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# One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region

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One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2015, 09:05
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78% (01:37) correct 22% (01:58) wrong based on 2121 sessions

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One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region with a large mosquito population. Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, ﬂooded ﬁelds would normally attract mosquitoes, yet no mosquitoes were found in the ﬁelds. Diallyl sulﬁde, a major component of garlic, is known to repel several species of insects, including mosquitoes, so it is likely that diallyl sulﬁde from the garlic repelled the mosquitoes.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.

Mosquito Repellent

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrasing strengthens the argument indicates that this is a Strengthen the Argument question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

normally: floods attract mosquitoes

BUT: no mosquitoes in flooded garlic fields

© DS (in garlic) repelled mosquitoes

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

The goal is to eliminate any answer choice that does not strengthen the conclusion. The right answer will make it more likely that the diallyl sulfide repelled the mosquitoes. The answer might do this by showing that the mosquitoes weren’t actually repelled by some other, unknown factor.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) If the argument stated that mosquitoes also avoided flooded onion fields, this answer would strengthen the argument, since it would suggest that the mosquitoes’ behavior was due to something that onions and garlic have in common. However, the argument doesn’t provide any information about onions related to mosquitoes, so a comparison between onions and garlic doesn’t affect the conclusion.

(B) This answer choice provides another reason for the absence of mosquitoes: there were significantly fewer of them in the area. If this other factor was actually to blame, it’s less reasonable to claim that the diallyl sulfide repelled the mosquitoes. So, this answer choice weakens, not strengthens, the conclusion.

(C) According to this answer choice, most of the garlic plants had died by the end of the summer. This does not have a strong effect on the conclusion, since it isn’t clear how long the garlic plants survived, or what happens to the diallyl sulfide in the plants when they die. In addition, this tends to weaken the argument more than it strengthens it. If the garlic plants weren’t even in the field for a portion of the summer, it’s less likely that their presence was what repelled the mosquitoes.

(D) CORRECT. The argument states that mosquitoes, which are repelled by diallyl sulfide, were not found in the fields. The answer choice adds the information that other insects, which are not repelled by the substance, were found in the fields. So, there is a direct relationship between being repelled by diallyl sulfide, and being repelled from the fields described in the argument. This provides evidence that diallyl sulfide was responsible for the effect as opposed to some other factor that might repel all types of insects.

(E) This answer choice attempts to strengthen the claim that mosquitoes are repelled by garlic. However, the argument states as fact that garlic repels mosquitoes. Since this is already known to be true, adding additional evidence for it does not strengthen the argument. The conclusion of the argument is that the daillyl sulfide in the garlic is what repels the mosquitoes; this answer does not clarify what role diallyl sulfide plays.
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2015, 07:27
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[quote="vikasbansal227"]One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region with a large mosquito population. Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, ﬂooded ﬁelds would normally attract mosquitoes, yet no mosquitoes were found in the ﬁelds. Diallyl sulﬁde, a major component of garlic, is known to repel several species of insects, including mosquitoes, so it is likely that diallyl sulﬁde from the garlic repelled the mosquitoes.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

The Gmat loves to test logic similar to thats given here in this argument.
Premise - No mosquites found in garlic fields flooded with water.
Conclusion - DS ( Dialllyl Sulphide) found in garlic repelled the mosquitoes.

This argument is of type X ->Y where X is DS and Y is mosquitoes repelled.
We can strengthen the argument in two ways :
Either we limit out other choices which can result in Y or we can provide additional evidence that X results in Y.

Here Choice D is such an answer choice where we are limiting other factors which can result in mosquito repeals.

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.
Limiting out other potential factors which could repeal mosquitoes. If other insect species , which are not repelled by DS then it is possible that DS is responsible for mosquito repeals.
Lets take an opposite of this answer choice - If many other insect species were also not found in the fields this particular year - this would mean that some other factor such as maybe extreme environment or poor water quality could result in insect species getting repelled (including mosquitoes).

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2015, 10:26
3
Ahh this is the first question i lay my hands from the new og. Also thanks for posting such questions.
D. Sulphide present ----> no mosquito
Therefore no cause ---> no effect.
Option d says
No problem from sulphide therefore other insects are present
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2015, 10:50
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Hello,

I think analysis of this question is as follows:

Premise 1: Garlic fields in region with high mosquito population

Premise 2: Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, ﬂooded ﬁelds would normally attract mosquitoes

Counter premise: Yet no mosquitoes were found in the ﬁelds.

Conclusion: Reason for low population of mosquito's is Diallyl sulﬁde, a major component of garlic, which is known to repel several species of insects, including mosquitoes.

So whats going on here? A field located in area of high mosquito population and additional risk of even higher mosquito population (due to standing water, flood etc) than the surrounding high population mosquito area.

Question stem: Which of following strengthen the argument???

I don't think no cause - no effect is appropriate justification for correct choice.

Argument can be strengthen in one of following ways:

1. Stating a unstated assumption

2. Support or elaborate existing premise

3. New support premise

etc.......

Analysis of answer choices:

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.

Out of Scope

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.

Population of mosquito in a particular year has nothing to do with conclusion. Even if population is higher, same or smaller (at most we are only concerned about relationship of population from surrounding area), it does not have any impact

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.

So that means, it this is the case then probably something else is responsible for low mosquito population. Possibly a weakner at most, but mainly it have no impact on argument.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.

CORRECT. Well this is new supporting premise.

Many other species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde are available in the fields. So, we have a reason to believe that since diallyl sulﬁde repeal mosquito not some other insect species hence mosquito population is low.

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.

Out of scope again. Similar to A

Regards
Vikas

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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2015, 00:39
is it just me finding the language/subject matter of the CR arguments/options significantly different from that of the previous og versions??
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2015, 12:48
Unfortunately, I am also feeling the same

arnabs wrote:
is it just me finding the language/subject matter of the CR arguments/options significantly different from that of the previous og versions??

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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2015, 16:33
1
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WillGetIt wrote:
One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region with a large mosquito population. Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, ﬂooded ﬁelds would normally attract mosquitoes, yet no mosquitoes were found in the ﬁelds. Diallyl sulﬁde, a major component of garlic, is known to repel several species of insects, including mosquitoes, so it is likely that diallyl sulﬁde from the garlic repelled the mosquitoes.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.

Regards
Vikas

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To be honest it's a really poorly constructed question for an official one. So we are looking fot something that says that garlic field repelled the mosquitoes...

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic. --> clearly out of scope
(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years. --> Great, if true it only weakens the argument that garlic fields repelled mosquitoes

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi -->one more weakener, if garlic plants have beend killed, so if garlic fields have been killed, then it's 100% that somethin other then garlic field repelled insects...
(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer --> derived on the answer choices by POE, as this answer choice doesn't convince me, BUT others are just worse....
(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds --> we are interested in the effect of garlic fields on insects... actually one more weakener
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2016, 02:23
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D as it is specifying that insects which are not repelled by sulfide were found in the flooded fields which means sulfide worked on mosquitoes.
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2016, 07:41
Thank you for pointing out the problem with B>

WillGetIt wrote:
Hello,

I think analysis of this question is as follows:

Premise 1: Garlic fields in region with high mosquito population

Premise 2: Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, ﬂooded ﬁelds would normally attract mosquitoes

Counter premise: Yet no mosquitoes were found in the ﬁelds.

Conclusion: Reason for low population of mosquito's is Diallyl sulﬁde, a major component of garlic, which is known to repel several species of insects, including mosquitoes.

So whats going on here? A field located in area of high mosquito population and additional risk of even higher mosquito population (due to standing water, flood etc) than the surrounding high population mosquito area.

Question stem: Which of following strengthen the argument???

I don't think no cause - no effect is appropriate justification for correct choice.

Argument can be strengthen in one of following ways:

1. Stating a unstated assumption

2. Support or elaborate existing premise

3. New support premise

etc.......

Analysis of answer choices:

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.

Out of Scope

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.

Population of mosquito in a particular year has nothing to do with conclusion. Even if population is higher, same or smaller (at most we are only concerned about relationship of population from surrounding area), it does not have any impact

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.

So that means, it this is the case then probably something else is responsible for low mosquito population. Possibly a weakner at most, but mainly it have no impact on argument.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.

CORRECT. Well this is new supporting premise.

Many other species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde are available in the fields. So, we have a reason to believe that since diallyl sulﬁde repeal mosquito not some other insect species hence mosquito population is low.

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.

Out of scope again. Similar to A

Regards
Vikas

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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2017, 13:43
WillGetIt wrote:

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.

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The right option prevents the argument from falling if someone comes and say:

"Well, what if other insect species were also not found on the field"

So, the effect of D.S. on the repelling of mosquitoes becomes "truer"
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2017, 05:25
(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.

It can be explained as follows :

Here it says 'Many' ( or Most ) , so % of insect species >=50%
So there are around < 50% of the insect species those are repelled by DS.

So it supports "diallyl sulﬁde from the garlic repelled the mosquitoes".

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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2017, 09:53
The answer is D
The argument talks about flood and then the risk of mosquitoes breeding in the standing water yet there no mosquitoes were found .The reason cited for this the presence of Diallyl sulﬁde .The substance kills mosques toes .
Out of the very other option only option D strengthens the argument that Diallyl sulﬁde is responsible for killing of mosquitoes because there were insects throughout the summer that were not harmed by the substance.
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 11:26
For better understanding, please note that an argument can also be made stronger by presenting a possible counter premise &
refuting it

Argument says : High Population of Mosquitoes -> Flood -> No Mosquito || Hence, Garlic is responsible for No Mosquito

Here, the author assumes that only some xyz from garlic is responsible for repelling mosquitoes and, there are no other factors such as the flood itself:

what if there were some other factors (eg: flood)? [counter premise]

[refuting counter premise] if flood was responsible then all insects, including mosquitoes would have been gone.. but flood was not responsible because only mosquitoes were gone (not all insects) (Option D)

"had there been other factors, no insect would have been found on the flooded fields (both those which are repelled by Diallyl sulﬁde & those which are not)"

Since we have to make our belief in the conclusion stronger, we are refuting the possibility of "other factors" by Option D

hope this helps

Since this is an OG question, we have to make peace with it..
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2017, 07:36
WillGetIt wrote:
One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region with a large mosquito population. Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, ﬂooded ﬁelds would normally attract mosquitoes, yet no mosquitoes were found in the ﬁelds. Diallyl sulﬁde, a major component of garlic, is known to repel several species of insects, including mosquitoes, so it is likely that diallyl sulﬁde from the garlic repelled the mosquitoes.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.

Regards
Vikas

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My analysis :

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.
Irrelevant

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.
Where is diallyl sulfide here? We can't find any relationship with diallyl sulfide. Incorrect.
Moreover, if last year there were no flood, how mosquito could grow when garlic releases the diallyl sulfide?

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.
Weaken. It says that there is another reason rather than sulfide.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.
Correct. It strengthens our argument.

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.
Irrelevant.
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Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2018, 00:34
One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region with a large mosquito population. Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, ﬂooded ﬁelds would normally attract mosquitoes, yet no mosquitoes were found in the ﬁelds. Diallyl sulﬁde, a major component of garlic, is known to repel several species of insects, including mosquitoes, so it is likely that diallyl sulﬁde from the garlic repelled the mosquitoes.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

This is a strengthen the argument question.

Like weaken, strengthen questions also require us to isolate the conclusion. As we will be looking for the answer that makes our belief stronger on the premise-conclusion relationship such as analogies, survey, reports, statistical data etc.

Protect the missing information
a) by keeping any option that fills the gap
b) by eliminating the answer that attacks the missing information

Causality and Strengthen Questions: The steps taken to prove a cause-effect relationship is strong requires the OPPOSITE steps as weakening:
o Prove that when the cause occurs, effect always takes place
o Prove that when effect occurs, it occurs because of the cause.
o Eliminate any other reasons that cause the effect.
o Prove that the relationship between C -> E cannot be reversed.
o Prove that statistical improbability won't occur.

Conclusion: Diallyl sulﬁde from the garlic repelled the mosquitoes

(A) Diallyl sulﬁde is also found in onions but at concentrations lower than in garlic.
That's a great news but it doesn't help. Eliminate.

(B) The mosquito population of the region as a whole was signiﬁcantly smaller during the year in which the ﬂooding took place than it had been in previous years.
This option is giving us an alternate reason why the mosquito's population was low in that area. It has nothing to do with D sulfide.

(C) By the end of the summer, most of the garlic plants in the ﬂooded ﬁelds had been killed by waterborne fungi.
This option doesn't have any effect on the conclusion. Eliminate.

(D) Many insect species not repelled by diallyl sulﬁde were found in the ﬂooded garlic ﬁelds throughout the summer.
This is our answer. It makes us believe that when D sulfide was found in flooded garlic field there were no insects including mosquitoes

(E) Mosquitoes are known to be susceptible to toxins in plants other than garlic, such as marigolds.
Alternate reason. Eliminate.
Re: One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region   [#permalink] 14 Apr 2018, 00:34
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# One summer, floods covered low-lying garlic ﬁelds situated in a region

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