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Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish

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Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2014, 08:07
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A
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C
D
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Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish a particular moral fabric in society. But the primary function of law is surely to help order society so that its institutions, organisations, and citizenry can work together harmoniously, regardless of any further moral aims of the law. Indeed, the highest courts have on occasion treated moral beliefs based on conscience or religious faith as grounds for making exceptions in the application of laws.

The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following ?

a) The manner in which laws are applied sometimes takes into account the beliefs of the people governed by those laws.
b) The law has as one of its functions the ordering of society but is devoid of moral aims.
c) Actions based on religious belief or on moral conviction tend to receive the protection of the highest courts.
d) The way a society is ordered by law should not reflect any moral convictions about the way society ought to be ordered.
e) The best way to promote cooperation among a society's institutions, organizations, and citizenry is to institute order in that society by means of law.

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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2014, 12:22
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akhil911 wrote:
Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish a particular moral fabric in society. But the primary function of law is surely to help order society so that its institutions, organisations, and citizenry can work together harmoniously, regardless of any further moral aims of the law. Indeed, the highest courts have on occasion treated moral beliefs based on conscience or religious faith as grounds for making exceptions in the application of laws.

The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following ?

a) The manner in which laws are applied sometimes takes into account the beliefs of the people governed by those laws.
b) The law has as one of its functions the ordering of society but is devoid of moral aims.
c) Actions based on religious belief or on moral conviction tend to receive the protection of the highest courts.
d) The way a society is ordered by law should not reflect any moral convictions about the way society ought to be ordered.
e) The best way to promote cooperation among a society's institutions, organizations, and citizenry is to institute order in that society by means of law.


Hi Akhil,

I approached this question by first readying the question stem and then breaking the passage into its parts.

The question stem seems to be asking us to identify a conclusion that is supported by the premise(s) of the passage.

Now we look at the passage, and know that we need to identify the premise(s).

Irrelevant: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish a particular moral fabric in society. But the primary function of law is surely to help order society so that its institutions, organisations, and citizenry can work together harmoniously, regardless of any further moral aims of the law.
Premise: Indeed, the highest courts have on occasion treated moral beliefs based on conscience or religious faith as grounds for making exceptions in the application of laws.

Now we move to the answer choices and use a process of elimination. In cases where you are searching for a conclusion, it helps to apply a conclusion term in front of it, like "therefore" (whereas for premise searches, put words in front like "because").

A) The high courts have [...] treated moral beliefs [...] as a ground for making exception in the application of law, [THEREFORE] The manner in which laws are applied sometimes takes into account the beliefs of the people governed by those laws.

This makes sense so I keep it as a possible answer.

B) The high courts have [...] treated moral beliefs [...] as a ground for making exception in the application of law, [THEREFORE] The law has as one of its functions the ordering of society but is devoid of moral aims.

This doesn't make sense because the premise says that courts DO consider morality in legal decisions. Eliminate B.

C) The high courts have [...] treated moral beliefs [...] as a ground for making exception in the application of law, [THEREFORE] Actions based on religious belief or on moral conviction tend to receive the protection of the highest courts.

This makes sense, so I keep it as a possible answer.

D) The high courts have [...] treated moral beliefs [...] as a ground for making exception in the application of law, [THEREFORE] The way a society is ordered by law should not reflect any moral convictions about the way society ought to be ordered.

This is contradicting the premise, so I eliminate D.

E) The high courts have [...] treated moral beliefs [...] as a ground for making exception in the application of law, [THEREFORE] The best way to promote cooperation among a society's institutions, organizations, and citizenry is to institute order in that society by means of law.

This conclusion does not support the premise. Eliminate E.

So, I am left with A and C, both very close choices.

Some distinctions:
A is more general and soft. "They take it into account" but don't necessarily "protect" it. "Sometimes" vs. "tend to"
C is more specific and a step further than the premise. "Actions based on beliefs" vs. "the beliefs." "Highest courts" vs. "manner in which laws are applied."

I think it could probably come close to either answer, but I can see why A is the better answer choice. Namely because of the distinction in "actions based on beliefs" vs. "beliefs" and the softer use of "sometimes" vs. "tend to" (since the premise says this is an "exception in the application of laws" not the norm).

Hope that helps!
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Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 May 2017, 18:52
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Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish a particular moral fabric in society. But the primary function of law is surely to help order society so that its institutions, organisations, and citizenry can work together harmoniously, regardless of any further moral aims of the law. Indeed, the highest courts have on occasion treated moral beliefs based on conscience or religious faith as grounds for making exceptions in the application of laws.

The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following ?

a) The manner in which laws are applied sometimes takes into account the beliefs of the people governed by those laws.
b) The law has as one of its functions the ordering of society but is devoid of moral aims.
c) Actions based on religious belief or on moral conviction tend to receive the protection of the highest courts.
d) The way a society is ordered by law should not reflect any moral convictions about the way society ought to be ordered.
e) The best way to promote cooperation among a society's institutions, organizations, and citizenry is to institute order in that society by means of law.

Source:Power score CR Bible pg 90
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Originally posted by samusa on 17 Mar 2015, 04:34.
Last edited by broall on 28 May 2017, 18:52, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CR:Some argue that laws are instituted .....  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2015, 03:51
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A is the only option that supports the argument and in a way paraphrases the argument. So the answer should be A.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2015, 22:50
This is not an aristotle question.
This is from Powerscore CR book.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2015, 18:26
I was as well down to A and C, but C has "tend to protect" which is not really true based on the information in the argument. Thus, A is the perfect one from the given answers.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2016, 19:53
Hello Experts,

Please help why option D is incorrect


akhil911 wrote:
Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish a particular moral fabric in society. But the primary function of law is surely to help order society so that its institutions, organisations, and citizenry can work together harmoniously, regardless of any further moral aims of the law. Indeed, the highest courts have on occasion treated moral beliefs based on conscience or religious faith as grounds for making exceptions in the application of laws.

The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following ?

a) The manner in which laws are applied sometimes takes into account the beliefs of the people governed by those laws.
b) The law has as one of its functions the ordering of society but is devoid of moral aims.
c) Actions based on religious belief or on moral conviction tend to receive the protection of the highest courts.
d) The way a society is ordered by law should not reflect any moral convictions about the way society ought to be ordered.
e) The best way to promote cooperation among a society's institutions, organizations, and citizenry is to institute order in that society by means of law.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2016, 06:23
hey, cause D is way too strong of a conclusion that can follow from the premises. Notice the tone of it, should not, any, these are rather strong words. If you look back at the premises, notice “primary” and words like that. This is one of the ways GMAT loves to formulate wrong answer choices by phrasing them in an over-confident tone. Btw, the first two sentences are very relevant. It's nonsense to say they are irrelevant. Notice I just ironically phrase my words in a very strong tone.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2016, 08:57
1988achilles wrote:
Hello Experts,

Please help why option D is incorrect



When a set of facts is given about how things actually ARE, it cannot be deduced how things SHOULD BE. Therefore option D is wrong.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2016, 11:28
sayantanc2k wrote:
1988achilles wrote:
Hello Experts,

Please help why option D is incorrect



When a set of facts is given about how things actually ARE, it cannot be deduced how things SHOULD BE. Therefore option D is wrong.


How would you choose between A and C?
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2016, 14:18
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sanghar wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
1988achilles wrote:
Hello Experts,

Please help why option D is incorrect



When a set of facts is given about how things actually ARE, it cannot be deduced how things SHOULD BE. Therefore option D is wrong.


How would you choose between A and C?


The idea of the passage is as follows:
Statement 1:
Some claim: The aim of the law is (in some part) to establish a moral structure in the society.

Statement 2 (opposing statement 1):
BUT, The law is supposed to implement harmonious working systems - establishing moral systems is not the core objective of the law, but just an outcome in the process of implementation of such harmonious working system.

Statement 3: Moral grounds / religious beliefs sometimes override laws. (as per statement 2, law is supposed to be beyond moral or religious beliefs, but still on some occasions the reverse happens.)

The passage does not state that it tends to protect actions based on moral behaviors / religious grounds. Rather it states that moral / religious grounds are not the basis of laws - laws are to maintain harmonious working systems (regardless of religious / moral concerns). Only in exceptional cases, moral / religious grounds override laws. Hence C is not correct.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2016, 02:34
sanghar wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
1988achilles wrote:
Hello Experts,

Please help why option D is incorrect



When a set of facts is given about how things actually ARE, it cannot be deduced how things SHOULD BE. Therefore option D is wrong.


How would you choose between A and C?


Hi Sanghar,

I will try,

Conclusion Says : Indeed, the highest courts have on occasion treated moral beliefs based on conscience or religious faith as grounds for making exceptions in the application of laws.


A : The manner in which laws are applied sometimes takes into account the beliefs of the people governed by those laws.

"Sometimes" goes with the "occasionally" mentioned in the Conclusion

C : Actions based on religious belief or on moral conviction tend to receive the protection of the highest courts.

In [C] "tend to receive" implies most of the time.

Hope this helps.

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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2017, 12:39
the question type: "support one of the following" -> inference
pre-thinking: "conscience" = belief
A matches the prediction -> A is correct answer
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2017, 10:20
Clue for me here was '....on occasion...' in the last statement and 'sometimes' in the answer choice. Other options are by far very strong statements.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2017, 19:36
Hello expert,
got stuck between a and c, could u please explain, what should i do to eliminate c option..?
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2018, 01:34
C is a good trap even though C directly is connected with the argument.
"tend " shows why C is wrong.
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Re: Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish &nbs [#permalink] 25 Feb 2018, 01:34
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Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish

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