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The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms

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The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms across the country – from offshore platforms along the coasts to the vast deserts and plains – has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their overall energy production portfolio.

A. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

B. have been combinations of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its

D. have been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

E. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and of state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms across the country – from offshore platforms along the coasts to the vast deserts and plains – has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their overall energy production portfolio.

A. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their ---- "a combination- has been', "utilities-their" --- 'their' refers to the utilities --correct

B. have been combinations of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their ---- "a combination - have been "- SV number error

C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its --- 'utilities-its' --- pronoun number error

D. have been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their --- 'a combination --- have been' - S V number error as in B.

E. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and of state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its ---- 'utilities -- its' -pronoun number error
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2017, 22:17
The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms across the country – from offshore platforms along the coasts to the vast deserts and plains – has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their overall energy production portfolio.
A. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their
Correct
B. have been combinations of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their
Singular verb "HAS" should be used for singular noun "Catalyst". Hence Incorrect
C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its
Plural pronoun "THEIR" should be used for Plural antecedent "UTILITIES". Hence Incorrect
D. have been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their
Singular verb "HAS" should be used for singular noun "Catalyst". Hence Incorrect
E. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and of state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its
Plural pronoun "THEIR" should be used for Plural antecedent "UTILITIES". Hence Incorrect
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2017, 23:34
Option A fits the best for the above mentioned question.

but i have a doubt - shouldn't there be a "comma" before "requiring" ?

experts please help.
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2017, 23:43
The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms across the country – from offshore platforms along the coasts to the vast deserts and plains – has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their overall energy production portfolio.

The primary catalyst is a singular subject which requires singular verb.

answers can be divided into two categories
has vs have & its vs their

we need has as a verb for primary catalyst and plural pronoun to refer plural antecedent utilities

no option other than A has the correct combination : Hence A


A. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

B. have been combinations of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its

D. have been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

E. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and of state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 03:39
Quote:
The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms across the country – from offshore platforms along the coasts to the vast deserts and plains – has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their overall energy production portfolio.

A. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

B. have been combinations of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its

D. have been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their

E. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and of state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its


It is C i believe!
Because,

First we have 'has' or 'have'. Since it needs to refer to 'the primary catalyst' it should be has, as it is singular.
So, B and D are out.
Then we have 'its' or 'their' at the end of the sentence. I see some people who say its would refer to utilities. But the sentence states 'its'/ 'their' energy production portfolio. Since when do utilities have a portfolio? Doesn't its or their refer to the country? With regard to this perspective, the answers with 'their' are out.
Then, we only have C and E left.
Mandate is bossy a verb. So, 'that' should follow mandate. And C has this construction!

Therefore, i choose C.
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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kunalsingh1991 wrote

Quote:
Option A fits the best for the above-mentioned question.

but i have a doubt - shouldn't there be a "comma" before "requiring"?



When a comma is before 'requiring', then the 'requiring' will modify the primary catalyst as if the catalyst is requiring the utilities to do something. On the contrary, it is the government mandates that stipulate the conditions. Thus, the meaning will substantially change by the intrusion of the comma as suggested.
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 03:54
Not an expert here but my two cents
Option A in full with comma
A. The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms across the country has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates, requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their overall energy production portfolio.

Now requiring has to make sense with the complete sentence and with the subject. The primary catalyst requiring.... this doesnt make sense...
without comma, requiring refers to 'combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates' and therefore makes sense.

Experts may please pitch in.
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The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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MaximD
C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its
1. 'mandates' is not a verb; it is used as plural noun and mandate is the singular noun; that is a relative pronoun here referring to the mandates and not as a subjunctive mood marker.
2. If the choice were to use the command subjunctive, then the construction--mandates that require utilities to increase--doesn't make much meaning. The correct structure then would be --state mandates that utilities require to increase --
3. Logically in a federal set up, normally a state may want to increase its own percentage of renewable power but not the entire country's
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 04:34
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origen87
A verb+ing participle, when not preceded by a comma will modify the noun it touches and therefore here, state mandates. The participle need not refer to the incentives in the context because while a mandate is obligatory, an incentive is more like 'take it or leave it' kind.
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 22:44
daagh wrote:
The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms across the country – from offshore platforms along the coasts to the vast deserts and plains – has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their overall energy production portfolio.

A. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their ---- "a combination- has been', "utilities-their" --- 'their' refers to the utilities --correct

B. have been combinations of federal tax incentives and state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their ---- "a combination - have been "- SV number error

C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its --- 'utilities-its' --- pronoun number error

D. have been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in their --- 'a combination --- have been' - S V number error as in B.

E. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and of state mandates requiring utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its ---- 'utilities -- its' -pronoun number error



Hey daagh ,

Although I chose A, I just wanted to know why is "that require" wrong? Or is it even wrong?
I mean, just out of curiosity, if we replace "its" with "their", is C as good as A?
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 23:06
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I don't think C is wrong because of the 'that require'; 'that require' smugly modifies the mandates and is as good as 'mandates requiring' as in A.
The problem as I see is in the pronoun 'its'. For that sake, if you change 'its' to 'their', then there would two correct choices leading to confusion.
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 23:11
daagh wrote:
rekhabishop
I don't think C is wrong because of the 'that require'; 'that require' smugly modifies the mandates and is as good as 'mandates requiring' as in A.
The problem as I see is in the pronoun 'its'. For that sake, if you change 'its' to 'their', then there would two correct choices leading to confusion.


Thank for the quick turn-around, daagh !!
I really admire your answers. You do not take things for granted and explain every single aspect, in great detail. You start from scratch, always assuming that the reader might be a beginner.
I owe all my verbal score to you!! :)
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 23:15
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Rekha Hi,
Your words are a great source of comfort to me. Thank you
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Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2018, 20:11
daagh wrote:
MaximD
C. has been a combination of federal tax incentives and state mandates that require utilities to increase the percentage of renewable power in its
1. 'mandates' is not a verb; it is used as plural noun and mandate is the singular noun; that is a relative pronoun here referring to the mandates and not as a subjunctive mood marker.
2. If the choice were to use the command subjunctive, then the construction--mandates that require utilities to increase--doesn't make much meaning. The correct structure then would be --state mandates that utilities require to increase --
3. Logically in a federal set up, normally a state may want to increase its own percentage of renewable power but not the entire country's


First of all daagh Thanks for sharing, great explanation.

Regarding the "it's vs their" IMHO It's refers to the country in possession of a portfolio. The state mandates are evicted by the state government to order a local government, and in this case are done to increase the production of renewable power, Federal regulation is not my field, but I imagine power is controlled by state government too.
So... I can't see how "their" can fit in the phrase, as portfolio is singular, and tax incentives and the mandates even if plural are clearly linked to "a combination" wich is singular (and can't own a share of renewable power portfolio)... even if the phrase could possibly refers to states, there should be a clearer reference for them, and there isn't any options for "states to own porftolios" in the choices.

So that leaves me with C as the only grammatically correct choice.

And finally, I found it on Veritas APP.

Cheers
Re: The primary catalyst fueling the rapid spread of wind farms   [#permalink] 15 Jan 2018, 20:11
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