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Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive

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Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2018, 00:09
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Question Stats:

37% (01:31) correct 63% (01:53) wrong based on 143 sessions

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Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive a combination of chemotherapy and radiation treatment do only as well, on average, as those patients who receive radiation treatment alone. Yet the oncologists state that chemotherapy is a necessary part of the treatment of all patients who receive them for tumors.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the oncologists’ two claims?

A. Oncologists treat all cancer patients who have tumors with either radiation treatment alone or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.

B. Oncologists who prescribe these treatments make accurate determinations about which patients need both radiation and chemotherapy and which need radiation alone.

C. Some tumors have been completely healed by a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.

D. Some tumors that have been exacerbated by improper attempts at chemotherapy have been successfully treated with radiation.

E. Patients with tumors in other areas of the body show more improvement when treated with both radiation and chemotherapy than when treated with radiation alone.
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Re: Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2018, 05:28
1
Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive a combination of chemotherapy and radiation treatment do only as well, on average, as those patients who receive radiation treatment alone. Yet the oncologists state that chemotherapy is a necessary part of the treatment of all patients who receive them for tumors.

oncos believe combination of C and R is as good as only R on an average. Yet combination is important for people who receive them

Can you see the shift ???
we are finally talking of only those who actually receive combination. Let us see if it effects the reasoning

Which of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the oncologists’ two claims?

A. Oncologists treat all cancer patients who have tumors with either radiation treatment alone or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.
doesn't reconcile the two claims

B. Oncologists who prescribe these treatments make accurate determinations about which patients need both radiation and chemotherapy and which need radiation alone.
A very subtle hint... What was the shift ?? It was that people who receive the combination should take it.
The choice tells us that the people who are receiving combination have been accurately determined that is they require both ( reason may be anything).
Correct


C. Some tumors have been completely healed by a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.
this is covered in the average as there may be some which have been completely healed just by R

D. Some tumors that have been exacerbated by improper attempts at chemotherapy have been successfully treated with radiation.
Doesn't do much. Rather gives advantage of R

E. Patients with tumors in other areas of the body show more improvement when treated with both radiation and chemotherapy than when treated with radiation alone.
We are talking of a specific type and at a specific place. Out of scope

B
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Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 31 Jul 2018, 19:14
Official Explanation


The best answer is B.This is a paradox question. The paradox, or apparent contradiction, arises from the fact that the physicians in charge of treatment say that all patients who receive both treatments need both treatments. And yet, the patients who receive both treatments usually don’t do any better than the patients who receive only one treatment. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the statement in answer choice B that the physicians are correctly identifying which patients need both treatments and not giving both to patients who only need radiation. In other words, patients are not randomly assigned to the two groups but rather carefully selected by experts. Each of the other statements is irrelevant to the resolution of the paradox.

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Originally posted by AshutoshB on 30 Jul 2018, 22:40.
Last edited by AshutoshB on 31 Jul 2018, 19:14, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 10:40
chetan2u wrote:
Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive a combination of chemotherapy and radiation treatment do only as well, on average, as those patients who receive radiation treatment alone. Yet the oncologists state that chemotherapy is a necessary part of the treatment of all patients who receive them for tumors.

oncos believe combination of C and R is as good as only R on an average. Yet combination is important for people who receive them

Can you see the shift ???
we are finally talking of only those who actually receive combination. Let us see if it effects the reasoning

Which of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the oncologists’ two claims?

A. Oncologists treat all cancer patients who have tumors with either radiation treatment alone or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.
doesn't reconcile the two claims

B. Oncologists who prescribe these treatments make accurate determinations about which patients need both radiation and chemotherapy and which need radiation alone.
A very subtle hint... What was the shift ?? It was that people who receive the combination should take it.
The choice tells us that the people who are receiving combination have been accurately determined that is they require both ( reason may be anything).
Correct


C. Some tumors have been completely healed by a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.
this is covered in the average as there may be some which have been completely healed just by R

D. Some tumors that have been exacerbated by improper attempts at chemotherapy have been successfully treated with radiation.
Doesn't do much. Rather gives advantage of R

E. Patients with tumors in other areas of the body show more improvement when treated with both radiation and chemotherapy than when treated with radiation alone.
We are talking of a specific type and at a specific place. Out of scope

B


Countering your point. In the question stem, we are not talking about specific type of tumors. If you see the last line, there is no mention of tumors of the brain. The only thing mentioned is tumors. This is a case where the stem leads with a specific point and ends up concluding a generic point. That makes option E correct. However, option B is similarly incorrect since here the recommendation from oncologist is talked of in general terms (again referencing the last line of the stem), we are not talking of specific diagnoses for specific cases. We are talking broad terms. I think this question needs to be re evaluated.
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Re: Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2018, 01:31
I think this question is poorly worded as the last line isn't really specific of the tumor that is being referred to... Making option E a valid choice too.

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Re: Oncologists report that cancer patients with brain tumors who receive &nbs [#permalink] 01 Aug 2018, 01:31
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