quick succession about 40,000 years ago before modern humans arrived in Europe. --> Irrelevant

Hi,

I am confused by B is a strengthener.

The argument says humans killed neanderthals. Option B says the opposite. Isn't that weakening the argument? Can you please help me figure out where I am wrong in my reasoning?
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2017, 11:07
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pra1785 wrote:
Hi,

I am confused by B is a strengthener.

The argument says humans killed neanderthals. Option B says the opposite. Isn't that weakening the argument? Can you please help me figure out where I am wrong in my reasoning?

Hi pra1785 ,

I am happy to help.

Look at the words "either by outcompeting them for resources or through open conflict."

What does it mean? It means there was some sort of war that would have happened between the two. Now, if you say humans would have not died during that war, I won't believe you at all.

Hence, finding bones of human is inevitable and thus it strengthens the fact that there must be some sort of war at that time.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans  [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2017, 11:24
abhimahna wrote:
pra1785 wrote:
Hi,

I am confused by B is a strengthener.

The argument says humans killed neanderthals. Option B says the opposite. Isn't that weakening the argument? Can you please help me figure out where I am wrong in my reasoning?

Hi pra1785 ,

I am happy to help.

Look at the words "either by outcompeting them for resources or through open conflict."

What does it mean? It means there was some sort of war that would have happened between the two. Now, if you say humans would have not died during that war, I won't believe you at all.

Hence, finding bones of human is inevitable and thus it strengthens the fact that there must be some sort of war at that time.

Does that make sense?

YES !

That makes a lot of sense. Thank you so much. Stupid me
Re: Neanderthals vanished around roughly the same time that modern humans   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2017, 11:24
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