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# The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving

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The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2012, 14:23
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68% (01:28) correct 32% (00:39) wrong based on 178 sessions

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The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo communities, both dating back at least a thousand years.
A. both dating
B. both of which have dated
C. and each has dated
D. and each one dating
E. each one of which date

My doubts:
1) I know that C and D are wrong in part because we need a modiphiyng phrase and not a parallel clause. However, how can be sure that an idea must be subordinated or kept independent from the main clause? For instance, if choice C were "and each is dating", would it be incorrect?
2) I read in other post that B is wrong not only because is wordy but because the tense is wrong. Because the action has concluded in the present and it is not going on. Is it right?, could someone provide a detailed explanation about it?
Thank you!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Acoma and Hopi [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2012, 09:19
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Answer should be "A" beacuse:

c,d,e:...has "each" which refers to the communities and hence it refers to all the members rather than just two mentoned.

b is wordy and hence eliminated.
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Re: Acoma and Hopi [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2012, 21:11
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What is a main factor and what is a subordinate factor? In the given case, the text wants to establish that the two sites are examples of the oldest communities; in proof of that, it gives the dating data. Therefore, the data are additional facts and supportive ideas to the main theme of oldness. Putting them on equal footing with the main clause using a co-ordinate conjunction namely ‘and’ will end up in alteration of intent. Hence, C and D are wrong. Even if C were to be amended grammatically as has been stated by metallicafan, it would not make an ideal choice as far as meaning is concerned.

B is wrong because, when you use the present perfect, you are trying to imply that both are doing the dating themselves and that the effect of dating is no more. The effect of dating namely that they are part of the oldest communities is going to be there forever and a universal fact. Therefore, we need to use a simple present tense to express such a feeling.
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Re: Acoma and Hopi [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2012, 14:38
metallicafan wrote:
The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo communities, both dating back at least a thousand years.
A. both dating
B. both of which have dated
C. and each has dated
D. and each one dating
E. each one of which date

My doubts:
1) I know that C and D are wrong in part because we need a modiphiyng phrase and not a parallel clause. However, how can be sure that an idea must be subordinated or kept independent from the main clause? For instance, if choice C were "and each is dating", would it be incorrect?
2) I read in other post that B is wrong not only because is wordy but because the tense is wrong. Because the action has concluded in the present and it is not going on. Is it right?, could someone provide a detailed explanation about it?
Thank you!

My Answer is A, also E can be eliminated because "Each" is usually singular unless it is referring to a plural noun, which is not the case here. B is wordy.
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Re: Acoma and Hopi [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2012, 16:13
metallicafan wrote:
The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo communities, both dating back at least a thousand years.
A. both dating
B. both of which have dated
C. and each has dated
D. and each one dating
E. each one of which date

My doubts:
1) I know that C and D are wrong in part because we need a modiphiyng phrase and not a parallel clause. However, how can be sure that an idea must be subordinated or kept independent from the main clause? For instance, if choice C were "and each is dating", would it be incorrect?
2) I read in other post that B is wrong not only because is wordy but because the tense is wrong. Because the action has concluded in the present and it is not going on. Is it right?, could someone provide a detailed explanation about it?
Thank you!

hi metallicafan, in response to your doubts

1. "and each is dating" would still be wrong because each in this sentence is a vague pronoun reference. the subject here is a compound one and plural (Acoma and Hopi). Also 'is' would then be wrong as it has to be 'are'
2. i feel that the correct explanation for B was that the tense (have dated) doesnt fit in this sentence with the other one (surviving). Surviving is a present progressive tense (-ing form) which denotes an action in the present. Have dated is present perfect which denotes an action that happened in the past and still happening. since tenses need to be consistent for meaning, surviving and dating are the right tenses.

kudos if you like my answer!!
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Re: Acoma and Hopi [#permalink]

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06 May 2012, 02:41
IMO A
C,D are wrong - "and" joins 2 Independent Clauses but we need a Dependent Clause
B uses incorrect plural verb "date"
E uses incorrect present perfect tense

Last edited by vikram4689 on 07 May 2012, 08:31, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Acoma and Hopi [#permalink]

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06 May 2012, 10:31
both is required to refer to the plural subject x and y.

hence i prefer A over the other options.
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Re: Acoma and Hopi [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2012, 07:40
Thanks daagh! Great explanation there!

-ING usually denotes a supportive idea - a big learning there! +1 to you
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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 08:24
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Though the answer has been given, I just want to share my part of discussion. Before advancing, many thanks to metallicafan for the question.
My take:
Always remember, there are two requirements of COMMA + ING construction:
a) it should be adverbial, modifying the entire previous clause
b) it should be attributed to the subject of the previous clause.

The options C and D neither explain the preceding clause nor become a consequential effect.
Same goes for e as well.
Now when we move to B, here we see a change of tense which is nog required at all, in fact is incorrect.
Hence A.

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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2014, 14:25
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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2016, 14:29
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving   [#permalink] 17 Feb 2016, 14:29
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# The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving

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