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Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new

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Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.

* (A) most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (B) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, and living
* (C) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living
* (D) mostly at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (E) mostly as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living

Hi can anyone please outline the grammatical structure of this sentence. What category does each clause belong to.

Recently (Adv. that describes noun clause) ,Entomologists (Subject), have (main verb)....what then ? where are the conjunctions ? I am a bit lost.

Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.

Btw this sentence comes from Knewton online test prep

many thanks
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2011, 12:02
The two parts of the sentences i.e. "most of them at least as common as the birch aphid"
and "a tree-dwelling insect" describe the "new insect species" and are considered non essential in the complete sentence. Hence there are no conjunctions.

As the scientists have already found the new species their is no ambiguity in their identification. The entire sentence can be rewritten without the above two sentences.
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2011, 14:15
hafgola wrote:
Recently (Adv. that describes noun clause) ,Entomologists (Subject), have (main verb),most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid,(non-essential modifier) a tree-dwelling insect, (non-essential modifier) which live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.


hafgola wrote:
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.

* (A) most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (B) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, and living
* (C) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living
* (D) mostly at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (E) mostly as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living


which is used to refer to the noun immediately preceding the which. Here, which will refer to insect. But insect is not living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs, insect species is.
Eliminate A and D.

For B, whenever we use AND after comma make sure there are two main clause before and after AND. Here since we have same subject use of comma and AND is wrong. Eliminate B.

For E, mostly as common or more common is just unidiomatic.

OA C. Also, Living forms an adverbial modifier.
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2011, 01:44
thanks, is there anyway for me to recognize how "most of them at least..." becomes a modifying clause, is most of the some sort of a indicator ? subordinating conjunction ?

or should I focus on the fact that there is no subject verb agreement in the clause
"most of them at least as common as the birch aphid...living on the bottom of oceans..." (modifying clause that modifies "species")

I could be tempted to think that. "most of them" is the subject, and living the main verb, is the error there that Living can´t it be the main verb because it is functioning as an Adverb (resent Participle)? -ing form

can -ing forms maybe never function as a main verb ??? (that would be a comfortable rule to remember:)

thanks
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2011, 02:59
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The following links may help to all those are having doubts in modifier:
1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jWmrK5BLtw
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GElSqdp5iTc
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X48hAnuxEaw
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mo5ZXrUNBbc
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Test Description_______Date____Total___Quant_____ Verbal
GMAT PREP1_____________________610
GMAX online test 1____29.07.2011__540_____43________19
MGMAT CAT 1_________03.09.2011__580____42________28
MGMAT CAT 2_________02.10.2011__690____48________36
GMAX online test 2_____16.10.2011__640____48________32
MGMAT CAT 3_________23.11.2011__670____47________34
Veritas free CAT______ 31.10.2011___630___ 46________33
MGMAT CAT 4_________06.11.2011__690____48________36
MGMAT CAT 5_________13.11.2011__660____46________34
MGMAT CAT 6_________19.11.2011__680____51________33
GMAT PREP2__________23.11.2011__680
GMAT Exam___________24.11.2011__690____50________34

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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2015, 10:55
The gist of the passage is that, 1. Scientists have discovered a number of new insect species (plural); these insects live in oceans or icebergs; they are at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dweller.

* (A) most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live --- it should be ‘most of them at least as common as'

* (B) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, and living --- Misses the symmetrical parallelism by using a noun on one side of the parallel marker ‘and’; on the other side, a participial phrase is used.

* (C) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living -- correct combination; living here modifies the new species.

* (D) mostly at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live -- which live is wrong modification and verb number

* (E) mostly as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living – missing the idiom as common as

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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2018, 05:30
Hi Experts,
In option c, I feel there is an ambiguity regarding what living modifies. How can living modify insect species. If we remove the non-essential modifier- ,a tree-dwelling insect, then living modifies birch aphid. The sentence stands by as follows-
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species most of them at least as common as the birch aphid living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
In the comments, people , living modifies the subject(insect species) of the previous clause. But, we have the comma before living as part of non essential modifier ,a tree-dwelling insect,
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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2018, 05:32
daagh wrote:
The gist of the passage is that, 1. Scientists have discovered a number of new insect species (plural); these insects live in oceans or icebergs; they are at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dweller.

* (A) most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live --- it should be ‘most of them at least as common as'

* (B) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, and living --- Misses the symmetrical parallelism by using a noun on one side of the parallel marker ‘and’; on the other side, a participial phrase is used.

* (C) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living -- correct combination; living here modifies the new species.

* (D) mostly at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live -- which live is wrong modification and verb number

* (E) mostly as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living – missing the idiom as common as



daagh, GMATNinja, broall

In option c, I feel there is an ambiguity regarding what living modifies. How can living modify insect species. If we remove the non-essential modifier- ,a tree-dwelling insect, then living modifies birch aphid. The sentence stands by as follows-
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species most of them at least as common as the birch aphid living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
In the comments, people , living modifies the subject(insect species) of the previous clause. But, we have the comma before living as part of non essential modifier ,a tree-dwelling insect,
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Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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sunny91 wrote:
Hi Experts,
In option c, I feel there is an ambiguity regarding what living modifies. How can living modify insect species. If we remove the non-essential modifier- ,a tree-dwelling insect, then living modifies birch aphid. The sentence stands by as follows-
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species most of them at least as common as the birch aphid living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
In the comments, people , living modifies the subject(insect species) of the previous clause. But, we have the comma before living as part of non essential modifier ,a tree-dwelling insect,


If two modifiers are required to be placed one after the other referring to the same antecedent, then there must be a conjunction (e.g. "and") between them. Thus if "living..." were to refer to "birch aphid", then the modifiers "a tree-dwelling insect" and "living..." would be separated by a conjunction (e.g.,"and").
[Nonetheless there would be a parallelsim issue then, since placing a noun phrase modifier i.e., an appositive ("a tree-dwelling insect") and a present participle modifier "living..." in parallel is not recommended.]

Just some additional thought: If the comma before "living" were not there, then the present participle modifier "living.." would clearly refer to "insect", which in turn refers to "birch aphid".
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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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sayantanc2k wrote:
sunny91 wrote:
Hi Experts,
In option c, I feel there is an ambiguity regarding what living modifies. How can living modify insect species. If we remove the non-essential modifier- ,a tree-dwelling insect, then living modifies birch aphid. The sentence stands by as follows-
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species most of them at least as common as the birch aphid living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
In the comments, people , living modifies the subject(insect species) of the previous clause. But, we have the comma before living as part of non essential modifier ,a tree-dwelling insect,


If two modifiers are required to be placed one after the other referring to the same antecedent, then there must be a conjunction (e.g. "and") between them. Thus if "living..." were to refer to "birch aphid", then the modifiers "a tree-dwelling insect" and "living..." would be separated by a conjunction (e.g.,"and").
[Nonetheless there would be a parallelsim issue then, since placing a noun phrase modifier i.e., an appositive ("a tree-dwelling insect") and a present participle modifier "living..." in parallel is not recommended.]

Just some additional thought: If the comma before "living" were not there, then the present participle modifier "living.." would clearly refer to "insect", which in turn refers to "birch aphid".


Hi Sayantanc2k,
Thanks for the explanation. But, I still have the question is the OA fine?
I just want to recall my understanding from the above.
Living cant modify bird aphid. as two modifiers are required to be placed one after the other referring to the same antecedent, then there must be a conjunction (e.g. "and") between them. We have and missing. Also, even if a conjunction is there, the sentence lacks parallelism. So, living modifies a number of new insect species.
But again, if we remove the non-essential modifier, we can read the sentence as -
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them at least as common as the birch aphid living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
So, here the bird apchid and not a number of new insect species live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2018, 09:25
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sunny91 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
sunny91 wrote:
Hi Experts,
In option c, I feel there is an ambiguity regarding what living modifies. How can living modify insect species. If we remove the non-essential modifier- ,a tree-dwelling insect, then living modifies birch aphid. The sentence stands by as follows-
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species most of them at least as common as the birch aphid living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
In the comments, people , living modifies the subject(insect species) of the previous clause. But, we have the comma before living as part of non essential modifier ,a tree-dwelling insect,


If two modifiers are required to be placed one after the other referring to the same antecedent, then there must be a conjunction (e.g. "and") between them. Thus if "living..." were to refer to "birch aphid", then the modifiers "a tree-dwelling insect" and "living..." would be separated by a conjunction (e.g.,"and").
[Nonetheless there would be a parallelsim issue then, since placing a noun phrase modifier i.e., an appositive ("a tree-dwelling insect") and a present participle modifier "living..." in parallel is not recommended.]

Just some additional thought: If the comma before "living" were not there, then the present participle modifier "living.." would clearly refer to "insect", which in turn refers to "birch aphid".


Hi Sayantanc2k,
Thanks for the explanation. But, I still have the question is the OA fine?
I just want to recall my understanding from the above.
Living cant modify bird aphid. as two modifiers are required to be placed one after the other referring to the same antecedent, then there must be a conjunction (e.g. "and") between them. We have and missing. Also, even if a conjunction is there, the sentence lacks parallelism. So, living modifies a number of new insect species.
But again, if we remove the non-essential modifier, we can read the sentence as -
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them at least as common as the birch aphid living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
So, here the bird apchid and not a number of new insect species live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.


In Option C, "living" refers to "new insect species". "Living" cannot refer to "birch aphid" because of the reason I stated (and you correctly understood).

As for eliminating a non-essential modifier, you have to remove the complete non-essential modifier: "most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect".

"The tree-dwelling insect" is a non-essential modifier WITHIN another non-essential modifier. the structure is as follows:

Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species[, most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, (a tree-dwelling insect),] living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.
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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2018, 14:48
daagh, sayantanc2k is there are tip, or way to see that B has errors. It is difficult to me to know for sure that C is the answer.
Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new   [#permalink] 27 Mar 2018, 14:48
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