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QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 28: Critical Reasoning


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Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Though some argue that this effect on the seasons is advantageous because it increases the length of the summer growing season, leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund?

(A) When spring arrives earlier than usual, most species of hibernating mammals are forced to emerge from hibernation earlier than usual and to find alternative food sources to supplement their regular diets.
(B) As the planet's temperature rises, the average global sea surface temperature also rises, endangering several marine organisms that reside near the sea surface and that can only survive within very narrow temperature windows.
(C) Many species of salmon rely on seasonal changes in temperature to signal the start of their annual migrations and will leave their freshwater birthplaces early if spring arrives early; as a result, the populations of several types of freshwater insects consumed by those species of salmon will grow exponentially, infesting thousands of acres of crops on which humans rely.
(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature.
(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species.

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QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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And we have some healthy debate going on here! Always a good thing.

The conclusion, which is contained within the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund, is that many animal species will soon face extinction. So let's start by figuring out: why do the leaders of the WWF fear that this will happen?

We are told that, based on scientific studies, global warming increases the temperature of the planet AND leads to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Is that change to the seasons necessarily a bad thing (or something WWF leaders should fear)? Some even argue that this change can be beneficial because "it increases the length of the summer growing season", so why are the WWF leaders fearful?

WWF leaders fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and that, as a result, those animal species will soon face extinction. This view would be supported by any evidence showing how altered season lengths could lead to an animal's extinction.

Let's see if any of the answer choices provide such support:

(A) This evidence demonstrates how altered season lengths can affect an animal, but it does not show that the change would affect the animal's ability to survive. Sure, the animals would be "forced" to find alternative food supplies, but there's no indication that they would fail to find those food sources. You'd have to make a huge assumption in order to conclude that this would contribute to extinctions. (A) can be eliminated.

(B) This example shows how the increase in the temperature of the planet can endanger certain species, but leaders of the WWF are concerned about the altered season lengths, not about the increase in the temperature of the planet. This evidence suggests that global warming can be dangerous for certain species, but it does not support the reasoning of the WWF leaders. (B) can be eliminated.

(C) Here is an example of how the altered season lengths could have a negative impact on one species of animal: humans. However, it does not suggest that humans will be unable to adapt to the changes or unable to survive as a species because of the changes, so choice (C) can be eliminated.

(D) As with choice (A), we have an example of how altered season lengths can affect an animal (the metamorphosis of caterpillars into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature). But choice (D) also tells us how the effect on one animal will indirectly affect another animal: "the young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars". If caterpillars are the ONLY source of food for the young of many bird and rodent species and if caterpillars morph into butterflies earlier because of the early arrival of spring, then it's possible that all or most of the caterpillars will turn into butterflies before the young are hatched. This effect could severely diminish the survival rate of those young who have lost their only source of food.

We certainly don't know for sure if the affected bird and rodents will be unable to adapt and survive, but choice (D) provides a solid example of how altered season lengths could lead to the extinction of certain species. Therefore, choice (D) definitely supports the view held by the WWF leaders.

(E) This example shows a possible negative impact of the altered season lengths. However, choice (E) illustrates a GRADUAL change, suggesting that it will NOT cause any animals to face extinction anytime soon. Furthermore, this example does not show how animals will be unable to adapt to the altered season lengths and thus unable to survive. Rather, this scenario demonstrates how the altered season lengths will impact the temperature of the planet, which in turn will endanger many animal species. Although this evidence might contribute to the fears of the WWF leaders (because of the indirect effect on many animal species), it does not show us how an inability to adapt to the altered season lengths could lead to extinction. Choice (E) can be eliminated.

Choice (D) provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund and thus is the best answer.
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QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 08:02
souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 28: Critical Reasoning


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Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Though some argue that this effect on the seasons is advantageous because it increases the length of the summer growing season, leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund?

(A) When spring arrives earlier than usual, most species of hibernating mammals are forced to emerge from hibernation earlier than usual and to find alternative food sources to supplement their regular diets.
(B) As the planet's temperature rises, the average global sea surface temperature also rises, endangering several marine organisms that reside near the sea surface and that can only survive within very narrow temperature windows.
(C) Many species of salmon rely on seasonal changes in temperature to signal the start of their annual migrations and will leave their freshwater birthplaces early if spring arrives early; as a result, the populations of several types of freshwater insects consumed by those species of salmon will grow exponentially, infesting thousands of acres of crops on which humans rely.
(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature.
(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species.

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Correct me if I am wrong here -

WWF's conclusion is that animal species will not be able to adapt and will face extinction if summer growing season is extended
The option that provides impact of extended growing season on animal species in "general, and not about any specific animal will be Correct

(A) When spring arrives earlier than usual, most species of hibernating mammals are forced to emerge from hibernation earlier than usual and to find alternative food sources to supplement their regular diets.---this option does not talk about extinction. It only implies that alternate food sources will have to be identified and that means if alternate food sources are identified, then species can survive. hence incorrect
(B) As the planet's temperature rises, the average global sea surface temperature also rises, endangering several marine organisms that reside near the sea surface and that can only survive within very narrow temperature windows. --the option talks only about marine organisms. we don't have information about other animal species. Hence incorrect
(C) Many species of salmon rely on seasonal changes in temperature to signal the start of their annual migrations and will leave their freshwater birthplaces early if spring arrives early; as a result, the populations of several types of freshwater insects consumed by those species of salmon will grow exponentially, infesting thousands of acres of crops on which humans rely.---gives information only about salmon. Hence incorrect
(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature.---talks about birds & rodents. no info about other animal species. Hence incorrect
(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species. ---This option provides evidence about impact of increase in summer growing season on animal species. Hence Correct

Option E

Last edited by niks18 on 07 Jun 2017, 10:45, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 28: Critical Reasoning


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Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Though some argue that this effect on the seasons is advantageous because it increases the length of the summer growing season, leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund?

(A) When spring arrives earlier than usual, most species of hibernating mammals are forced to emerge from hibernation earlier than usual and to find alternative food sources to supplement their regular diets.
(B) As the planet's temperature rises, the average global sea surface temperature also rises, endangering several marine organisms that reside near the sea surface and that can only survive within very narrow temperature windows.
(C) Many species of salmon rely on seasonal changes in temperature to signal the start of their annual migrations and will leave their freshwater birthplaces early if spring arrives early; as a result, the populations of several types of freshwater insects consumed by those species of salmon will grow exponentially, infesting thousands of acres of crops on which humans rely.
(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature.
(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species.

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos


Conclusion: Animal cannot adapt the lengthen season and thus will extint
A. Animal can adapt
B. Not talking season
C. Not talkng about extinction
D. Correct. Lack of food for young birds and rodents
E. "will likely". Not conclusive

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 08:42
Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Though some argue that this effect on the seasons is advantageous because it increases the length of the summer growing season, leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund?

(A) When spring arrives earlier than usual, most species of hibernating mammals are forced to emerge from hibernation earlier than usual and to find alternative food sources to supplement their regular diets. -Finding an alternate may or may not endanger the species. Plus this option is too specific, by taking into account only the mammals.
(B) As the planet's temperature rises, the average global sea surface temperature also rises, endangering several marine organisms that reside near the sea surface and that can only survive within very narrow temperature windows. This option takes into account the temperature's rise. If the option had talked about "the longer summer makes the temperature even more", the option would have made sense w.r.t. argument.
(C) Many species of salmon rely on seasonal changes in temperature to signal the start of their annual migrations and will leave their freshwater birthplaces early if spring arrives early; as a result, the populations of several types of freshwater insects consumed by those species of salmon will grow exponentially, infesting thousands of acres of crops on which humans rely. -This option wrongly says that humans will be endangered.
(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature. -The argument is not talking about the food of young birds.
(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species. -Makes sense. The extended summer will increase temperature that will in turn endanger the species. Note: It doesn't talk about a specific specie unlike A and B.Therefore Correct

Please let me know if i am going in the wrong direction.
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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 10:19
IMO B

Since it implies extinctions.

waiting for OA

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 11:08
The OA should be E. We want to find a statement that talks about animal species not being able to adapt and will go extinct. E helps explains this concern that if the level of Co2 increases, the increase in the global temperature will likely endanger the animal species. Furthermore, E is also providing an impact.

Please correct me if my reasoning is wrong!

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 11:20
The answer should be E. Though i marked B first. The point here is that the argument discusses the altered length of the season to be a problem and not the rise in temperature. B would have been correct if the author had specifically cited rise in temperature as the major problem for extinctions and not the increased altered seasonal lengths.Thanks
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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 11:25
Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season.

Though some argue that this effect on the seasons is advantageous because it increases the length of the summer growing season,
leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund?

(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature.

(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species.

I prefer D over E because the leaders fear that extinction will soon happen ( no uncertainty)

however E shows the likelihood of the endangerment

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 11:43
souvik101990 wrote:
[textarea]

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 28: Critical Reasoning


[/textarea/]

Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Though some argue that this effect on the seasons is advantageous because it increases the length of the summer growing season, leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund?

(A) When spring arrives earlier than usual, most species of hibernating mammals are forced to emerge from hibernation earlier than usual and to find alternative food sources to supplement their regular diets.
(B) As the planet's temperature rises, the average global sea surface temperature also rises, endangering several marine organisms that reside near the sea surface and that can only survive within very narrow temperature windows.
(C) Many species of salmon rely on seasonal changes in temperature to signal the start of their annual migrations and will leave their freshwater birthplaces early if spring arrives early; as a result, the populations of several types of freshwater insects consumed by those species of salmon will grow exponentially, infesting thousands of acres of crops on which humans rely.
(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature.
(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species.



Main point: Increased spring-summer/shorter winter will cause animals go to extinct
A- Speaks to affects on animal food and hibernating patterns, but nothing about extinction - Incorrect
B-Not on topic- Incorrect
C- This speak to an affect of human food and crops, not animal extinction- Incorrect
D-Early spring will cause lack of only food birds and rodents eat which we can infer will cause extinction- correct
E- Tempting answer but the link inst clear enough. Everyone will be endangered by increase carbon, not just animals.

Final Answer: D

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 14:03
Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Though some argue that this effect on the seasons is advantageous because it increases the length of the summer growing season, leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

Keyword: Strengthen
Conclusion: Many animal species will extinct because of change in climate.


(A) When spring arrives earlier than usual, most species of hibernating mammals are forced to emerge from hibernation earlier than usual and to find alternative food sources to supplement their regular diets.
Doesn't support extinction. Since the animals looks for alternative ways of its survival Wrong

(B) As the planet's temperature rises, the average global sea surface temperature also rises, endangering several marine organisms that reside near the sea surface and that can only survive within very narrow temperature windows.
Endangering several Marine organisms Contender

(C) Many species of salmon rely on seasonal changes in temperature to signal the start of their annual migrations and will leave their freshwater birthplaces early if spring arrives early; as a result, the populations of several types of freshwater insects consumed by those species of salmon will grow exponentially, infesting thousands of acres of crops on which humans rely.
The option deals with some impacts but not extinction Wrong

(D) The young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars, whose metamorphosis into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature.
The option deals with some impacts but not extinction Wrong

(E) As the length of the summer growing season increases, the amount of carbon emissions produced by humans gradually increases, exacerbating the increase in global temperatures that will likely endanger hundreds of animal species.
In this option, the phrase " will likely endanger" is used. The option deals with extinction. Contender

Between (B) and (E),
B is the better bet
In the option E the author uses the word will likely, indicates there is some chance for the survival.
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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 17:31
IMO, the answer is B.

B gives an example to illustrate the " many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths ", then it strengthens the WWF's fear.

E is tempting but it addresses something else. Hence it can not be the answer.

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QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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D can't be right because it makes no reference to which specific seasonal change triggers the metamorphasis. The caterpillars could change into butterflies at the turn of summer into autumn, in which case a longer summer would actually increase survivability for animals that feed exclusively on caterpillars.

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 05:43
The answer must be option D. This was a close one I would say !!! My take on this one ....

Premise -

1) Scientists studying climate change have found that global warming not only increases the temperature of the planet but also leads, on average, to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season.
2) Some argue that the increased duration of summer season will result in higher yield of farms. However, members of WWF contend something else

Conclusion -

Leaders of the World Wildlife Fund fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and will thus soon face extinction.

This is a strengthen type question.

Pre-think : There is a causal reasoning involved in the conclusion. Failure to adapt to the altered season lengths will result in extinction. We need to strengthen this bond. I.e between altered season length and extinction.

POE

a) Does not strengthen the link. For all you know the hibernating animals will search and succeed in finding food ! So there is no question of extinction
b) This does not strengthen the link either. It instead says that rise in temp and subsequently in water level will cause extinction. Not the seasonal extension. - Out
c) This option does talk about seasonal extension , but it does not talk about extinction. - Out
d) This talks about the effect of seasonal variations on metamorphosis. Change in temperature will effect the transformation of caterpillar into butterflies. This strengthens the link. Hold it !
e) Again talks about increase in temperature... Does not strengthen the link between seasonal variation and extinction. Hence out.

The answer must be option D.
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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 12:21
The conclusion of this argument, that we are asked to strengthen by providing evidence is
Many species won't be able to adapt to altered season lengths and face extinction

Of the available options Option D and E provide such evidence(of causing extinction)

But Option D is a clear winner, as it provides evidence to strengthen the conclusion.
It says If the young of many species(rodents and birds) feeds on the caterpillars and due to longer autumn season,
the caterpillars won't become butterflies and eventually, butterflies will become extinct.
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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 16:28
I think D can't be the answer.

The key word here is "adapt"...So what if the birds and rodents and caterpillars can adapt to the change of temperature?? D didn't mention anything about this..

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2017, 07:56
GMATNinja wrote:
And we have some healthy debate going on here! Always a good thing.

The conclusion, which is contained within the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund, is that many animal species will soon face extinction. So let's start by figuring out: why do the leaders of the WWF fear that this will happen?

We are told that, based on scientific studies, global warming increases the temperature of the planet AND leads to an earlier arrival of the spring season and a later arrival of the autumn season. Is that change to the seasons necessarily a bad thing (or something WWF leaders should fear)? Some even argue that this change can be beneficial because "it increases the length of the summer growing season", so why are the WWF leaders fearful?

WWF leaders fear that many animal species will not be able to adapt to the altered season lengths and that, as a result, those animal species will soon face extinction. This view would be supported by any evidence showing how altered season lengths could lead to an animal's extinction.

Let's see if any of the answer choices provide such support:

(A) This evidence demonstrates how altered season lengths can affect an animal, but it does not show that the change would affect the animal's ability to survive. Sure, the animals would be "forced" to find alternative food supplies, but there's no indication that they would fail to find those food sources. You'd have to make a huge assumption in order to conclude that this would contribute to extinctions. (A) can be eliminated.

(B) This example shows how the increase in the temperature of the planet can endanger certain species, but leaders of the WWF are concerned about the altered season lengths, not about the increase in the temperature of the planet. This evidence suggests that global warming can be dangerous for certain species, but it does not support the reasoning of the WWF leaders. (B) can be eliminated.

(C) Here is an example of how the altered season lengths could have a negative impact on one species of animal: humans. However, it does not suggest that humans will be unable to adapt to the changes or unable to survive as a species because of the changes, so choice (C) can be eliminated.

(D) As with choice (A), we have an example of how altered season lengths can affect an animal (the metamorphosis of caterpillars into butterflies is triggered by seasonal changes in temperature). But choice (D) also tells us how the effect on one animal will indirectly affect another animal: "the young of many species of birds and rodents feed exclusively on caterpillars". If caterpillars are the ONLY source of food for the young of many bird and rodent species and if caterpillars morph into butterflies earlier because of the early arrival of spring, then it's possible that all or most of the caterpillars will turn into butterflies before the young are hatched. This effect could severely diminish the survival rate of those young who have lost their only source of food.

We certainly don't know for sure if the affected bird and rodents will be unable to adapt and survive, but choice (D) provides a solid example of how altered season lengths could lead to the extinction of certain species. Therefore, choice (D) definitely supports the view held by the WWF leaders.

(E) This example shows a possible negative impact of the altered season lengths. However, choice (E) illustrates a GRADUAL change, suggesting that it will NOT cause any animals to face extinction anytime soon. Furthermore, this example does not show how animals will be unable to adapt to the altered season lengths and thus unable to survive. Rather, this scenario demonstrates how the altered season lengths will impact the temperature of the planet, which in turn will endanger many animal species. Although this evidence might contribute to the fears of the WWF leaders (because of the indirect effect on many animal species), it does not show us how an inability to adapt to the altered season lengths could lead to extinction. Choice (E) can be eliminated.

Choice (D) provides the best evidence in support of the view held by the leaders of the World Wildlife Fund and thus is the best answer.



As i started reading the answer choices,i discarded A for the same reason mentioned by you, hoping to find more clear choice in next options. B, C & E are not in tune with the reasoning of the World Wildlife Fund, hence did not considered as correct choice. When I read D, i grasped exactly the same way as u explained, but, then i realized a problem in it. The statement in your explanation, "before the young are hatched", is not mentioned, it is our assumption. I is possible that young ones are hatched throughout the year and thus change in season will not affect their species. Though I am not fully convinced with any of the option choices given the margin for ambiguity, I would still prefer A.

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QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2017, 04:23
Both A and D require assumptions.

In option D you are assuming that the birds will not be able to re-adjust the timings of their egg hatches to the new timings of the caterpillar's metamorphosis into butterflies.

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 01:57
only D provides scenario of dying animal species

D

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2017, 18:45
this is a common pattern in gmat, test takers should learn this by looking for the option that attacks the offspring, or endanger the survival.
B which is about the survival talks about organism, not species. Also, B does not clearly says about the survival, or the extinction. => B is out.

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Re: QOTD: Scientists studying climate change have   [#permalink] 22 Sep 2017, 18:45
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