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OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women

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OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women “stood on a footing of perfect equality” with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women’s inequality. In striking contrast to Burckhardt, Joan Kelly in her famous 1977 essay, “Did Women Have a Renaissance?” argued that the Renaissance was a period of economic and social decline for women relative both to Renaissance men and to medieval women. Recently, however, a significant trend among feminist scholars has entailed a rejection of both Kelly’s dark vision of the Renaissance and Burckhardt’s rosy one. Many recent works by these scholars stress the ways in which differences among Renaissance women—especially in terms of social status and religion—work to complicate the kinds of generalizations both Burckhardt and Kelly made on the basis of their observations about upper-class Italian women.

The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. Such women were, simply by virtue of their literacy, members of a tiny minority of the population, so it is risky to take their descriptions of their experiences as typical of “female experience” in any general sense. Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and“women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis. Nonetheless, Krontiris makes a significant contribution to the field and is representative of those authors who offer what might be called a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements, although she also stresses the social obstacles Renaissance women faced when they sought to raise their “oppositional voices.” Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies, but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them.
130.The author of the passage discusses Krontiris primarily to provide an example of a writer who
A.is highly critical of the writings of certain Renaissance women
B.supports Kelly’s view of women’s status during the Renaissance
C.has misinterpreted the works of certain Renaissance women
D.has rejected the views of both Burckhardt and Kelly
E.has studied Renaissance women in a wide variety of social and religious contexts

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


131.According to the passage, Krontiris’s work differs from that of the scholars mentioned in highlight text in which of the following ways?
A.Krontiris’s work stresses the achievements of Renaissance women rather than the obstacles to their success.
B.Krontiris’s work is based on a reinterpretation of the work of earlier scholars.
C.Krontiris’s views are at odds with those of both Kelly and Burkhardt.
D.Krontiris’s work focuses on the place of women in Renaissance society.
E.Krontiris’s views are based exclusively on the study of a privileged group of women.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


132.According to the passage, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt’s view of Renaissance women primarily for which of the following reasons?
A.Burckhardt’s view forms the basis for most arguments refuting Kelly's point of view.
B.Burckhardt’s view has been discredited by Kelly.
C.Burckhardt’s view is one that many feminist scholars wish to refute.
D.Burckhardt’s work provides rich historical evidence of inequality between Renaissance women and men.
E.Burckhardt’s work includes historical research supporting the arguments of the feminist scholars.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


133.It can be inferred that both Burckhardt and Kelly have been criticized by the scholars mentioned in highlight text for which of the following?
A.Assuming that women writers of the Renaissance are representative of Renaissance women in general
B.Drawing conclusions that are based on the study of an atypical group of women
C.Failing to describe clearly the relationship between social status and literacy among Renaissance women
D.Failing to acknowledge the role played by Renaissance women in opposing cultural stereotypes
E.Failing to acknowledge the ways in which social status affected the creative activities of Renaissance women

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


134.The author of the passage suggests that Krontiris incorrectly assumes that
A.social differences among Renaissance women are less important than the fact that they were women
B.literacy among Renaissance women was more prevalent than most scholars today acknowledge
C.during the Renaissance, women were able to successfully oppose cultural stereotypes relating to gender
D.Renaissance women did not face many difficult social obstacles relating to their gender
E.in order to attain power, Renaissance women attacked basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


135.The last sentence in the passage serves primarily to
A.suggest that Krontiris’s work is not representative of recent trends among feminist scholars
B.undermine the argument that literate women of the Renaissance sought to oppose social constraints imposed on them
C.show a way in which Krontiris’s work illustrates a “cautiously optimistic"assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements
D.summarize Krontiris’s view of the effect of literacy on the lives of upper- and middle-class Renaissance women
E.illustrate the way in which Krontiris’s study differs from the studies done by Burckhardt and Kelly

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


136.The author of the passage implies that the women studied by Krontiris are unusual in which of the following ways?
A.They faced obstacles less formidable than those faced by other Renaissance women.
B.They have been seen by historians as more interesting than other Renaissance women.
C.They were more concerned about recording history accurately than were other Renaissance women.
D.Their perceptions are more likely to be accessible to historians than are those of most other Renaissance women.
E.Their concerns are likely to be of greater interest to feminist scholars than are the ideas of most other Renaissance women.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #7 OA

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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130. The author of the passage discusses Krontiris primarily to provide an example of a writer who

The first paragraph introduces a trend: "Recently, however, a significant trend among feminist scholars has entailed a rejection of both Kelly’s dark vision of the Renaissance and Burckhardt’s rosy one". The second paragraph takes it forward and provides an example of Tina Krontiris.

A.is highly critical of the writings of certain Renaissance women - Krontiris is not highly critical of Renaissance women
B.supports Kelly’s view of women’s status during the Renaissance - Incorrect - TK rejects Kelly's view
C.has misinterpreted the works of certain Renaissance women - Incorrect - TK has not misinterpreted the works. His work focused only on a certain class of women who were literate.
D.has rejected the views of both Burckhardt and Kelly - Correct
E.has studied Renaissance women in a wide variety of social and religious contexts - Incorrect - The passage does not state this.


131. According to the passage, Krontiris’s work differs from that of the scholars mentioned in highlight text in which of the following ways?

Refer to these lines: "Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and“women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis."

A.Krontiris’s work stresses the achievements of Renaissance women rather than the obstacles to their success. - Incorrect - TK discusses both achievements and obstacles faced by Renaissance women.
B.Krontiris’s work is based on a reinterpretation of the work of earlier scholars. - Incorrect - Out of context.
C.Krontiris’s views are at odds with those of both Kelly and Burkhardt. - Incorrect - Feminist scholars including TK were at odds to the views of Kelly and Burkhardt.
D.Krontiris’s work focuses on the place of women in Renaissance society. - Incorrect - Out of context
E.Krontiris’s views are based exclusively on the study of a privileged group of women. - Correct - TK's work is based only on literate women.

Answer: E


132. According to the passage, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt’s view of Renaissance women primarily for which of the following reasons?

Refer to these lines: "Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women “stood on a footing of perfect equality” with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women’s inequality."

Answer: Clear C.


133. It can be inferred that both Burckhardt and Kelly have been criticized by the scholars mentioned in highlight text for which of the following?

A.Assuming that women writers of the Renaissance are representative of Renaissance women in general - Incorrect - Feminist scholars do not assume this.
B.Drawing conclusions that are based on the study of an atypical group of women - Correct
C.Failing to describe clearly the relationship between social status and literacy among Renaissance women - Incorrect - Passage states that feminist scholars have made analysis of the relationship between social status and literacy.
D.Failing to acknowledge the role played by Renaissance women in opposing cultural stereotypes - Incorrect
E.Failing to acknowledge the ways in which social status affected the creative activities of Renaissance women - Incorrect - Out of context


134. The author of the passage suggests that Krontiris incorrectly assumes that

Refer to these lines: " Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and“women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis. "

Answer: A


136. The author of the passage implies that the women studied by Krontiris are unusual in which of the following ways?

Refer to these lines: "The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record"

Answer: D

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OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2016, 09:57
Can you please help with question no. 135 as well?

Vyshak wrote:
130. The author of the passage discusses Krontiris primarily to provide an example of a writer who

The first paragraph introduces a trend: "Recently, however, a significant trend among feminist scholars has entailed a rejection of both Kelly’s dark vision of the Renaissance and Burckhardt’s rosy one". The second paragraph takes it forward and provides an example of Tina Krontiris.

A.is highly critical of the writings of certain Renaissance women - Krontiris is not highly critical of Renaissance women
B.supports Kelly’s view of women’s status during the Renaissance - Incorrect - TK rejects Kelly's view
C.has misinterpreted the works of certain Renaissance women - Incorrect - TK has not misinterpreted the works. His work focused only on a certain class of women who were literate.
D.has rejected the views of both Burckhardt and Kelly - Correct
E.has studied Renaissance women in a wide variety of social and religious contexts - Incorrect - The passage does not state this.


131. According to the passage, Krontiris’s work differs from that of the scholars mentioned in highlight text in which of the following ways?

Refer to these lines: "Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and“women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis."

A.Krontiris’s work stresses the achievements of Renaissance women rather than the obstacles to their success. - Incorrect - TK discusses both achievements and obstacles faced by Renaissance women.
B.Krontiris’s work is based on a reinterpretation of the work of earlier scholars. - Incorrect - Out of context.
C.Krontiris’s views are at odds with those of both Kelly and Burkhardt. - Incorrect - Feminist scholars including TK were at odds to the views of Kelly and Burkhardt.
D.Krontiris’s work focuses on the place of women in Renaissance society. - Incorrect - Out of context
E.Krontiris’s views are based exclusively on the study of a privileged group of women. - Correct - TK's work is based only on literate women.

Answer: E


132. According to the passage, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt’s view of Renaissance women primarily for which of the following reasons?

Refer to these lines: "Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women “stood on a footing of perfect equality” with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women’s inequality."

Answer: Clear C.


133. It can be inferred that both Burckhardt and Kelly have been criticized by the scholars mentioned in highlight text for which of the following?

A.Assuming that women writers of the Renaissance are representative of Renaissance women in general - Incorrect - Feminist scholars do not assume this.
B.Drawing conclusions that are based on the study of an atypical group of women - Correct
C.Failing to describe clearly the relationship between social status and literacy among Renaissance women - Incorrect - Passage states that feminist scholars have made analysis of the relationship between social status and literacy.
D.Failing to acknowledge the role played by Renaissance women in opposing cultural stereotypes - Incorrect
E.Failing to acknowledge the ways in which social status affected the creative activities of Renaissance women - Incorrect - Out of context


134. The author of the passage suggests that Krontiris incorrectly assumes that

Refer to these lines: " Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and“women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis. "

Answer: A


136. The author of the passage implies that the women studied by Krontiris are unusual in which of the following ways?

Refer to these lines: "The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record"

Answer: D

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2016, 10:25
135.The last sentence in the passage serves primarily to
A, D and E can easily be eliminated as they are not relevant to the last sentence.

Between B and C:
B.undermine the argument that literate women of the Renaissance sought to oppose social constraints imposed on them - Incorrect - Krontiris does not undermine the argument. She takes a cautiously optimistic stand.

C.show a way in which Krontiris’s work illustrates a “cautiously optimistic"assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements - Correct

The sentence before the last sentence states that Krontiris adopts a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women's achievements.

Now lets refer to the last sentence: "Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies", - This represents an optimistic assessment of Renaissance women.

"but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them". - Here Krontiris expresses a negative aspect, countering her previous view.

Answer: C

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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abhimahna wrote:
Can you please help with question no. 135 as well?



Hi abhimahna

For Q 135.
Just preceding the last sentence in the passage is this: "Nonetheless, Krontiris makes a significant contribution to the field and is representative of those authors who offer what might be called a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements, although she also stresses the social obstacles Renaissance women faced when they sought to raise their “oppositional voices.”"

As per the last sentence, "Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies, but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them."

The part in this colour shows that she was optimistic of Renaissance women’s achievements and the part in this colour shows that she was cautious in her assessment.

Hence, the correct answer is C. The last sentence in the passage serves primarily to show a way in which Krontiris’s work illustrates a “cautiously optimistic" assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements

Hope this helps!!

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2016, 10:34
Thanks Nalin !! Yes It helps :)
nalinnair wrote:
abhimahna wrote:
Can you please help with question no. 135 as well?



Hi abhimahna

For Q 135.
Just preceding the last sentence in the passage is this: "Nonetheless, Krontiris makes a significant contribution to the field and is representative of those authors who offer what might be called a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements, although she also stresses the social obstacles Renaissance women faced when they sought to raise their “oppositional voices.”"

As per the last sentence, "Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies, but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them."

The part in this colour shows that she was optimistic of Renaissance women’s achievements and the part in this colour shows that she was cautious in her assessment.

Hence, the correct answer is C. The last sentence in the passage serves primarily to show a way in which Krontiris’s work illustrates a “cautiously optimistic" assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements

Hope this helps!!

Nalin

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2016, 10:35
Thanks Vyshak .. Now I can understand this question clearly :)
Vyshak wrote:
135.The last sentence in the passage serves primarily to
A, D and E can easily be eliminated as they are not relevant to the last sentence.

Between B and C:
B.undermine the argument that literate women of the Renaissance sought to oppose social constraints imposed on them - Incorrect - Krontiris does not undermine the argument. She takes a cautiously optimistic stand.

C.show a way in which Krontiris’s work illustrates a “cautiously optimistic"assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements - Correct

The sentence before the last sentence states that Krontiris adopts a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women's achievements.

Now lets refer to the last sentence: "Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies", - This represents an optimistic assessment of Renaissance women.

"but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them". - Here Krontiris expresses a negative aspect, countering her previous view.

Answer: C

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New post 20 May 2016, 02:55
the passage is long and containing many long sentence but it is not too hard to get structure of the passage. question required high inference. a hard passage on gmat.

i hope prep company make many passage like this.

the content of the passage is not highly abstract.
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Can somebody suggest how to make a passage map of such a tough passage in timely manner, I made a passage map, but it took me 15 minutes!
Any help is appreciated

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130.The author of the passage discusses Krontiris primarily to provide an example of a writer who
A.is highly critical of the writings of certain Renaissance women
B.supports Kelly’s view of women’s status during the Renaissance
C.has misinterpreted the works of certain Renaissance women
D.has rejected the views of both Burckhardt and Kelly
E.has studied Renaissance women in a wide variety of social and religious contexts


I dont agree with any of the options.

The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. Such women were, simply by virtue of their literacy, members of a tiny minority of the population, so it is risky to take their descriptions of their experiences as typical of “female experience” in any general sense. Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and“women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis.

Author wants to cite an example where class of women and other factors were not considered while studying renaissance women. ANd as if only Gender of class was enough to arrive at the conclusion about renaissance women.

After revising essay : I understood there were two version 1> Dark side , over negetive 2> rosy one, overy optimistic
and the third one that was represented by Krontiris - Cautiously optimistic.

ANd thats why correct answer is D. Am I right in my reasoning

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2017, 00:52
One question for all here. Its uncommon to find this in OG passages that use ambiguous words. Usually, they are impeccable. Sometimes the meaning hinges on a particular word. I feel there is some ambiguity in the word 'concerned' in line 43. Concern can also mean worried. So, if you take that meaning in consideration, the line would mean that TK was worried in showing women intentionally negotiating power for themselves. This gives a negative connotation to the whole thing. This is the reason I could not grasp the 'cautiously optimistic view' of TK and thought that she was more negative in her assessment. Got 2 questions wrong! Am I the only one facing this issue??

Vyshak and others. Thoughts?

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New post 28 Mar 2017, 19:41
"Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women “stood on a footing of perfect equality” with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women’s inequality."


This sentence indicates that JB's views were optimistic regarding the status of women in Renaissance period. Then how come many feminist scholars used the view of JB to support their claim regarding the inequality faced by women in Renaissance.

The sentence which comes later also says the JB presented a rosy picture about status of women in Renaissance period. I could not understand the above line and hence got question 2 wrong.

Can anyone explain?

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It would be nice to get a little more variety on the GMAT questions. I often do find the non-feminists topics to be interesting. But how many topics do I need to read about women arguing how little or how much influence women had at particular time X. Literally 1/5 questions are these boring feminists topics. Women are also a low proportion of business school. It's as if the left is trying to indoctrinate people with their garbage and they don't care who suffers. Then they will distort this comment as proof that men are terrible and we need more feminist questions. But the actual issue is nothing happens in the feminist passages. I would love a passage about an actual interesting woman who does something. I don't want a passage of 10 women arguing if a woman did or did not do something. This is why people in gender studies are often unemployed or apparently write a lot of GMAT and LSAT questions.

I would argue the GMAT should write interesting passages which people want to read. Or the more difficult science passages which test the ability to superficially understand complex passages. The feminist passages do neither. They simply make us read a simple & pedantic passage. I am fine reading pedantic passages. The question though is why do women get such a high representation of these passages? I've yet to read one passage about black slavery etc. The variety as a test taker would make it better. I at least enjoy reading something new. Succinctly put, pedantic passages are even more boring when it's always the same topic.

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 04:02
very difficult passage, though I get all correct, i spent very long time.

"the trend is also evident..." show that there is 4th idea which is different from that of feminist scholar in that which dont focus on differences among women.

knowing above thing is key to answering all questions.

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2017, 00:43
I just cannot follow this passage ...any help on how to do this ?

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Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2017, 10:08
The last sentence in the passage serves primarily to
A.suggest that Krontiris’s work is not representative of recent trends among feminist scholars
B.undermine the argument that literate women of the Renaissance sought to oppose social constraints imposed on them
C.show a way in which Krontiris’s work illustrates a “cautiously optimistic"assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements
D.summarize Krontiris’s view of the effect of literacy on the lives of upper- and middle-class Renaissance women
E.illustrate the way in which Krontiris’s study differs from the studies done by Burckhardt and Kelly

Hi Experts ,
Please why B is incorrect .
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Kudos [?]: 53 [0], given: 499

Re: OG 2016: Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women   [#permalink] 18 Sep 2017, 10:08
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