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The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On

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The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.

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Originally posted by egmat on 27 Jan 2013, 23:44.
Last edited by Bunuel on 02 Sep 2019, 21:09, edited 1 time in total.
Added the OA.
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New post Updated on: 01 Feb 2013, 00:38
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Hi,

Here is the detailed solution:

The question asks us to find an option statement which is most strongly suggested by the passage. Therefore, the question is very similar to an inference question.

Facts of the case:
• Decline in manufacturing sets off a chain reaction.
• Decline in manufacturing -> Non-maintenance of Process-engineering expertise -> Difficulty in conducting research on next generation process technologies -> Inability to develop new products.

Prethinking:

The passage talks about a sequential cause-effect relationship in the form: A->B->C->D.

In this case, an inference of the form X->Y can be built from the information given, where X can be any event which precedes Y in the above chain reaction.

Analysis of Answer choices:

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate. – Correct choice.We don’t know for sure what a decline in “advanced process engineering” could lead to, since the passage talks about “process engineering” in general. However, a declining manufacturing activity will necessarily lead to inability to develop new products or innovate. Therefore, this statement is supported by the information given in the passage.

B. To develop new products a company must never cut down its manufacturing. –The passage talks about manufacturing in a region, not a company, which may be spread over multiple regions. Thus, this option is incorrect.

C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region – While a decrease in manufacturing activity leads to decrease in innovation, we cannot infer what effect an increase in manufacturing activity will have. Thus, incorrect.

D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. – Without the word “frequently”, this option could have been attractive. Note that “frequent” change of processes as a prerequisite to develop new products cannot be inferred from the passage. Thus, incorrect.

E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. – Again, like option D, we cannot infer about the effect of increasing manufacturing activity. Thus, Incorrect.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Originally posted by egmat on 27 Jan 2013, 23:45.
Last edited by egmat on 01 Feb 2013, 00:38, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2013, 11:27
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I also vote for A

B- too strong language
C the argument never said that
D didnt like the word frequently. Again , too strong language
E the argument never compared two economies
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2013, 13:29
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In my opinion, this a conditional logic type question.

From my perspective:

The first sentence is an initial statement. Then the conditional logic comes into play:

IF Manufacturing outsourced, then Process engineering can't be maintained
MO--> not PEM

If no PEM--> not next generation process technologies
not PEM--> not NGPT

If not Next Generation Technologies--> Not new products
not NGPT--> not new products

Putting it all together you have, and must follow the arrow.


Manufacturing Outsourcing--> No/difficult Process Engineering-->No Next Generation Process Technologies--->No New Products


A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
Seems Correct. Difficult Process Engineering is touched upon, and declining manufacturing activity. Both lead to No new products, which can inferred to be "innovation"
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
If new products for a company, then never lower manufacturing? We don't know this. A company could hypothetically lower it, all we know based on the question is a "region"
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
This is speculation, we just know about the decline, we don't know about the increase
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. WE know nothing about changing processes
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. No. There is nothing alluding toward that in the question.
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2013, 23:27
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

decline in manufacturing initiates chain reaction
Manufacturing outsourcing -> decline process Eng expertise -> decline adv research new process tech -> new prod dev decline


Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate. incorrect- passage does not talks about infrastructure for advanced process engineering
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing. correct- pass fact test
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region not necessarily true
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. not supported by the passage
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. not supported by the passage
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2013, 02:26
I vote for (B).

(A) talks about economy. But in the passage, nothing about economy is discussed in general
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2013, 02:47
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.


The conclusion is : Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

I think that D is best supported by the conclusion since changing its processes is the same as bringing new processes. Hence, a company needs to frequently change its processes in order to develop new products ..
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2013, 03:08
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I think the answer is straight A...

Options d is totally out.
B,c and E all mean the same thing...so we can eliminate all 3 on the basis if one is correcct why not the rest 2.
Only remaining answer is A and IMO its the best answer.

If we want proper reasoning for selecting A ...here it is:-
Manufacturing decline----.> Outsourcing -------> Process eng looses expertises i.e quality -----> No more innovation in r & D--------> No more innovation.....

Read the it in conjunction with A ....
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New post 01 Feb 2013, 00:45
anshunadir wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

decline in manufacturing initiates chain reaction
Manufacturing outsourcing -> decline process Eng expertise -> decline adv research new process tech -> new prod dev decline


Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate. incorrect- passage does not talks about infrastructure for advanced process engineering
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing. correct- pass fact test
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region not necessarily true
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. not supported by the passage
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. not supported by the passage


Hi,

Your reasoning is mostly correct. However, option B talks about a company while the passage just talk about "regions". Therefore, B is incorrect.

Also, refer the detailed explanations to see why A is correct.

Happy learning! :)

Thanks.
Chiranjeev
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New post 01 Feb 2013, 00:48
Practicegmat wrote:
I vote for (B).

(A) talks about economy. But in the passage, nothing about economy is discussed in general


Hi,

"Economy" term is very commonly used to refer to regions e.g. You need to have solid infrastructure for an economy to succeed. Here, "economy" refers to a region.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. On  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2013, 00:50
Rock750 wrote:
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.


The conclusion is : Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

I think that D is best supported by the conclusion since changing its processes is the same as bringing new processes. Hence, a company needs to frequently change its processes in order to develop new products ..


Hi,

You got into a trap :wink:

This option could have been a very close option choice without the word "frequently". This word spoils the game :)

Refer to the detailed solution posted above to understand the nuances of this.

Thanks :)
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New post 08 Sep 2013, 09:07
egmat wrote:
Rock750 wrote:
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.


The conclusion is : Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

I think that D is best supported by the conclusion since changing its processes is the same as bringing new processes. Hence, a company needs to frequently change its processes in order to develop new products ..


Hi,

You got into a trap :wink:

This option could have been a very close option choice without the word "frequently". This word spoils the game :)

Refer to the detailed solution posted above to understand the nuances of this.

Thanks :)
Chiranjeev


Hi Chiranjeev
Even had the option D not used 'frequently', still it couldn't have been a close contender of A for the same reason you've stated in OE for B - talks about 'company' whereas the argument is all about a region/economy.

Please let me know your thoughts on this.
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New post 09 Sep 2013, 04:12
bagdbmba wrote:

Hi Chiranjeev
Even had the option D not used 'frequently', still it couldn't have been a close contender of A for the same reason you've stated in OE for B - talks about 'company' whereas the argument is all about a region/economy.

Please let me know your thoughts on this.


Interesting doubt!

However, the reasoning given in the detailed solution is correct.

Look - if a company is spread out in multiple regions, then it can cut production in one region and maintain production in other regions. In such a case, it will still be able to develop new products (in other regions). So, option B is incorrect.

Let's look at modified version of option D (without the word "frequently"):

D. To develop new products, a company needs to change its processes

Now, this must be true. Why? Because it follows directly from the last line of the passage:

"Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products".

What does "they" refer to? "they" refers to "companies".

So, companies cannot develop new products without new processes.

This is what option D says.

Does it help?

Thanks,
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New post 10 Sep 2013, 03:01
egmat wrote:
bagdbmba wrote:

Hi Chiranjeev
Even had the option D not used 'frequently', still it couldn't have been a close contender of A for the same reason you've stated in OE for B - talks about 'company' whereas the argument is all about a region/economy.

Please let me know your thoughts on this.


Interesting doubt!

However, the reasoning given in the detailed solution is correct.

Look - if a company is spread out in multiple regions, then it can cut production in one region and maintain production in other regions. In such a case, it will still be able to develop new products (in other regions). So, option B is incorrect.

Let's look at modified version of option D (without the word "frequently"):

D. To develop new products, a company needs to change its processes

Now, this must be true. Why? Because it follows directly from the last line of the passage:

"Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products".

What does "they" refer to? "they" refers to "companies".

So, companies cannot develop new products without new processes.

This is what option D says.

Does it help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev


Hi Chiranjeev,
Got your point...! Thanks..

So,basically the word 'frequently' throws D out of the game here. Isn't it something similar concept I was trying to make in your another question http://gmatclub.com/forum/inference-vs-assumption-146758.html#p1265147 regrading the scope of the argument...?

Anything too narrow or too broad in the context of the scope of the argument should be eliminated...! Let me know please whether this analogy is proper?
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New post 10 Sep 2013, 21:55
bagdbmba wrote:
Hi Chiranjeev,
Got your point...! Thanks..

So,basically the word 'frequently' throws D out of the game here. Isn't it something similar concept I was trying to make in your another question http://gmatclub.com/forum/inference-vs-assumption-146758.html#p1265147 regrading the scope of the argument...?

Anything too narrow or too broad in the context of the scope of the argument should be eliminated...! Let me know please whether this analogy is proper?


I don't think the word "frequently" here makes option D either too narrow or too broad here.

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New post 07 Jun 2019, 04:40
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.

Hi egmat,
I am skeptical about the said answer choice-A.

OptionA:
    In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
'A' states that the ability to innovate will reduce/lose.

Argument states:
    The decline in manufacturing sets off a chain reaction.
    The decline in manufacturing ---> Non-maintenance of Process-engineering expertise ---> Difficulty in conducting research on next-generation process technologies ---> Inability to develop new products.

The argument states that they can no longer develop new products.
    Meaning: They CANNOT develop new products. They can NO longer innovate.
    However, It does NOT mean that they will NECESSARILY lose the ability to innovate.
    They CAN still maintain the same ability with which they were already innovating products.
      Ex: Let's say, Apple is developing new products with an innovation level of 90/100. - I'm quantifying innovation to ease the communication.
      Now, because of the exodus of highly skilled technocrats, Apple will NOT be able to develop new products, i.e., raise the innovation level beyond 90.
      However, Apple can still develop products at the current level of 90. - I agree the innovation level would not cross 90.
      Why should the ability to innovate necessarily reduce?

Analogy
    Let's say - The argument states: the stock price of Uber will not increase in the coming quarter.
    To infer, Just because the price won't increase ----------> It should fall, seems more likely an inference mistake of the two possible outcomes:
    The stock price can either stay the same or decrease.

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Bunuel - please highlight the correct option in the choices
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